Medical Textile Materials by Yimin Qin

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Medical Textile Materials
By Yimin Qin
Medical Textile Materials

Contents
Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles ix
Preface xix
1 A brief description of the human body 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 The systems within the human body 1
1.3 Human anatomy 2
1.4 Skin 3
1.5 Cells 6
1.6 Summary 11
Sources for further information 11
2 An overview of medical textile products 13
2.1 Introduction 13
2.2 Characteristics of medical textiles 14
2.3 Constituent elements of medical textile products 15
2.4 Classification of medical textile products 17
2.5 Summary 20
Sources for further information 21
3 A brief description of textile fibers 23
3.1 Introduction 23
3.2 Fiber-forming polymers 23
3.3 Fiber classification 32
3.4 Fiber structure 34
3.5 Fiber properties 35
3.6 Methods for the manufacture of chemical fibers 38
3.7 Summary 42
Sources for further information 42
4 A brief description of the manufacturing processes for medical textile materials 43
4.1 Introduction 43
4.2 Yarn processing 44
4.3 Fabric manufacturing techniques 46
4.4 Treatment of textile fabrics 48
4.5 Packaging and sterilization 52
4.6 Summary 54
Sources for further information 54
5 Applications of advanced technologies in the development of functional medical textile materials 55
5.1 Introduction 55
5.2 Polymer engineering for advanced medical and healthcare products 56
5.3 Fiber engineering for advanced medical and healthcare products 58
5.4 Textile engineering for advanced medical and healthcare products 61
5.5 Modern composite technologies for advanced medical and healthcare products 63
5.6 Summary 68
Sources for further information 69

6 Superabsorbent polymers and their medical applications 71
6.1 Introduction 71
6.2 Development of superabsorbent polymers 72
6.3 Structural characteristics of superabsorbent polymers 72
6.4 Classification of superabsorbent polymers 73
6.5 Synthesis of superabsorbent polymers 74
6.6 Characterization of superabsorbent polymers 75
6.7 Absorption properties of superabsorbent polymers 76
6.8 Test methods for the evaluation of superabsorbent polymers 77
6.9 Applications of superabsorbent polymers in medicine
and healthcare 81
6.10 Hygiene implications in the use of absorbent hygiene products 86
6.11 Summary 87
Sources for further information 87
7 Functional wound dressings 89
7.1 Introduction 89
7.2 The process of wound healing 90
7.3 Functional requirements for modern wound-care materials 93
7.4 Functional wound dressings 96
7.5 Cost versus effectiveness 105
7.6 Summary 105
Sources for further information 106
8 Medical bandages and stockings 109
8.1 Introduction 109
8.2 Venous and lymphatic diseases 110
8.3 Compression therapy 111
8.4 Effects of compression therapy for the human organism 112
8.5 Development of medical bandages and stockings 113
8.6 Classification of elastic compression bandages 115
8.7 Elastic stockings 117
8.8 Characteristics of textile compression materials 117
8.9 Properties of textile compression materials 119
8.10 Summary 121
Sources for further information 122
9 Surgical sutures 123
9.1 Introduction 123
9.2 Historical development of surgical sutures 124
9.3 Characteristics of surgical sutures 125
9.4 Classification of surgical sutures 127
9.5 Needles 128
9.6 Production of surgical sutures 128
9.7 Applications of surgical sutures 129
9.8 Test methods 131
9.9 Summary 132
Sources for further information 132
10 Textiles for implants and regenerative medicine 133
10.1 Introduction 133
10.2 Characteristics of textile-based implant materials 133
10.3 Advantages of textile implant materials 135
10.4 Artificial ligaments and tendons 136
10.5 Surgical meshes for hernia repair 137
10.6 Vascular prostheses 137
10.7 Textiles for regenerative medicine 139
10.8 Regulatory aspects 141
10.9 Summary 142
Sources for further information 142 

11 Antimicrobial dressings for the management of wound infection 145
11.1 Introduction 145
11.2 Topical antimicrobial agents in wound care 146
11.3 Main types of antimicrobial wound dressings 148
11.4 Silver-containing wound dressings 151
11.5 Other types of antimicrobial materials 157
11.6 Summary 158
Sources for further information 158
12 Medical textile products for the control of odor 161
12.1 Introduction 161
12.2 Qualitative description of wound and body odor 162
12.3 Control of unpleasant body odor 162
12.4 Medical textile materials with odor-control properties 163
12.5 Activated carbon for odor control 166
12.6 Characterization of odor-absorbing products 167
12.7 Summary 172
Sources for further information 172
13 Medical textile materials with drug-releasing properties 175
13.1 Introduction 175
13.2 Development of drug delivery systems 176
13.3 Fabrication of drug-releasing textile materials 177
13.4 Characterization of drug-loaded textile materials 182
13.5 Applications of drug-releasing textiles 186
13.6 Summary 188
Sources for further information 188
14 Biocompatibility testing for medical textile products 191
14.1 Introduction 191
14.2 Regulatory requirements 192
14.3 Sampling requirements 193
14.4 Description of some commonly required tests 195
14.5 Summary 200
Sources for further information 200
15 Regulatory control of medical textile products 203
15.1 Introduction 203
15.2 Medical device safety 204
15.3 Classification of medical devices 205
15.4 Phases in the lifespan of a medical device 207
15.5 The role of each participant in ensuring the safety of medical devices 209
15.6 Governmental regulation of medical devices 210
15.7 Quality system requirements 212
15.8 FDA regulation of medical devices 213
15.9 Summary 216
Sources for further information 216 

16 Research and development strategy for medical textile products 217
16.1 Introduction 217
16.2 The product development process 218
16.3 Product development capabilities 222
16.4 Product development strategies 223
16.5 Management of a product development project 227
16.6 Summary 229
Sources for further information 229
Index 231

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