Woven Terry Fabrics: Manufacturing and Quality Management


Woven Terry Fabrics: Manufacturing and Quality Management
by Jitendra Pratap Singh and Swadesh Verma

Woven Terry Fabrics- Manufacturing and Quality Management

Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles
1: Overview of terry fabrics, properties, application and care
1.1 Introduction
2: Evolution of terry fabrics
2.1 Definition and history
2.2 Classification of towelling fabrics
2.3 Weft pile fabrics
2.4 Warp pile fabrics
2.5 Different component of terry towel and technical terms
3: Raw materials for terry fabrics
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Selection of fibre
3.3 Fibre characteristics
3.4 Cotton
3.5 Wool
3.6 Silk
3.7 Summary
4: Yarns for terry fabrics
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Ring spinning system
4.3 Rotor spinning system
4.4 Air-jet spun yarn
4.5 Friction spun yarn
4.6 Wrap spun yarn
4.7 Yarn structure modifications
4.8 Factors affecting the yarn structure
4.9 Selection of fibres and yarns according to ends use
5: Winding yarn for terry fabrics
5.1 Introduction and objective
5.2 Different process sequences in the winding section
5.3 Parallel winding machine
5.4 Yarn twisting machine (TFO)
5.5 Rewinding machine
5.6 Tensioners
5.7 Yarns clearer
5.8 Process control in winding
5.9 Process parameters
5.10 Performance in winding
5.11 Control of productivity
6: Warping for terry fabrics
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Warping
6.3 Warping the terry ground
6.4 Warping the pile warp
6.5 Process control in warping
7: Sizing the terry warp
7.1 Introduction and objective
7.2 Sizing machine
7.3 Methods of drying
7.4 Splitting
7.5 Beaming
7.6 Prewetting of yarns before sizing
7.7 Quality evaluation of sized yarns
7.8 Sizing materials
7.9 Controls on a modern sizing machine
8: Weaving of terry fabrics
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Major reference point of the loom
8.3 Process of drawing-in and denting-in
8.4 Terry weaves
8.5 Figured terry pile fabrics
8.6 Important methods for producing woven terry fabrics
8.7 Patterns on terry fabric
8.8 Terms and calculations for woven terry fabric
9: Wet processing
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Mechanism of dyeing
9.3 Factors affecting dyeing uptake
9.4 Dyeing machines
9.5 Drying
9.6 Colour sensitivity test for human eye
10: Shearing and printing of terry fabrics
10.1 Introduction and objective
10.2 The shearing machine
10.3 Printing machine
11: Cutting, sewing and packing
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Stitching
11.3 Thread
11.4 Hemming styles
11.5 Needle
11.6 Manufacturing technology
12: Modern quality management systems
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Quality systems
12.3 National quality awards
12.4 Quality control in terry towelling manufacturing
12.5 Testing parameters and test methods
12.6 Acceptance sampling for final inspection
13: Properties and performance of woven terry fabrics
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Absorbency
13.3 Compressibility
13.4 Aesthetic properties
13.5 Air permeability
13.6 Comfort
13.7 Durability and serviceability
14: Hand evaluation of woven terry fabric
14.1 Introduction
14.2 New primary hand equations BJ-101, BJ-102, BJ-103 and BJ-104
14.3 New total hand equation (BJ-105)
14.4 Contribution of various primary hand equations to the total hand of terry fabric
14.5 Prediction accuracy
14.6 Experimental verification with the test results from regular KES sensor
14.7 Experimental verification with the test results from modified KES sensor (100 mm2)
15: Aesthetic characteristics terry fabrics
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Texture descriptors
15.3 Uniformity index
15.4 Fractal dimension
15.5 Subjective texture evaluation
15.6 Effect of various fibre, yarn and fabric parameters on surface appearance
16: Compression and surface characteristics of terry fabrics
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Various parameters affecting the compression and surface characteristics of terry fabrics
17: Absorbency and serviceability of terry fabrics
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Important variables affecting water absorbency
17.3 Effect of washing cycles on terry fabric properties
17.4 Effect of fabric parameters on after wash performance
18: Producing high-quality terry fabrics
18.1 Introduction
18.2 Optimisation of loop density, loop length and pile yarn twist for maximum rate of water absorption
18.3 Optimisation of loop shape factor, loop density and loop length for total amount of water absorption
18.4 Optimisation of loop shape factor, loop density and loop length for linearity of compression curve
18.5 Optimisation of loop density, loop shape factor and loop length for compression energy
18.6 Optimisation of loop shape factor, loop density and loop length for compression resilience
19: Troubleshooting in terry fabric production
19.1 Introduction
19.2 Woven fabric defects and their place of generation at a glance
19.3 Causes and remedial actions for some defects

The authors feel that the words of appreciation and gratitude fall short to acknowledge the contribution of Professor B.K. Behera, Head, Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, India, in shaping this book, who guided them into the world of academics. A lot of work has been taken from the first author’s research work, which was done under the supervision of Professor B.K. Behera.

We acknowledge the help and cooperation of various machinery manufacturing companies, publishers and authors who have given permission for the use of their work. We are thankful to Taylor & Francis, Prashant Gamatex, Zimmer Ltd., Sulzer Ltd., A&E Ltd., Korijok Ltd., Chholderby.com, Groz-beckert.com, Texpa Ltd., www. tandfonline.com, etc. for giving the permission for using images, figures, graphs etc. in the book. We acknowledge the help and cooperation of the director, faculty members and students of our institute. We also acknowledge the help and cooperation of various woven terry fabric manufacturing industries.

We acknowledge the help and cooperation of all our friends, especially Er. Ghanshyam Ninje, Er. Ashwini Dash, Dr B.P. Dash, Dr. Rakesh Sethi, Pratima Srivastav, Archika Katiyar and Shaili Chandra who offered their support and encouragement. We thank the readers for finding interest in this book. Authors are also thankful to Matthew Deans, David Jackson, Francis Dodds, Sarah Lynch, Lucy Beg, Poulouse Joseph from Elsevier and Franklin Mathews from SPi Global for their support, patience and perseverance in production of the book.

We express our sincere gratitude to our families, especially our wives (Dr Kalpana Singh and Mrs Archana Verma), parents (Shri Shrikant and Smt. Sheela; Shri Babu Ram Verma and Smt. Asha Verma) and children (Anusha Singh, Aditi Singh, Darsh Verma and Suryaksh) for their moral support. We dedicate this book to our parents who have always contributed to society through the act of giving. This book is a gift to technologist, merchandisers, designers and researchers working in the area of woven terry fabric.

Dr. Jitendra Pratap Singh and Swadesh Verma

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