Coated Textiles: Principles and Applications, Second Edition | Ashish Kumar Sen

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Coated Textiles: Principles and Applications, Second Edition
Ashish Kumar Sen

Coated Textiles Principles and Applications

Contents

Preface to the Second Edition……………………………………………………………………… xiii
Preface to the First Edition……………………………………………………………………………xv
Acknowledgments (First Edition)…………………………………………………………………xvii
Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………..xix
The Author…………………………………………………………………………………………………xxi

Chapter 1 Polymeric Materials for Coating………………………………………………….1
1.1 Rubbers: Natural and Synthetic……………………………………………………………..1
1.1.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………………….1
1.1.2 Production, Structure, and Properties……………………………………………1
1.1.2.1 Natural Rubber………………………………………………………………1
1.1.2.2 Styrene–Butadiene Rubber………………………………………………2
1.1.2.3 Isoprene–Isobutylene Rubber, Butyl Rubber……………………..3
1.1.2.4 Ethylene–Propylene Polymers and Terpolymers, EPM
and EPDM…………………………………………………………………….3
1.1.2.5 Polychloroprene Rubber (CR)………………………………………….4
1.1.2.6 Nitrile–Butadiene Rubber (NBR)…………………………………….5
1.1.2.7 Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene (CSM) Rubber…………………..5
1.1.2.8 Silicone Rubber……………………………………………………………..6
1.1.3 Rubber Additives……………………………………………………………………….7
1.1.4 Compounding and Processing of Rubber………………………………………9
1.1.4.1 Mastication and Compounding………………………………………..9
1.1.4.2 Spreading Dough…………………………………………………………. 12
1.1.4.3 Vulcanization of Rubberized Fabrics……………………………… 12
1.2 Polyvinyl Chloride…………………………………………………………………………….. 13
1.2.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………….. 13
1.2.2 Resin Characteristics……………………………………………………………….. 13
1.2.3 Additives for PVC……………………………………………………………………. 14
1.2.3.1 Plasticizers………………………………………………………………….. 14
1.2.3.2 Stabilizers…………………………………………………………………… 16
1.2.3.3 Other Additives…………………………………………………………… 17
1.2.4 Plastisols and Organosols…………………………………………………………. 17
1.2.4.1 Resins………………………………………………………………………… 18
1.2.4.2 Plasticizers………………………………………………………………….. 18
1.2.4.3 Stabilizers…………………………………………………………………… 19
1.2.4.4 Fillers…………………………………………………………………………. 19
1.2.4.5 Viscosity Depressants………………………………………………….. 19
1.2.4.6 Thickeners………………………………………………………………….. 19
1.2.4.7 Blowing Agents…………………………………………………………… 19
1.2.4.8 Manufacture………………………………………………………………..20
1.2.4.9 Fusion…………………………………………………………………………20
1.2.4.10 Uses in Coating……………………………………………………………20
1.2.5 Compounding of PVC for Solid Compositions……………………………..20
1.2.5.1 Melt Compounding………………………………………………………20
1.2.5.2 Dry Blending………………………………………………………………. 21
1.3 Polyurethanes…………………………………………………………………………………….22
1.3.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………………..22
1.3.2 Building Blocks of Polyurethane………………………………………………..22
1.3.2.1 The Isocyanates……………………………………………………………23
1.3.2.2 Polyols………………………………………………………………………..25
1.3.2.3 Cross-Linkers and Chain Extenders……………………………….27
1.3.2.4 Catalysts……………………………………………………………………..27
1.3.3 Method of Preparation of Polyurethanes……………………………………..27
1.3.4 Structure of Polyurethanes………………………………………………………..28
1.3.5 Thermoplastic Urethane Elastomers……………………………………………29
1.3.6 Polyurethane Coatings………………………………………………………………29
1.3.6.1 One-Component Systems………………………………………………29
1.3.6.2 Two-Component Systems………………………………………………30
1.3.6.3 Additives……………………………………………………………………..30
1.3.7 Aqueous Dispersion of Polyurethanes………………………………………… 31
1.3.7.1 Emulsifiers………………………………………………………………….. 31
1.3.7.2 Preparation of Dispersions……………………………………………. 32
1.3.7.3 Film Properties……………………………………………………………. 33
1.3.8 Features of Polyurethane Coating………………………………………………. 33
1.3.8.1 Structure–Property Relationship……………………………………34
1.4 Acrylic Polymers……………………………………………………………………………….. 35
1.5 Adhesive Treatment…………………………………………………………………………… 35
1.5.1 Mechanism of Adhesion…………………………………………………………… 35
1.5.2 Resorcinol–Formaldehyde–Latex System……………………………………36
1.5.3 Dry Bonding System…………………………………………………………………37
1.5.4 Mode of Action of RFL Dip………………………………………………………38
1.5.5 Isocyanate Bonding System……………………………………………………….39
1.5.6 Adhesives for Lamination………………………………………………………….39
1.5.6.1 Hot-Melt Adhesives………………………………………………………39
1.6 Foams for Laminates………………………………………………………………………….40
1.6.1 Flexible Polyurethane (PU) Foam……………………………………………… 41
1.6.2 Polyolefine Foams……………………………………………………………………. 41
1.6.3 Flexible PVC Foam………………………………………………………………….. 41
1.7 Radiation-Cured Coatings………………………………………………………………….. 41
1.7.1 General Features……………………………………………………………………… 41
1.7.2 Chemistry……………………………………………………………………………….. 42
1.7.2.1 Photoinitiators…………………………………………………………….. 42
1.7.2.2 Polymer Systems…………………………………………………………. 43
1.7.3 Equipment……………………………………………………………………………….44
1.7.4 Applications in Textile Coating………………………………………………….44
References………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 45

