Handbook of Natural Fibres: Processing and Applications | Volume 2 | Ryszard M. Kozłowski

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Handbook of Natural Fibres Volume 2: Processing and Applications
Edited by Ryszard M. Kozłowski

Contents
Contributor contact details xi
Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles xvi

Part I Processing techniques for natural fibres 1
1 Silk production and the future of natural silk manufacture 3
K. M. BABU, Bapuji Institute of Engineering and
Technology (BIET), India
1.1 Introduction to silk and the silk industry 3
1.2 Types of silk and their importance 5
1.3 The silk industry 12
1.4 Post-cocoon technology 14
1.5 Silk reeling technology 15
1.6 Silk fabric manufacture 18
1.7 Spun silk production and manufacture 22
1.8 Future trends in natural silk production 26
1.9 Sources of further information and advice 28
1.10 Acknowledgements 28
1.11 References 28
2 Improving the flame retardancy of natural fi bres 30
R. M. KOZŁOWSKI, Institute for Engineering of Polymer
Materials and Dyes (IMPIB), Poland and M. MUZYCZEK,
Institute of Natural Fibres and Medicinal Plants
(INF&MP), Poland
2.1 Introduction 30
2.2 Key issues in flame retardancy of natural fi bres and lignocellulosic textiles 35
2.3 Flammability and flame retardancy of some natural fi bres and textiles 42
2.4 Methods of improving flame retardancy in natural fi bres 53
2.5 Future trends 57
2.6 Sources of further information and advice 58
2.7 Conclusions 58
2.8 References 59
3 Improving the properties of natural fibres by chemical treatments 63
J. A. RIPPON and D. J. EVANS, CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Australia
3.1 Introduction 63
3.2 Wool 64
3.3 Silk 96
3.4 Other protein fi bres 103
3.5 Cotton 103
3.6 Other vegetable fi bres 123
3.7 Future trends 125
3.8 Acknowledgements 126
3.9 References 126
3.10 Appendix: abbreviations 140
4 Ultraviolet-blocking properties of natural fibres 141
M. ZIMNIEWSKA and J. BATOG, Institute of Natural Fibres and Medicinal Plants (INF&MP), Poland
4.1 Introduction 141
4.2 UV protection by textiles 145
4.3 Properties of natural fi bres 152
4.4 Methods of improving the ultraviolet properties of natural fi bres 153
4.5 Future trends 164
4.6 Conclusion 164
4.7 References 164
5 Enzymatic treatment of natural fi bres 168
W. KONCZEWICZ and R. M. KOZŁOWSKI, Institute of
Natural Fibres and Medicinal Plants (INF&MP), Poland
5.1 Introduction 168
5.2 Key principles of enzyme treatment of natural fi bres 168
5.3 Main types of enzyme treatments for natural fi bres 174
5.4 Future trends 179
5.5 Sources of further information and advice 180
5.6 References 180
6 Electrokinetic properties of natural fi bres 185
T. LUXBACHER, Anton Paar GmbH, Austria
6.1 Introduction 185
6.2 Key principles of electrokinetic properties of natural fi bres 186
6.3 Applications 198
6.4 Future trends 208
6.5 Conclusion 210
6.6 Sources of further information and advice 210
6.7 References 211
6.8 Appendix: symbols and abbreviations 214

