Biofunctional Textiles and the Skin Edited by U.-C. Hipler and P. Elsner


Biofunctional Textiles and the Skin
Edited by U.-C. Hipler and P. Elsner

Biofunctional Textiles and the Skin

VII Foreword
Mecheels, S. (Boennigheim)
IX Preface
Elsner, P., Hipler U.-C. (Jena)
Interactions between Skin and Textiles
1 Skin Physiology and Textiles – Consideration of Basic Interactions
Wollina, U. (Dresden); Abdel-Naser, M.B. (Cairo); Verma, S. (Baroda)
Interactions between Skin and Biofunctional Metals
17 Silver in Health Care: Antimicrobial Effects and Safety in Use
Lansdown, A.B.G. (London)
Efficiency of Biofunctional Textiles
35 Antimicrobials and the Skin Physiological and Pathological Flora
Elsner, P. (Jena)
42 Antimicrobial Textiles – Evaluation of Their Effectiveness and Safety
Höfer, D. (Boennigheim)
51 Physiological Comfort of Biofunctional Textiles
Bartels, V.T. (Boennigheim)
67 Antimicrobial Textiles, Skin-Borne Flora and Odour
Höfer, D. (Boennigheim)
78 Hygienic Relevance and Risk Assessment of
Antimicrobial-Impregnated Textiles
Kramer, A. (Greifswald); Guggenbichler , P. (Erlangen); Heldt, P .; Jünger , M.;
Ladwig, A.; Thierbach, H.; Weber, U.; Daeschlein, G. (Greifs wald)
Manufacturing of Biofunctional Textiles
110 Production Process of a New Cellulosic Fiber with
Antimicrobial Properties
Zikeli, S. (Frankfurt/Main)
Biofunctional Textiles in the Prevention and Treatment of Skin Diseases
127 Use of Textiles in Atopic Dermatitis.
Care of Atopic Dermatitis
Ricci, G.; Patrizi, A.; Bellini, F.; Medri, M. (Bologna)
144 Coated Textiles in the Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis
Haug, S.; Roll, A.; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P.; Johansen, P.; Wüthrich, B.;
Kündig, T.M.; Senti, G. (Zürich)
152 Silver-Coated Textiles in the Therapy of Atopic Eczema
Gauger, A. (München)
165 A New Silver-Loaded Cellulosic Fiber with Antifungal and
Antibacterial Properties
Hipler, U.-C.; Elsner, P.; Fluhr, J.W. (Jena)
179 Antimicrobial-Finished Textile Three-Dimensional Structures
Heide, M.; Möhring, U . (Greiz); Hänsel, R.; Stoll, M. (F reiberg);
Wollina, U.; Heinig, B . ( Dresden-F riedrichstadt)
200 Author Index
201 Subject Index
According to the archaeologists and anthropologists, the earliest clothing probably consisted of fur, leather, leaves or grass, draped, wrapped or tied about the body for protection from the elements. Knowledge of such clothing remains inferential, since clothing materials deteriorate quickly compared to stone, bone, shell and metal artifacts. Anthropologists at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology have conducted a genetic analysis of human body lice that indicates that they originated not more than about 72,000 ± 42,000 years ago. Since most humans have very sparse body hair, body lice require clothing to survive, so this suggests a surprisingly recent date for the invention of clothing. Its invention may have coincided with the spread of modern Homo sapiens from the warm climate of Africa, thought to have begun between 50,000 and 100,000 years ago.

The significance of clothing is extensive, including clothing as a social message. Social messages sent by clothing can involve e.g. social status, occupation, ethnic and religious affiliation, marital status or sexual availability. Anyway, the practical functionality of clothing is the most important feature. Practical functions of clothing include providing the human body protection against the weather – strong sunlight, extreme heat or cold, and rain or snow – also protection against insects, noxious chemicals, weapons and contact with abrasive substances. In sum, clothing protects against anything that might injure the naked human body. Humans have shown extreme inventiveness in devising clothing solutions to practical problems.

Especially in recent years, new technologies have been permitting the production of ‘functional textiles’ and ‘smart textiles’, i.e. textiles capable of sensing changes in environmental conditions or body functions and responding to these changes. The examples of special fabrics cover underwear with integrated cardio-online system up to textiles with carrier molecules. Such fabrics are able to absorb substances from the skin or can release therapeutic or cosmetic compounds to the skin.

The current interest in biofunctional textiles is mainly focussed on the use of such textiles supporting therapy and prevention in dermatology. Textiles interact with the skin in a very intensive manner. Therefore, the microorganisms of the skin can influence the skin itself, the textiles as well as the interaction between skin and textiles. During the last few years, the materials for manufacturing textiles show positive tendencies towards a higher functionality. The market has been enriched with innovative antimicrobial products, especially with silver fibers or materials with enclosed silver ions. These textiles could not only find a domain in the wellness sector, but the goal is to use textile fabrics with antimicrobial finishing sufficient for prophylaxis and therapy. On the other hand wearing these new textiles can generate problems, unknown till now. Potential health risks can occur. To minimize such risks, careful and reliable in vitro as well as in vivo test systems should be established, which is, by the way, one of the most important requirements of the European Conference on Textiles and Skin. Standards are necessary for the effectiveness of antimicrobial textiles as well as for the evaluation of their undesirable side effects, like cytotoxicity, allergenic and irritative potentials.

Because of the fact that this subject is of current interest, many papers have been published in the last few years about the interaction between textiles and skin. Also, a previous volume in this series, Textiles and Skin, was well accepted by researchers, dermatologists and others interested in learning about this important subject.

Therefore, the editors decided to continue this successful project. This volume in the series Current Problems in Dermatology collects information about the new trends in the interaction of textiles and skin and especially the development of antimicrobial-finished textiles. We apologize that not all aspects of this topic could be taken into consideration and trust that all readers will accept the choice we made. Hopefully, this issue will contribute to the further consolidation of the dialo gue between dermatologists and te xtile engineers.

The editors thank all the authors for their effort contributing to this volume with articles of excellent quality. Finally, we would like to thank the staff of S. Karger AG, Basel, for the productive co-operation and their kind help with this project.

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