Chapter 2 Textile Substrate for Coated Fabrics…………………………………………… 47
2.1 Materials and Trends………………………………………………………………………….. 47
2.2 Textile Fibers……………………………………………………………………………………..48
2.2.1 Cotton……………………………………………………………………………………..48
2.2.2 Rayon…………………………………………………………………………………….. 51
2.2.3 Nylons……………………………………………………………………………………. 51
2.2.4 Polyester…………………………………………………………………………………. 52
2.2.5 Polypropylene Fiber…………………………………………………………………. 52
2.2.6 Aramids…………………………………………………………………………………. 52
2.3 Spinning…………………………………………………………………………………………… 53
2.3.1 Cotton Spinning System…………………………………………………………… 53
2.3.1.1 Ginning………………………………………………………………………. 53
2.3.1.2 Blow Room…………………………………………………………………. 53
2.3.1.3 Carding……………………………………………………………………….54
2.3.1.4 Lap Formation…………………………………………………………….. 55
2.3.1.5 Combing…………………………………………………………………….. 55
2.3.1.6 Drawing………………………………………………………………………56
2.3.1.7 Speed Frame and Fly Frame………………………………………….56
2.3.1.8 Ring Spinning……………………………………………………………..56
2.3.1.9 Newer Methods of Spinning…………………………………………. 57
2.3.2 Synthetic Fiber Spinning………………………………………………………….. 57
2.3.2.1 Melt Spinning……………………………………………………………… 57
2.3.2.2 Solution Spinning…………………………………………………………58
2.4 Woven Fabrics……………………………………………………………………………………58
2.4.1 Weaving………………………………………………………………………………….58
2.4.2 Fundamental Weaves………………………………………………………………..59
2.4.2.1 Plain Weave…………………………………………………………………59
2.4.2.2 Twill Weaves……………………………………………………………….60
2.4.2.3 Satin and Sateen Weaves……………………………………………….60
2.4.3 Looms……………………………………………………………………………………. 61
2.5 Knitted Fabrics………………………………………………………………………………….. 62
2.5.1 Weft Knitted Structures…………………………………………………………….63
2.5.2 Warp Knitted Structures……………………………………………………………63
2.6 Nonwoven Fabrics………………………………………………………………………………64
2.6.1 Web Formation………………………………………………………………………..64
2.6.2 Web Bonding…………………………………………………………………………..65
2.6.2.1 Entanglement of Fibers…………………………………………………65
2.6.2.2 Bonding by Adhesives…………………………………………………..65
2.7 Fabric Preparation for Coating……………………………………………………………..66
References………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 67
Bibliography……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 67