Part II Applications of natural fibres and case studies 217
7 Natural fibres for automotive applications 219
A. BALTAZAR-Y-JIMENEZ and M. SAIN, University of
Toronto, Canada
7.1 Introduction 219
7.2 Natural fi bre-reinforced composites 230
7.3 Environmental aspects of natural fi bres in automotive applications 235
7.4 Processing technologies for natural fi bre composites 238
7.5 End-of-life vehicles (ELVs) and environmental pressures 241
7.6 Design for recycling (DFR) 245
7.7 Future trends 245
7.8 Acknowledgements 246
7.9 References 246
8 Natural fi bre composites (NFCs) for construction and automotive industries 254
Y. K. KIM, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, USA
8.1 Introduction 254
8.2 Natural fi bre composites (NFCs) 256
8.3 Natural fi bre reinforcement forms for green composites 261
8.4 NFC manufacturing methods 264
8.5 Quality assurance and testing 268
8.6 NFCs for building and automotive industries 272
8.7 Conclusions 277
8.8 Acknowledgements 277
8.9 References 278
9 Natural fibres for geotextiles 280
A. L. LEÃO, B. M. CHERIAN and S. F. DE SOUZA,
São Paulo State University (UNESP), Brazil,
R. M. KOZŁOWSKI, Institute for Engineering of Polymer
Materials and Dyes (IMPIB), Poland, S. THOMAS,
Mahatma Gandhi University, India and M. KOTTAISAMY,
Thiagarajar College of Engineering, India
9.1 Introduction 280
9.2 Natural vegetable fi bres for geotextiles 282
9.3 Types of geosynthetics and their composition 283
9.4 Important characteristic properties of geotextiles 286
9.5 The market for natural fi bre geotextiles 287
9.6 Functional requirements of geosynthetic materials 288
9.7 Primary uses for geotextiles 291
9.8 Applications of geotextiles 293
9.9 Future trends 308
9.10 Conclusions 309
9.11 References 310
10 The use of fl ax and hemp for textile applications 312
M. MUZYCZEK, Institute of Natural Fibres and
Medicinal Plants (INF&MP), Poland
10.1 Introduction 312
10.2 Types of fl ax used for textile applications 313
10.3 Applications and examples 321
10.4 Future trends 325
10.5 Sources of further information and advice 326
10.6 References 327
11 The application of fl ax and hemp seeds in food, animal feed and cosmetics production 329
P. KOLODZIEJCZYK, Biolink Consultancy Incorporated and
University of Alberta, Canada, L. OZIMEK, University of Alberta,
Canada and J. KOZŁOWSKA, RK Science, Poland
11.1 Introduction to fl ax and hemp seeds 329
11.2 Flax- and hemp-related food products 343
11.3 Flax seed in animal nutrition 345
11.4 Health effects of fl ax and hemp products 355
11.5 Regulatory issues and sources of information on fl ax 358
11.6 Conclusions 359
11.7 References 360
12 Natural fi bres for paper and packaging 367
R. PASSAS, Grenoble INP-Pagora, France
12.1 Introduction 367
12.2 Natural fi bres for paper and packaging 368
12.3 Pulp and paper processes 380
12.4 Applications of natural fi bres for paper and packaging 390
12.5 Future trends 393
12.6 Acknowledgements 396
12.7 References 396
13 Environmental textiles from jute and coir 401
P. K. BANERJEE, Indian Institute of Technology,
New Delhi, India
13.1 Introduction to environmental textiles 401
13.2 The importance of jute and coconut plant cultivation 402
13.3 Extraction of jute and coir fi bres 406
13.4 Critical properties of jute and coir fi bres 407
13.5 The nature of commercial products from jute and coir 409
13.6 New environmental textiles from jute and coir 410
13.7 Market potential of jute–coir environmental textiles 425
13.8 References 425
13.9 Appendix: list of abbreviations 427
14 Antimicrobial natural fi bres 428
J. BORSA, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary
14.1 Introduction to textiles and microbial hazards: past and present 428
14.2 Survival of microbes on fabric surfaces 429
14.3 Textiles as protection against biohazards and as infection reservoirs 432
14.4 Antimicrobial fi bres 434
14.5 Antimicrobial agents: silver, other metals and their salts 436
14.6 Antimicrobial agents: quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) 439
14.7 Antimicrobial agents: chitosan 440
14.8 Antimicrobial agents: dyes 442
14.9 Antimicrobial agents: photomicrobicidal materials 444
14.10 Antimicrobial agents: natural agents 446
14.11 Antimicrobial agents: others 447
14.12 Risks of antimicrobial fi nishing 450
14.13 Future trends 451
14.14 References 452
15 Biomimetics and textile materials 467
M. S. ELLISON, Clemson University, USA
15.1 Introduction 467
15.2 Key principles of biomimesis 469
15.3 Key principles and issues of biomimetic inspired textiles 473
15.4 Conclusions and future trends 477
15.5 Acknowledgment 478
15.6 References 478
16 Enhancing consumer demand for natural textile fi bres 481
A. FIJOL, ABF Consulting LLC, USA (formerly at
Cotton Council International, USA)
16.1 Introduction: current market scenario for natural fi bres 481
16.2 The role of marketing and advertising in the natural fi bre market 484
16.3 Understanding and affecting consumer buying behaviour 484
16.4 Demand building techniques 486
16.5 Future trends 493
16.6 Conclusion 496
16.7 References 497
Index 499

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