Handbook of Natural Fibres, Volume 1: Types, Properties and Factors Affecting Breeding and Cultivation

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Handbook of Natural Fibres, Volume 1: Types, Properties and Factors Affecting Breeding and Cultivation
Edited by Ryszard M. Kozłowski
Handbook of Natural Fibres, Volume 1: Types, Properties and Factors Affecting Breeding and Cultivation

Contents
Contributor contact details xii
Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles xviii
1 Introduction to natural textile fi bres 1
R. M. KOZŁOWSKI and M. MACKIEWICZ-TALARCZYK,
Institute of Natural Fibres and Medicinal Plants (INF&MP), Poland
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Historical background of natural fibres 5
1.3 Handbook of natural fibres 6
1.4 Sources of further information and advice 7
1.5 References 8

Part I Fundamentals: types of fi bre, properties, identification and testing 9
2 Cotton fibres 11
M. DOCHIA and C. SIRGHIE, ‘Aurel Vlaicu’ University
of Arad, Romania, R. M. KOZŁOWSKI , Institute of Natural
Fibres and Medicinal Plants (INF&MP), Poland and
Z. ROSKWITALSKI, Izba Bawełny Gdynia, Poland
2.1 Introduction 11
2.2 The cotton plant 12
2.3 Cotton fibre structure 13
2.4 Physical properties of cotton 14
2.5 Measuring cotton quality 19
2.6 Future trends 21
2.7 Acknowledgement 22
2.8 References 22
3 Bast fibres: jute 24
S. ROY and L. B. LUTFAR, International Jute
Study Group (IJSG), Bangladesh
3.1 Introduction to jute 24
3.2 Types of jute 26
3.3 Fibre morphology 30
3.4 Chemical composition 32
3.5 Properties of jute 35
3.6 Typical applications 39
3.7 Conclusions 41
3.8 Sources of further information and advice 42
3.9 Bibliography 45
4 Bast fi bres: ramie 47
S. ROY and L. B. LUTFAR, International Jute
Study Group (IJSG), Bangladesh
4.1 Introduction to ramie 47
4.2 Types of ramie 49
4.3 Fibre morphology 52
4.4 Properties of ramie 52
4.5 Typical applications 53
4.6 Conclusions 54
4.7 Sources of further information and advice 54
4.8 Bibliography 55
5 Bast fi bres: fl ax 56
R. M. KOZŁOWSKI and M. MACKIEWICZ-TALARCZYK, Institute of Natural Fibres and Medicinal Plants (INF&MP), Poland and A. M. ALLAM, Expert/Advisor, Egypt
5.1 Introduction 56
5.2 Flax plant morphology 61
5.3 Structure and chemical composition of fl ax 64
5.4 Flax harvesting 67
5.5 Degumming 69
5.6 Scutching 76
5.7 Hackling (combing) 78
5.8 ‘Cottonization’ 80
5.9 Spinning 81
5.10 Bleaching, dyeing 92
5.11 Finishing 98
5.12 Recapitulation 99
5.13 Conclusions and future trends 101
5.14 Sources of further information and advice 105
5.15 References 110
6 Bast fi bres: hemp cultivation and production 114
M. R. L. HORNE, De Montfort University, UK
6.1 Introduction 114
6.2 The hemp plant 117
6.3 Hemp cultivation 119
6.4 Retting 125
6.5 Fibre extraction 131
6.6 Hemp fi bre spinning 137
6.7 References 142
7 Silk fibres 146
K. M. BABU, Bapuji Institute of Engineering and Technology (BIET), India
7.1 Introduction 146
7.2 Silk industry 147
7.3 Microstructure and appearance 157
7.4 Amino acid composition 160
7.5 Properties of silk 161
7.6 Applications of silk 164
7.7 Future trends 167
7.8 Conclusions 168
7.9 Sources of further information and advice 169
7.10 References 169
8 Wool fibres 171
H. KUFFNER, formerly at International Wool Textile
Organization (IWTO), Belgium and C. POPESCU,
DWI an der RWTH Aachen e. V., Germany
8.1 Introduction 171
8.2 The effects of the economy on wool 172
8.3 Wool production 173
8.4 Chemistry and morphology 175
8.5 Properties of wool 179
8.6 Industrial usage of wool 189
8.7 Branding and consumer friendliness 194
8.8 References 194
9 Mohair, cashmere and other animal hair fi bres 196
L. HUNTER, CSIR and Nelson Mandela Metropolitan
University (NMMU), South Africa
9.1 Introduction 196
9.2 Alpaca 202
9.3 Angora rabbit hair 210
9.4 Camel 222
9.5 Cashgora 229
9.6 Cashmere 232
9.7 Guanaco 242
9.8 Llama 244
9.9 Mohair 247
9.10 Musk-ox 266
9.11 Vicuña 269
9.12 Yak 273
9.13 Other animal hair fi bres 276
9.14 Acknowledgements 282
9.15 References 282
10 Bioengineered natural textile fi bres 291
K. WIELGUS, K. GRAJEK and M. SZALATA, Institute of
Natural Fibres and Medicinal Plants (INF&MP), Poland and
R. SŁOMSKI, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Poland
10.1 Introduction 291
10.2 Bacterial cellulose 293
10.3 Enzymatic treatment of cellulose 300
10.4 Future trends 303
10.5 Conclusions 307
10.6 References 308
10.7 Appendix: abbreviations 313
11 Identifi cation of natural textile fi bres 314
R. K. NAYAK, R. PADHYE and S. FERGUSSON, RMIT
University, Australia
11.1 Introduction 314
11.2 Natural textile fi bres 315
11.3 Identifi cation methods 319
11.4 Practical approach 338
11.5 Forensic analysis 339
11.6 Future trends 340
11.7 References 340
11.8 Appendix: abbreviations 343
12 Testing of natural textile fi bres 345
J. HARWOOD, Copernicus Textile Solutions Ltd, UK (formerly
at De Montfort University, UK) and R. HARWOOD, Copernicus
Textile Solutions Ltd, UK
12.1 Introduction 345
12.2 Key issues in testing natural fi bres 347
12.3 Test methods for natural fi bres 352
12.4 Measuring the physical properties of natural fi bres 353
12.5 Chemical properties 373
12.6 Instrumental methods 377
12.7 Future trends 380
12.8 Sources of further information and advice 381
12.9 References 382
12.10 Appendix: abbreviations 390