Chapter 3 Coating Methods……………………………………………………………………..69
3.1 General Features………………………………………………………………………………..69
3.1.1 Common Features of Fluid Coating Units……………………………………69
3.1.2 Post- and Premetering Methods………………………………………………….72
3.2 Knife Coating…………………………………………………………………………………….72
3.2.1 Arrangements of Knife Coating…………………………………………………73
3.2.2 Coating Knives……………………………………………………………………….. 75
3.2.3 The Role of Rolling Bank and Web Tension……………………………….. 76
3.3 Roll Coating………………………………………………………………………………………77
3.3.1 Mayer Rod Coating…………………………………………………………………..77
3.3.2 Direct-Roll Coating………………………………………………………………….. 78
3.3.3 Kiss Coating……………………………………………………………………………. 78
3.3.4 Gravure Coating………………………………………………………………………79
3.3.5 Reverse-Roll Coaters………………………………………………………………..79
3.4 Dip Coating………………………………………………………………………………………. 81
3.5 Transfer Coating…………………………………………………………………………………82
3.6 Rotary Screen Printing……………………………………………………………………….84
3.7 Calendering……………………………………………………………………………………….84
3.7.1 Precalendering Section……………………………………………………………..85
3.7.2 Calender………………………………………………………………………………….85
3.7.3 Coating and Lamination……………………………………………………………87
3.7.4 Postcalendering Section…………………………………………………………….89
3.7.5 Coating Defects………………………………………………………………………..90
3.7.6 Comparison with Other Coating Methods……………………………………90
3.7.7 Zimmer Coating………………………………………………………………………. 91
3.8 Hot-Melt Coating………………………………………………………………………………. 91
3.8.1 Extrusion Coating……………………………………………………………………. 91
3.8.2 Dry Powder Coating…………………………………………………………………93
3.9 Foam Coating…………………………………………………………………………………….94
3.10 Lamination by Adhesives…………………………………………………………………….95
3.11 Welding…………………………………………………………………………………………….96
References…………………………………………………………………………………………………..96

Chapter 4 Physical Properties of Coated Fabrics………………………………………..99
4.1 General Characteristics……………………………………………………………………….99
4.2 Tensile Strength………………………………………………………………………………….99
4.3 Elongation………………………………………………………………………………………. 101
4.4 Adhesion………………………………………………………………………………………… 101
4.5 Tear Resistance……………………………………………………………………………….. 105
4.6 Weathering Behavior………………………………………………………………………… 108
4.7 Microbiological Degradation…………………………………………………………….. 110
4.8 Yellowing……………………………………………………………………………………….. 111
References………………………………………………………………………………………………… 111 

Chapter 5 Rheology of Coating………………………………………………………………. 113
5.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………….. 113
5.2 Rheological Behavior of Fluids…………………………………………………………. 113
5.2.1 Bingham Body Behavior…………………………………………………………. 114
5.2.2 Dilatancy and Pseudoplasticity………………………………………………… 114
5.2.3 Thixotropy and Rheopexy………………………………………………………. 115
5.3 Rheology of Plastisols………………………………………………………………………. 116
5.3.1 Apparent Viscosity of Plastisols………………………………………………. 117
5.3.2 Polymer Size and Size Distribution………………………………………….. 117
5.3.3 Plasticizer and Additives…………………………………………………………. 118
5.3.4 Viscosity Change during Fusion………………………………………………. 118
5.4 Hydrodynamic Analysis of Coating……………………………………………………. 119
References………………………………………………………………………………………………… 121

Chapter 6 Waterproof Breathable Fabrics…………………………………………………. 123
6.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………….. 123
6.2 Clothing Comfort…………………………………………………………………………….. 123
6.3 Impermeable Coating………………………………………………………………………..125
6.4 Technology of Waterproof Breathable Fabrics……………………………………..125
6.4.1 Parameters Required……………………………………………………………….125
6.4.2 Designing Waterproof Breathable Fabric…………………………………..126
6.4.2.1 Diffusion of Water Vapor through a Fabric…………………… 127
6.4.2.2 Diffusion through Membranes……………………………………..128
6.4.2.3 Water Vapor Transport through Textiles………………………..128
6.4.2.4 Repellency………………………………………………………………… 130
6.4.2.5 Techniques Adopted…………………………………………………… 131
6.4.3 Applications………………………………………………………………………….. 131
6.4.3.1 Clothing Ensembles……………………………………………………. 131
6.4.3.2 Health-Care Garments……………………………………………….. 132
6.4.4 Types of Waterproof Breathable Fabrics…………………………………… 133
6.4.4.1 Closely Woven Fabrics……………………………………………….. 133
6.4.4.2 Microporous Coating and Laminates……………………………. 134
6.4.4.3 Hydrophilic Coatings and Films………………………………….. 139
6.4.5 Using Waterproof Breathable Fabric for Apparel……………………….. 142
6.4.6 Evaluation…………………………………………………………………………….. 142
References………………………………………………………………………………………………… 144 

