Industrial Applications of Natural Fibres: Structure, Properties and Technical Applications Edited by Jürg Müssig

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Industrial Applications of Natural Fibres: Structure, Properties and Technical Applications
Edited by Jürg Müssig
Industrial Applications of Natural Fibres

Contents
Series Preface xi
Preface xiii
Foreword xv
List of Contributors xvii
List of Illustrators xxiii

PART I BACKGROUND
1 Historic Usage and Preservation of Cultural Heritage 3
Fenella G. France
2 What Are Natural Fibres? 11
2.1 Chemistry of Plant Fibres 13
Danny E. Akin
2.2 Natural Fibres – Function in Nature 23
Michaela Eder and Ingo Burgert
2.3 Types of Fibre 41
J¨org M¨ussig and Tanja Slootmaker
3 Economic Aspects 49
3.1 Grades and Standards 51
Axel Drieling and J¨org M¨ussig
3.2 Technical Applications of Natural Fibres: An Overview 63
Nina Graupner and J¨org M¨ussig
3.3 Natural Fibres in Technical Applications: Market and Trends 73
Stephan Piotrowski and Michael Carus

PART II VEGETABLE FIBRES
4 Flax – Structure, Chemistry, Retting and Processing 89
Danny E. Akin
5 Hemp – Cultivation, Extraction and Processing 109
Stefano Amaducci and Hans-J¨org Gusovius
6 Jute – A Versatile Natural Fibre. Cultivation, Extraction and Processing 135
Md. Siddiqur Rahman
7 Abac´a – Cultivation, Extraction and Processing 163
Friedhelm G¨oltenboth and Werner M¨uhlbauer
8 Sisal – Cultivation, Processing and Products 181
Rajesh D. Anandjiwala and Maya John
9 Coir – Coconut Cultivation, Extraction and Processing of Coir 197
Chitrangani Jayasekara and Nalinie Amarasinghe
10 Cotton Production and Processing 219
Muhammed Rafiq Chaudhry

PART III ANIMAL FIBRES
11 Mulberry Silk, Spider Dragline and Recombinant Silks 237
Anja Gliˇsovi´c and Fritz Vollrath
12 Wool – Structure, Mechanical Properties and Technical Products based on Animal
Fibres 255
Crisan Popescu and Franz-Josef Wortmann
PART IV TESTING AND QUALITY MANAGEMENT
13 Testing Methods for Measuring Physical and Mechanical Fibre Properties (Plant and
Animal Fibres) 269
J¨org M¨ussig, Holger Fischer, Nina Graupner and Axel Drieling
14 SEM Catalogue for Animal and Plant Fibres 311
Tanja Slootmaker and J¨org M¨ussig
15 Combined (In Situ) Methods 337
Ingo Burgert and Michaela Eder
16 DNA-Analytical Identification of Species and Genetic Modifications in Natural Fibres 345
Lothar Kruse
17 Cotton/Worldwide Harmonisation 353
Axel Drieling and Jean-Paul Gourlot
18 Flax – ASTM Standardisation and Harmonisation 371
Danny E. Akin
PART V APPLICATIONS: CURRENT AND POTENTIAL
19 Composites 383
19.1 Historical, Contemporary and Future Applications 385
Tuomas H¨anninen and Mark Hughes
19.2 Design, Material Properties and Databases 397
Erwin Baur and Frank Otremba
19.3 Natural Fibre Composite Processing: A Technical Overview 407
Tim Huber, Nina Graupner and J¨org M¨ussig
19.4 Natural Fibre-Reinforced Polymers in Automotive Interior Applications 423
Eugen Pr¨omper
19.5 Composites Based on Natural Resources 437
Martien van den Oever and Harri¨ette Bos
19.6 Cellulose Nanocomposites 459
Sanchita Bandyopadhyay-Ghosh, Subrata Bandhu Ghosh and Mohini Sain
20 Insulation Materials Based on Natural Fibres 481
Franz Neubauer
21 Natural Fibres in Geotextiles for Soil Protection and Erosion Control 509
Gero Leson, Michael V. Harding, and Klaus Dippon
Index 523

