Geotextiles: From Design to Applications by Robert M. Koerner

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Geotextiles: From Design to Applications
by Robert M. Koerner
Geotextiles: From Design to Applications

Contents
List of contributors xv
Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles xvii

Part One Geotextile development and manufacture 1
1 Early background and history of geotextiles 3
R.M. Koerner
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 Geotextiles in Europe 4
1.3 Geotextiles in America 7
1.4 Geotextiles in other countries 9
1.5 Geotextiles become ubiquitous 9
Acknowledgments 12
References 12
2 Geotextile resins and additives 17
Y.G. Hsuan
2.1 Introduction 17
2.2 Polypropylene and polyethylene 17
2.3 Polyethylene terephthalate 21
2.4 Additives 22
References 23
3 Manufacturing process of geotextiles 25
D. Bérubé, P. Saunier
3.1 Introduction to geotextile manufacturing 25
3.2 Geotextile manufacturing processes 34
3.3 Conclusion 58
4 Geotextiles made from natural fibres 61
A.N. Desai, Ravi Kant
4.1 Introduction 61
4.2 Types of natural fibres used as geotextiles 63
4.3 Manufacturing geotextiles from natural fibres 70
4.4 Application of natural fibre geotextiles 73
4.5 Short- and long-term behaviour 79
4.6 Trends and developments 81
4.7 Future trends 84
4.8 Conclusions 85
Sources of further information and advice 86
References 86

Part Two Properties, behavior and testing 89
5 Geotextile/geosynthetic testing standards development organizations 91
L. David Suits
5.1 Introduction 91
5.2 Geotextile/geosynthetic testing organizations 91
5.3 Geosynthetics Research Institute 97
5.4 Normalization/harmonization 103
5.5 Summary 104
Acknowledgments 104
References 104
6 Physical properties, behavior, and testing of geotextiles 105
G.T. Torosian, P.E. Ashley Mac Millan
6.1 Introduction 105
6.2 Sampling and specimen preparation 105
6.3 Specific gravity 106
6.4 Molecular weight (and carboxyl end group for polyethylene terephthalate) 106
6.5 Mass per unit area 109
6.6 Thickness 110
6.7 Thermal properties 110
6.8 Fingerprinting tests 111
6.9 Stiffness 112
6.10 Future trends 113
6.11 Conclusions 113
References 113
7 Mechanical properties, behavior, and testing of geotextiles 115
H. Zanzinger
7.1 Introduction 115
7.2 Sampling and specimen preparation 120
7.3 Tensile behavior (wide-width specimen) 120
7.4 Seam strength 127
7.5 Tensile behavior (small-width specimen) 127
7.6 Fatigue (cyclic) strength 130
7.7 Confined tensile behavior 132
7.8 Behavior at low and high temperature 134
7.9 Static puncture strength 135
7.10 Pyramid puncture behavior 136
7.11 Dynamic puncture behavior (cone drop test) 136
7.12 Tear behavior 138
7.13 Compressibility 139
7.14 Burst behavior 140
7.15 Impact resistance 141
7.16 Protection and abrasion behavior 142
7.17 Friction behavior 144
7.18 Pullout behavior 146
7.19 Future trends 147
7.20 Conclusions 148
Sources of further information and advice 148
References 148
8 Hydraulic properties, behavior, and testing of geotextiles 151
D. Cazzuffi, M.C. Mandaglio, N. Moraci
8.1 Introduction 151
8.2 Porosity 151
8.3 Filtration opening size and pore size distribution 152
8.4 Permittivity (cross-plane permeability) (no load and under load) 160
8.5 Transmittivity (in-plane permeability) 168
8.6 Applications 171
8.7 Conclusion and future trends 173
References 174
9 Geotextile durability 177
S.R. Allen
9.1 Introduction to geotextile durability assessment 177
9.2 Geotextile degradation modes 178
9.3 Tensile creep and creep rupture 192
9.4 Installation damage 205
9.5 Abrasion of geotextiles 209
9.6 Determination of durability of reinforcement and drainage applications using reduction factors 211
9.7 Summary and conclusions 213
References 214
10 Long-term geotextile degradation mechanisms and exposed lifetime predictions 217
R.M. Koerner
10.1 Overview of long-term degradation mechanisms 217
10.2 UV degradation 218
10.3 Oxidation degradation 221
10.4 Hydrolytic degradation 221
10.5 Chemical degradation 222
10.6 Radioactive degradation 224
10.7 Biological degradation 224
10.8 Temperature effects on degradation 224
10.9 Exposed lifetime predictions 225
10.10 Summary 233
Acknowledgment 235
References 235

