**Advances in Braiding Technology: Specialized Techniques and Applications**

**Contents**

List of contributors xiii

Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles xv

Preface xxiii

Acknowledgments xxv

**Part One Braiding of three-dimensional profiles 1 **

1 An overview of three-dimensional braiding technologies 3

A.E. Bogdanovich

1.1 Introductory remarks 3

1.2 A brief excursion to the field of braiding 5

1.3 3D braiding versus 2D braiding 7

1.4 An overview of row-and-column 3D braiding 11

1.5 An overview of 3D rotary braiding 21

1.6 Herzog 3D rotary braiders 36

1.7 A novel 3TEX 3D rotary braiding method 38

1.8 Mechanical properties of 3D rotary braided composites 66

1.9 Concluding remarks 71

References 73

2 Three-dimensional hexagonal braiding 79

F. Schreiber

2.1 Introduction 79

2.2 Principle of hexagonal braiding 79

2.3 Comparison of orthogonal and hexagonal arrangements 85

2.4 Conclusion 86

References 87

3 Three-dimensional (3D)-maypole braiding 89

M. Lengersdorf, T. Gries

3.1 Introduction 89

3.2 Structure of 3D-maypole braids 90

3.3 Braiding equipment for 3D-rotary braiding 92

3.4 Control and software 96

3.5 Possible paths in designated cross section 99

3.6 Application: tubular grid structure 99

3.7 Application: hat-shaped profile for stiffener element 101

3.8 Conclusion and future trends 104

Sources of further information 104

References 104

4 Cartesian 3D braiding 107

K. Bilisik

4.1 Introduction 107

4.2 Future trends 141

4.3 Conclusion 141

Sources of further information and advice 142

References 142

**Part Two Specialist braiding techniques and applications 147**

5 Partial carrier occupation of maypole braiding machines 149

Y. Kyosev

5.1 Introduction 149

5.2 Literature review 149

5.3 Fundamentals 151

5.4 Partial occupation of tubular braiding machines 160

5.5 Partial occupation of flat braiding machines 164

5.6 Inlay yarns in flat braids with partial occupation 164

5.7 Possibilities for future investigations 168

5.8 Conclusions 169

References 170

6 An overview of braiding structure in medical textile: fiber-based implants and tissue engineering 171

D. Aibibu, M. Hild, C. Cherif

6.1 Introduction 171

6.2 Braiding technology of medical textiles 176

6.3 Applications 178

6.4 Conclusion and future trends 185

References 186

7 Braids in candles 191

S. Bien, P. Glessner, M. Matthaei, M. Schmidt, S. West

7.1 Introduction 191

7.2 Different types of braided wicks, their applications and reasons for use 196

7.3 Round wicks 200

7.4 Modern candle quality requirements and further braiding parameters 204

7.5 Chemical treatments of wicks 205

7.6 Other wick types 206

7.7 Conclusion 208

References 208

Further literature 208

8 Lever arm braiding 209

Y. Kyosev, B. M€uller

8.1 Introduction 209

8.2 Terminological and historical aspects 210

8.3 Construction of modern lever arm braiding machines 211

8.4 Compensation and carriers 213

8.5 Common application areas of the lever arm braiding machines 217

8.6 Trends 220

8.7 Conclusions 221

Sources of further information 222

References 222

**Part Three Braiding techniques for ropes 223 **

9 Braiding processes for braided ropes 225

M. Michael, C. Kern, T. Heinze

9.1 Introduction e a short/long? History of braided ropes 225

9.2 Braiding processes 226

9.3 Future trends 240

9.4 Conclusions 242

References 242

10 Rope finishing for braided ropes 245

M. Michael, C. Kern, J. Mammitzsch

10.1 Introduction 245

10.2 Rope finishing 246

10.3 Future trends in rope finishing 262

10.4 Conclusion 263

References 264

11 Mechanical properties of braided ropes as textile machine

elements 267

M. Michael, C. Kern, T. Heinze

11.1 Introduction 267

11.2 Braids as textile machine elements 268

11.3 Mechanical parameters 269

11.4 Demands on textile machine elements (future trends) 275

11.5 Conclusion 291

References 292

12 Operational stability testing of braided textile machine elements 293

M. Michael, C. Kern, A. Schmieder

12.1 Introduction 293

12.2 Test procedures 294

12.3 Future trends 310

12.4 Conclusion 314