Preface
What makes natural fibres so fascinating? Representatives of different professional disciplines, like biologists, chemists, agrononomical scientists, process engineers or preservation scientists, would certainly each answer this question quite differently, according to their own scientific interest and research. As a material scientist, I would like to describe my own perception and at the same time outline the leading thoughts of this book. Material discoveries and material developments have in the history of mankind led to great progress in innovation, with far-reaching consequences for technology, economy and culture. The periodical division of prehistory and early history of mankind is mainly determined by the materials used in these periods (Stone Age, Bronze Age and Iron Age). Although the utilisation of natural fibres is verifiable in early archaeological cultures, it has not resulted in the naming of an epoch. There is no ‘natural fibre age’, although in history the usage of natural fibre has been quite varied and has repeatedly generated culturally significant innovations. Clothing textiles as well as technical textiles (e.g. nets) or composite materials (e.g. natural fibre compounded clay) are examples of such innovations. In this book these historical aspects of natural fibre usage are combined with possible future products.

In our progressively globalised world with unforeseeable demographic, economic and ecological challenges, management of resources and sustainability are increasingly becoming the focus of debate and discussion. The utilisation of materials is a key factor, and natural fibres in particular, being a natural resource, provide opportunities for technical innovation and sustainability.

The use of natural fibres, e.g. in technical applications, needs to be in line with the three essential pillars of sustainability – economy, ecology and society. To ensure that this remains so now and in the future, the worldwide raw material turnaround and its effects on the selection of materials must be critically examined on the basis of sustainability criteria.

The main argument against the industrial use of natural fibres is often that the quality of the fibres depends on the year in which they were grown. It is nevertheless possible to obtain fibres of consistent quality, as well as reliable data, enhancing the predictability of the properties of natural fibre products by using a quality management system that starts for plant fibres at the cultivation stage and that is based on reproducible proof of origin and harvesting parameters. This book will combine the different steps of processing, from agriculture, fibre separation and fibre processing to the manufacture of the final product. Each step will be linked to the fibre properties, the possibilities to characterise them, and how the different natural fibres will influence the product properties.

In order to understand why and how a natural fibre influences a product property, their chemical as well as structural qualities are thoroughly described. The fundamental understanding of the hierarchy and construction of natural fibre structures allow for a specific and selective design of natural fibre products. However, natural fibres and their function in biological systems also offer an exceedingly interesting model for the development of biomimetic and bio-inspired materials. Here, also, a fundamental understanding of the functions enhances the transfer from biological system to technological appliance.

The subject of natural fibres is an interdisciplinary field of research and, among others, touches the fields of cultivation, biochemistry, agricultural science, biology, material science and engineering. The aim and objective of writing this book was to provide a substantiated overview of the status of current research on the subject of natural fibres and technical natural fibre usage, including the perspectives of other disciplines. I would like to thank the authors, who have shown great interest in this interdisciplinary book project. As a combination of different areas of research may cause problems of understanding, there has been great emphasis on using consistent terminology. This will enhance understanding across the borders of scientific fields. In this context, I would again like to thank the authors, who worked very cooperatively in this project. A special focus was to present the graphic elements in this book consistently and appealingly. Using mainly handwritten graphics and diagrams, we have attempted a new way of illustration in this book. My special thanks to Tanja Slootmaker and Anja M¨ussig for their creative work.

I would like to thank the staff at John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, especially Richard Davies, Sarah Hall and Jenny Cossham, for supporting the book project through to the end.

I would also like to thank my family and friends for their patience and the time they have given me for the conception and writing of this book.

I hope while reading this book you will experience some of the fascination of ‘natural fibres’ that I have been experiencing for years now, being engaged in this highly interesting area of research.


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