Chapter 7 Nonapparel Coating……………………………………………………………….. 147
7.1 Synthetic Leather…………………………………………………………………………….. 147
7.1.1 Compact Coated Fabrics…………………………………………………………. 147
7.1.2 Poromerics……………………………………………………………………………. 149
7.1.2.1 Coagulation Process…………………………………………………… 150
7.1.2.2 From Prepolymers……………………………………………………… 151
7.1.2.3 Structure of Porous Films…………………………………………… 152
7.1.3 Porous Vinyls………………………………………………………………………… 152
7.1.4 PTFE Laminate…………………………………………………………………….. 153
7.2 Architectural Textiles……………………………………………………………………….. 153
7.2.1 Materials………………………………………………………………………………. 154
7.2.2 Structures……………………………………………………………………………… 155
7.2.2.1 Air-Supported Structures and Shelters…………………………. 156
7.2.2.2 Flexible Barrier Storage System…………………………………… 157
7.2.2.3 Tension Structures……………………………………………………… 158
7.2.3 Awnings and Canopies…………………………………………………………… 159
7.3 Fluid Containers………………………………………………………………………………. 159
7.3.1 Inflatables……………………………………………………………………………… 159
7.3.2 Liquid Containers………………………………………………………………….. 162
7.4 Tarpaulins………………………………………………………………………………………. 162
7.5 Automotive Applications………………………………………………………………….. 164
7.5.1 Air Bag Fabrics……………………………………………………………………… 164
7.5.2 Textile Foam Laminates for Automotive Interiors……………………… 166
7.5.2.1 Flame Lamination……………………………………………………… 167
7.5.2.2 Dry Adhesives…………………………………………………………… 167
7.5.3 Headliner Structure………………………………………………………………… 168
7.6 Carpet Backing……………………………………………………………………………….. 169
7.7 Flocking…………………………………………………………………………………………. 170
7.8 Fusible Interlining……………………………………………………………………………. 171
References………………………………………………………………………………………………… 172

Chapter 8 Coating with Functional Materials…………………………………………. 175
8.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………….. 175
8.2 Microencapsulation………………………………………………………………………….. 175
8.3 Thermochromic Fabrics……………………………………………………………………. 176
8.4 Temperature-Adaptable Fabrics…………………………………………………………. 178
8.5 Fragrance Release Fabric………………………………………………………………….. 180
8.6 Fabrics for Chemical Protection………………………………………………………… 181
8.6.1 Types of Chemical Exposure Risks………………………………………….. 182
8.6.2 Materials for Impermeable CPC………………………………………………. 183
8.6.2.1 Civil Applications………………………………………………………. 184
8.6.2.2 Military Applications…………………………………………………. 184
8.6.3 Materials for Permeable CPCs…………………………………………………. 185
8.6.3.1 Carbon-Impregnated Polyurethane Foam……………………… 186
8.6.3.2 Carbon-Impregnated Cotton Flannel and Nonwoven
Fabric……………………………………………………………………….. 186
8.6.3.3 Bonded Spherical Carbon Adsorbents………………………….. 186
8.6.3.4 Active Carbon Fabrics (Charcoal Cloth)……………………….. 187
8.6.4 Recent Trends……………………………………………………………………….. 187
8.7 Camouflage Nets……………………………………………………………………………… 188
8.7.1 Visual and Near-IR Nets…………………………………………………………. 188
8.7.2 Radar Camouflage Net……………………………………………………………. 190
8.7.3 Snow Camouflage………………………………………………………………….. 190
8.7.4 Thermal Camouflage (Infrared Reflecting Coverings)………………… 191
8.8 High-Visibility Garments………………………………………………………………….. 191
8.9 Intumescent Coating………………………………………………………………………… 191
8.10 Metal and Conducting Polymer-Coated Fabrics…………………………………… 193
8.10.1 Methods of Metal Coating………………………………………………………. 194
8.10.2 Uses of Metal-Coated Fabrics………………………………………………….. 197
8.10.2.1 Protective Clothing……………………………………………………. 197
8.10.2.2 Radar-Responsive Fabrics…………………………………………… 198
8.10.2.3 Static Electricity Control…………………………………………….. 198
8.10.2.4 Electromagnetic Interference Shielding………………………… 198
8.10.3 Conducting Polymer Coatings………………………………………………….200
References…………………………………………………………………………………………………200

