Braiding Technology for Textiles by Y. Kyosev

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Braiding Technology for Textiles
By Y. Kyosev

Contents
Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles xi
Preface xix
Acknowledgements xxiii
1 Introduction: the main types of braided structure using maypole braiding technology 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Maypole braiding 1
1.3 Spiral braiding 13
1.4 Lace braiding 15
1.5 Bobbinet machines 18
1.6 Cartesian braiding 19
1.7 Machine and product classifi cation 22
1.8 Sources of further information and advice 23
References 24 

Part One Patterning and design of braided structures manufactured using maypole braiding technology 27
2 Patterning of braided products 29
2.1 Introduction 29
2.2 Horn gears 29
2.3 Carrier and bobbin arrangement 30
2.4 Structural and pattern representation of maypole braids 34
2.5 Braiding pattern basics 36
2.6 Pattern type and carrier arrangement 39
2.7 Quality and length issues of using ply yarns 45
References 46
3 Structural design of fl at and tubular braids 47
3.1 Introduction 47
3.2 Flat braids 47
3.3 Application examples 57
3.4 Tubular braids 61
3.5 Advanced patterning 67
References 69
4 Colour design of tubular braids 71
4.1 Introduction 71
4.2 Colour patterning basics 71
4.3 General remarks about the colour design of tubular braids 72
4.4 Pattern development sequence for tubular braids 73
4.5 Common patterns for tubular structures 79
4.6 Conclusions 88
4.7 Sources of further information and advice 88
References 88
5 Colour design of fl at braids 89
5.1 Introduction 89
5.2 Basics of colour patterning of fl at braids 89
5.3 Pattern development sequence for fl at braids 90
5.4 Popular patterns for fl at structures with a fl oating length of 1 94
5.5 Popular patterns for fl at structures with a fl oating length of 2 (2:2-1) 103
5.6 Popular patterns for fl at structures with a fl oating length of 3 (3:3-1) 106
5.7 Conclusions 108
5.8 Sources of further information and advice 109
References 111

Part Two Maypole braiding machines and mechanics 113
6 Braiding machine components 115
6.1 Introduction 115
6.2 Carrier motion systems 115
6.3 Track plate 125
6.4 Braiding zone and the take-off 133
6.5 Additional elements in the braiding machine 141
6.6 Some special confi gurations 147
6.7 Sources of further information and advice 150
References 150
7 Carriers for braiding machines 153
7.1 Introduction 153
7.2 Carrier features 153
7.3 Yarn length compensation devices 156
7.4 Bobbin brakes and bobbin form 167
7.5 Yarn guides (eyelets, rollers, other elements) 169
7.6 Carrier modifi cations for special applications or materials 171
7.7 Sources of further information and advice 175
References 175
8 The mechanics of the braiding process 177
8.1 Introduction 177
8.2 Braiding point parameters 177
8.3 Forces on the braid building yarn segment 185
8.4 Relationship between take-off velocity and braiding angle 188
8.5 Braid tension variances during tubular braiding and overbraiding 194
8.6 Influence of the braiding needles over the braiding process
of fl at braids 197
8.7 Bobbin winding tension and the braiding process 200
8.8 Braiding tension infl uences over the braided product 204
8.9 Control of the yarn tension in the braid former 207
8.10 Sources of further information and advice 207
References 208
9 Carrier mechanics in braiding operations 211
9.1 Introduction 211
9.2 Bobbin mass and yarn tension 211
9.3 Unwinding angle and yarn tension 215
9.4 Yarn velocity during length compensation 218
9.5 Yarn tension fl uctuations for spring-balanced carriers 221
9.6 Maximum velocity of weight-balanced carriers 222
9.7 Future trends 228
References 229
10 Yarn winding operations in braiding 231
10.1 Introduction 231
10.2 Unwinding 231
10.3 Control and regulation devices 237
10.4 Winding 244
10.5 Machines 248
10.6 Winding calculations 250
10.7 Sources of further information and advice 253
References 254

Part Three Specialist braided structures using maypole braiding technology 255
11 Spiral braiding 257
11.1 Introduction 257
11.2 Terminology 257
11.3 Machine types for producing spiral braids 258
11.4 Spiral braiding machines 262
11.5 Equation of motion of the carriers 266
11.6 Patterning basics for spiral braids 269
11.7 Colour patterning of spiral braids 272
11.8 Special properties and applications of spiral braids 277
11.9 Machines 278
11.10 Conclusions 279
11.11 Sources of further information and advice 282
References 282
12 Square and other types of form braiding 283
12.1 Introduction 283
12.2 Terminology 283
12.3 Applications of square-braided gaskets 286
12.4 Patterning for two-track braids 289
12.5 Patterning for three-track braids 290
12.6 Patterning for four-track braids 297
12.7 A braiding machine with variable tracks 299
12.8 Form braids with more complex forms 302
12.9 Conclusions 311
References 311 

Part Four Computer assisted design (CAD), other software and productivity calculations for braiding 313
13 Computer assisted design (CAD) software for the design of braided
structures 315
13.1 Introduction 315
13.2 Colour design of braided structures 316
13.3 3D geometrical models 327
13.4 Custom machine confi gurator 331
13.5 Calculations for braiding 331
13.6 Summary 335
References 336
14 Productivity calculations in braiding 337
14.1 Introduction 337
14.2 Required yarn length 337
14.3 Weight per metre 345
14.4 Time for preparation 347
14.5 Take-off speed, braiding time and productivity 348
14.6 Calculation examples 352
14.7 Sources of further information and advice 355
References 356
15 Using MATLAB® for calculations in braiding 357
15.1 Introduction 357
15.2 MATLAB background 358
15.3 Data Acquisition Toolbox™ and yarn tension measurement 369
15.4 Conclusions 374
References 375
Index 377

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