Part Three Primary functions of geotextiles 237
11 Geotextiles used in separation 239
G.R. Koerner
11.1 Introduction 239
11.2 Designing for separation function 241
11.3 Paved and unpaved roads 244
11.4 Railroad applications 244
11.5 Other applications 249
11.6 Summary 255
Acknowledgments 255
References 255
12 Geotextiles used in filtration 257
M. Heibaum
12.1 Introduction 257
12.2 Types of geotextiles used in filtration 258
12.3 Key properties and behaviour 258
12.4 Retention criteria 259
12.5 Number of constrictions per thickness 263
12.6 Permeability/permittivity criteria 264
12.7 Clogging resistance 264
12.8 Tests related to filtering geotextiles 265
12.9 Filter applications 268
12.10 Installation impact on geotextile filters 271
References 273
13 Geotextiles used in drainage 277
J.C. Chai
13.1 Introduction 277
13.2 Types of geotextiles used in drainage 277
13.3 Hydraulic properties 278
13.4 Drainage applications 292
13.5 Future trends 297
13.6 Conclusions 300
References 300
14 Geotextiles used in reinforcing paved and unpaved roads and railroads 305
B.R. Christopher
14.1 Introduction 305
14.2 Reinforcement mechanisms 306
14.3 Types of geotextiles used in road reinforcement 311
14.4 Key properties and behavior 312
14.5 Reinforcement applications 315
14.6 Cost considerations 328
14.7 Future trends 329
14.8 Conclusions 330
References 331
15 Geotextiles used in reinforcing walls, berms, and slopes 337
P. Rimoldi
15.1 Introduction 337
15.2 Types of geotextiles used in wall, berms, and slope reinforcement 339
15.3 Key geotextile properties and behavior 339
15.4 Basic theory of reinforced soil 343
15.5 Reinforced steep slopes: definition and formulation of the problem 346
15.6 Design of geotextile-reinforced steep slopes 351
15.7 Global stability analysis 362
15.8 Geotextile-reinforced mechanically stabilized earth walls 364
15.9 Load-bearing capacity 369
15.10 Settlements 371
15.11 Conclusions 372
References 372
16 Geotextiles used to reinforce soft soil foundations 373
O. Detert, H. Hangen, A.A. Lavasan, L.R. Schimmel
16.1 Background 373
16.2 Basal reinforcement on soft soil 373
16.3 Use in geotextile-encased granular columns 379
16.4 Use in geosynthetic piled embankments 386
16.5 Conclusions 391
References 392
17 Geotextiles use for cushioning 395
D. Narejo
17.1 Introduction 395
17.2 Stressestrain behavior and puncture 397
17.3 Puncture testing 398
17.4 Nonwoven needlepunched geotextiles 401
17.5 Puncture protection design and cushion geotextile selection 403
17.6 Conclusions 410
References 410
18 Geotextile composites having multiple functions 413
H.-Y. Jeon
18.1 Introduction 413
18.2 Key properties and behavior 413
18.3 Geotextile composite types and applications 414
18.4 Combining geotextiles with other materials 419
18.5 Future trends 420
18.6 Conclusions 423
Sources of further information and recommendations 424
References 425