Chapter 9 Coating Smart Polymers and Nanomaterials…………………………….203
9.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………..203
9.2 Smart Polymer Coating and Laminates……………………………………………….203
9.2.1 Based on Hydrogel………………………………………………………………….203
9.2.2 Shape Memory Polyurethane (SMPU)………………………………………205
9.3 Nanotechnology in Textiles………………………………………………………………..207
References…………………………………………………………………………………………………209

Chapter 10 Test Methods…………………………………………………………………………. 211
10.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………….. 211
10.2 Coating Mass per Unit Area (BS 3424, IS 7016 pt. 1)…………………………… 211
10.3 Degree of Fusion of Curing of Coating (BS 3424, ASTM D 4005-81)……. 212
10.4 Blocking (BS 3424, IS 7016 pt. 9)………………………………………………………. 212
10.5 Coating Adhesion (BS 3424, ASTM D-751, IS 7016 pt. 5)……………………. 212
10.6 Accelerated Aging (BS 3424, IS 7016 pt. 8 Based on ISO /R 1419-
1970)………………………………………………………………………………………………. 213
10.7 Flexibility—Flat Loop Method (IS 7016 pt. 11 Based on ISO 5979-
1982)………………………………………………………………………………………………. 214
10.8 Stiffness of Fabric—Cantilever Test (IS 649)………………………………………. 214
10.9 Damage Due to Flexing (BS3424, IS 7016 pt. 4, ASTM D 2097)………….. 216
10.10 Abrasion Resistance (ASTM D-3389, BS 3424)…………………………………… 216
10.11 Test for Colorfastness to Dry and Wet Rubbing (BS 3424, IS 1259)……….. 217
10.12 Low-Temperature Bend Test (ASTM D 2136, IS 7016 pt. 10, Based on
ISO 4675-90)…………………………………………………………………………………… 218
10.13 Low-Temperature Impact Test (BS 3424, ASTM D-2137, IS 7016 pt.14)…. 219
10.14 Cone Test (IS 7941)…………………………………………………………………………..220
10.15 Water Repellency—Spray Rating (IS 390, AATCC 22-1996)…………………220
10.16 Resistance to Water Penetration (ASTM D-751, BS 3424, IS 7016, pt.
7)…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 221
10.17 Flame Resistance of Fabric (IS 11871, BS 3119)………………………………….. 221
10.18 Air Permeability (BS 3424)……………………………………………………………….222
10.19 Water Vapor Permeability (ASTM E-96-80)………………………………………..223
10.19.1 Desiccant Method………………………………………………………………..223
10.19.2 Water Method……………………………………………………………………..223
10.20 Resistance to Permeation by Hazardous Liquid Chemicals (ASTM
F 739-96)…………………………………………………………………………………………224
10.21 Resistance to Penetration or Permeation of Chemical Warfare Agents……224
10.21.1 Testing for Protection of Permeable Clothing against Mustard
Gas Vapor…………………………………………………………………………..225
10.21.2 Testing for Protection of Clothing against Laid Down
Mustard Gas Drops………………………………………………………………225
10.22 Resistance to Penetration by Bloodborne Pathogens
(ASTM F 1671-97 b)…………………………………………………………………………225
10.23 Electrical Resistivity of Fabrics (AATCC 76-1995)………………………………226
References………………………………………………………………………………………………..226
Appendix 1……………………………………………………………………………………………….227
Appendix 2……………………………………………………………………………………………….229

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