References 315

**Part Four Braiding for composites 317 **

13 Yarn damage during braiding of reinforcement fibers for composites 319

C. Ebel, A. Mierzwa, K. Kind

13.1 Introduction 319

13.2 Yarn damage 321

13.3 Yarn damage in the braiding process chain 326

13.4 Testing yarn damage 331

13.5 The yarn damage test bench 339

13.6 Impact of yarn damage 344

13.7 Methods for limiting yarn damage in braiding 347

13.8 Conclusion 350

References 351

14 Pultrusion of braids 355

M. Milwich

14.1 Introduction 355

14.2 History 357

14.3 Pultrusion process 358

14.4 Braid-pultrusion process 362

14.5 Pultrusion of curved profiles 370

14.6 Market for pultruded profiles 372

14.7 Research perspectives 375

14.8 Conclusion and future market development 378

Acknowledgment 378

References 378

15 Braided carbon fiber composites 383

M. Bulat, H. Ahlborn, F. Gn€adinger, D. Michaelis

15.1 Introduction 383

15.2 Types of braids for composites 383

15.3 Elements of a radial braiding machine and auxiliary equipment 385

15.4 Process automation 389

15.5 Applications 390

15.6 Outlook 392

References 394

16 Exemplary manufacturing process of a braided manipulator in serial production 395

F. Heieck, S. Carosella, S. Zuleger

16.1 Introduction 395

16.2 Predesign 395

16.3 Braiding process 398

16.4 RTM injection 402

16.5 Mechanical testing 402

16.6 Conclusion 403

Sources of further information 404

References 404

17 Braiding pultrusion of thermoplastic composites 405

J. Sch€afer, T. Gries

17.1 Introduction 405

17.2 Thermoplastic pultrusion 406

17.3 Construction of a lab-scale pultrusion line 410

17.4 Integration of inserts 415

17.5 Possible applications and markets 419

17.6 Economic aspects 421

17.7 Conclusion 426

Sources of further information 426

References 426

**Part Five Modelling and simulation 429**

18 Overbraiding simulation 431

J.H. van Ravenhorst, R. Akkerman

18.1 Introduction 431

18.2 Simulation techniques 434

18.3 Forward solution 434

18.4 Inverse solution 438

18.5 Examples 439

18.6 Yarn interaction 445

18.7 Applications 448

18.8 Future trends 452

Acknowledgment 454

References 454

19 Finite element method (FEM) modeling of overbraiding 457

P. B€ohler, A. Pickett, P. Middendorf

19.1 Introduction 457

19.2 Finiteeelement (FE) braiding simulation 458

19.3 Analytical method for braid yarn paths 464

19.4 Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)-interface 467

19.5 Stiffness calculation 468

19.6 Method for numerical modeling of the yarns, matrix, and interfaces 471

19.7 Conclusions 473

References 474

Further reading 474

20 Embedded finite-element modeling approach for 3D Cartesian braid-reinforced composites 477

F. Regel

20.1 Introduction 477

20.2 Numerical modeling of 3D braids 478

20.3 Applications of Cartesian braiding 479

20.4 Modeling approach 485

20.5 Generation of FE models 489

20.6 Results and discussion 493

20.7 Conclusions 497

Acknowledgments 497

References 497

21 Geometrical modeling and computational mechanics tools for braided structures 501

Y. Kyosev

21.1 Introduction 501

21.2 Geometrical models at yarn level 501

21.3 Filling the yarn with filaments 510

21.4 Computational mechanics calculations with braided structures 513

21.5 Conclusions 517

References 517

22 Structural and tensile behaviors of braided reinforcements: characterization and model 521

B. Duchamp, X. Legrand, D. Soulat

22.1 Introduction 521

22.2 Braided reinforcements and braiding technology 523

22.3 Materials and methods 525

22.4 Structural characterization 528

22.5 Mechanical characterization 533

22.6 Modeling of the tensile behavior 539

22.7 Conclusions 543

References 545

23 Investigations about the braiding angle and the cover factor

of the braided fabrics using Image Processing and Symbolic

Math Toolbox of Matlab 549

Y. Kyosev, M. Aurich

23.1 Introduction 549

23.2 Application of the Image Processing Toolbox for braiding angle identification 549

23.3 Using Symbolic Toolbox for analytical calculations 555

23.4 Conclusions 569

References 569

Index 571