Part II Improving natural fi bre production through breeding and cultivation 391
13 Developments in fi brous fl ax breeding and cultivation 393
M. PAVELEK, E. TEJKLOVÁ, M. ONDŘEJ and M. VRBOVÁ,
AGRITEC Plant Research Ltd, Czech Republic
13.1 Introduction 393
13.2 Key issues of fi bre fl ax breeding and cultivating 394
13.3 Methods of fl ax and linseed breeding 404
13.4 Modern methods in fl ax and linseed breeding 445
13.5 Sources of further information and advice 451
13.6 References 451
13.7 Appendix: abbreviations 468
14 Cotton breeding and agro-technology 469
J. K. DEVER, Texas AgriLife Research/Texas
A&M System, USA
14.1 Introduction 469
14.2 Genetic review 470
14.3 Breeding methodology 481
14.4 Agronomy and physiology 491
14.5 Breeding targets 496
14.6 Future trends 501
14.7 Conclusions 503
14.8 Sources of further information and advice 503
14.9 References 503
14.10 Appendix: abbreviations 507
15 Fibre fl ax cultivation in sustainable agriculture 508
K. HELLER, P. BARANIECKI and M. PRACZYK, Institute of
Natural Fibres and Medicinal Plants (INF&MP), Poland
15.1 Introduction to fi bre fl ax for sustainable agriculture 508
15.2 Flax growth cycle 509
15.3 The role of cultivars in sustainable fl ax cultivation 512
15.4 The importance of crop rotation 513
15.5 Flax cultivation requirements 513
15.6 Flax harvest 523
15.7 Future trends in fi bre fl ax growing for sustainable agriculture 525
15.8 References 527
16 Prevention of fungal growth in natural fi bres 532
J. WALENTOWSKA Institute of Natural Fibres and
Medicinal Plants (INF&MP), Poland and R. M. KOZŁOWSKI,
Institute for Engineering of Polymer Materials and Dyes (IMPIB), Poland
16.1 Introduction 532
16.2 Key issues of fungal growth, especially mildew, in natural fi bres 533
16.3 Methods of preventing fungal growth, especially mildew, in natural fi bres 536
16.4 Future trends 541
16.5 Conclusion 546
16.6 Sources of further information and advice 547
16.7 References 547
17 Genetic engineering and biotechnology of natural textile fi ber plants 550
K. WIELGUS, Institute of Natural Fibres and Medicinal
Plants (INF&MP), Poland, M. SZALATA, Institute of
Natural Fibres and Medicinal Plants (INF&MP),
Poland and Poznań University of Life Sciences, Poland
and R. SŁOMSKI, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Poland
17.1 Introduction: global status of commercialized biotech crops 550
17.2 Fibrous biotech crops 553
17.3 Future trends 567
17.4 Conclusions 569
17.5 Sources of further information and advice 570
17.6 References 570
17.7 Appendix: abbreviations 575
18 Wild silk: wild silk enterprise programs to alleviate poverty and protect habitats 576
C. L. CRAIG, Harvard University, USA and
Conservation through Poverty Alleviation,
International, USA, R. S. WEBER, Conservation
through Poverty Alleviation, International, USA and
H. AKAI, Tokoyo University of Agriculture, Japan
18.1 Introduction 576
18.2 Defi nition of silk 577
18.3 Silk structure and function 582
18.4 Wild silk enterprise 591
18.5 Wild silk enterprise versus alternative conservation and poverty alleviation programs in Madagascar 599
18.6 Conclusion 600
18.7 References 600
Index 605

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