Part Four Specific applications of geotextiles 427
19 Geotextiles in waste containment 429
T. Bauters
19.1 Background 429
19.2 Applications and functions 429
19.3 Other geotextile waste containment uses 432
19.4 Conclusions 432
References 433
20 Geotextiles in marine engineering 435
C.R. Lawson
20.1 Introduction 435
20.2 Geotextiles and geotextile containment units used in marine engineering 435
20.3 Marine revetments 445
20.4 Basal filters beneath breakwaters and containment dykes 454
20.5 Basal reinforcement beneath breakwaters and containment dykes 456
20.6 Breakwater cores and training walls 459
20.7 Containment dykes 461
20.8 Protection dykes and reinforced dunes 466
20.9 Artificial reefs and submerged breakwaters 468
20.10 Miscellaneous offshore use 475
20.11 Conclusions 479
References 480
21 Geotextile tubes for dewatering and decontamination of fine-grained soils 483
R.M. Koerner, G.R. Koerner, W. Huang
21.1 Overview and background 483
21.2 Geotextile tubes as flexible forms 484
21.3 Geotextile tube types and performance testing 484
21.4 Chemical flocculants (or coagulants) for dewatering dredged slurries 488
21.5 Dewatering plus decontamination 490
21.6 Conclusions 492
Acknowledgments 492
References 493
22 Geotextiles in commercial development 495
A. Filshill
22.1 Introduction 495
22.2 Types of geotextiles used in private development 496
22.3 Applications of geotextiles in private development 497
22.4 Future trends 507
22.5 Conclusions 509
References 509
23 Geotextiles in agriculture and aquaculture 511
C.W. Hsieh
23.1 Introduction 511
23.2 Types of geotextiles used in agriculture and aquaculture 511
23.3 Geotextile in agriculture 513
23.4 Geotextiles in livestock applications 522
23.5 Geotextiles in aquaculture 525
23.6 Future trends and development 528
23.7 Conclusions 529
References 529
24 Geosynthetics in erosion and sediment control 531
C.J. Sprague, J.E. Sprague
24.1 Introduction 531
24.2 Geosynthetic functions in erosion and sediment control applications 532
24.3 Advantages of geosynthetic-enhanced erosion control products and sediment retention devices 532
24.4 Geosynthetics in erosion control 533
24.5 Geosynthetics in sediment control and retention 541
24.6 Erosion control product and sediment retention device performance criteria 543
24.7 Erosion control product and sediment retention device testing 544
24.8 Emerging geosynthetic erosion and sediment control technologies 557
24.9 Existing independent data and specifications 557
24.10 Conclusions 559
References 561

Part Five Common attributes of geotextiles 563
25 Quality control and quality assurance for geotextiles 565
N. Ivy, B. Garner
25.1 Introduction 565
25.2 General behavior 565
25.3 Definitions 566
25.4 Responsibilities 566
25.5 Design aspects 567
25.6 Manufacturing quality control and manufacturing quality assurance 568
25.7 Construction quality control and construction quality assurance 571
25.8 Benefits 572
25.9 Costs 572
25.10 Future trends 573
25.11 Conclusions 574
Sources of further information and advice 574
Further reading 575
26 Sustainability aspects of using geotextiles 577
N. Dixon, J. Raja, G. Fowmes, M. Frost
26.1 Introduction 577
26.2 Drivers for sustainable development 577
26.3 Sustainability assessment criteria 578
26.4 Carbon footprinting 579
26.5 Embodied carbon and embodied energy 579
26.6 Embodied carbon for geosynthetic products 580
26.7 Embodied carbon for geotextiles 580
26.8 Sustainable construction assessment 583
26.9 Life cycle boundaries 584
26.10 Framework and calculation methods for project carbon footprinting 585
26.11 Example projects 586
26.12 Conclusions 595
References 595
Index 597

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