Analysis of Woven Fabrics by A.F. Barker and E. Midgley

By

Analysis of Woven Fabrics
By A.F. Barker and E. Midgley

Analysis of Woven Fabrics

Contents

CHAPTER I.
QUALITIES OF RAW MATERIAL~.
Animal Fibres-Vegetable Fibres-Re-manufactured Fibres-Wool-Varieties of Wool-General Classification of Wools Employed in the Worsted Trade-Mohair-Alpaca-Camel’s Hair-Cashmere- Vicuna and LlamaBradfo”d Wool Quality Numbers-Range of Bradford Tops, Details of Qualities-Noils-Qualities of Noils-Shoddy-Mungo-Flocks-Extract
-Cotton-Grades of Cotton-Mercerized Cotton-Ramie, Rhea, Chinagrass-
Silk-Artificial Silk. Pages 1-18
CHAPTER II.
THE QUALITIES OF YARNS.
Influences which Determine Quality-Nature of the Raw Material-Method
of Preparing and Spinning-Folding of Yarns-Special Treatments-Wool
Yarns-Worsteds-Classification of Worsted Yarns-Counts of Worsted
Yarns-Woollen Yarn-Cotton Yarns-Silk Yarns-Net Silk-Spun SilkUnion
Yarns-Angola-Union Twist-Coloured Yarns-Mixlures-Melange
-Marls-Twists-Special Yarns-Matching Coloured Yarns and FabricsInfluence
of Twine of Yarn on Woven Fabrics-Right and Left Twist
Effects (Shadow Stripes) Pages 19-36
CHAPTER III.
C.U.CULATIONS RELATING TO YARNS.
Counting of Yarns-Various Systems of Counting Yarns-Testing a Given Count-Scales and V’eights-Method of Obtaining Counts of Yarn from a Small Sample of Cloth-Gauge Points-Estimating the Counts-Chmging the Denomination-The Counts of Two-fold Yarns-Cost of Two and Many
Fold Yarns-Twillt of Yarns Pages 37-54
CHAPTER IV.
l’.LCl’L.TION:; RELATIN(; TO TH~: ‘r~:I(;H’l'” OF CLOTH,..
Ordinary Varp and Veft Ca’culations-Complicated Calculations-Coloured
Wa.rp-Cloth with Two or more Counts-Backed and Double Cloth.-Crammed
Stripes-Other Necessary Calculations-Weight~ of FabricsChanging
the Weights of Cloths Pages 55.71
CHAPTER V
SETT~ .ND SETTIN(; OF CLOTH~.
Methods of Indicating the Sett-Setting of Cloths-Influences to Con~ider-Diameters
of Yarns-The Weave-ClassificatIOn of “” eave-Cloth~ “V oven
on the Square-To Decide the” Set” or Distance Apart of the “”·arp
Threads-Weft-rib Cloths-Warp-rib Cloths-Difficulties in Applying the
Foregoing Principles-Changes in Counts and Sett~ Pages 72-~3
CHAPTER VI.
WE-WE ANALY~IS.
Two Methods – General Considerations – Instruments Required-Means of
Distinguishing Warp from Weft-Method of Dissecting for WeaveRepetition
of Weaves-Figure Analysis-The Counttng of Threads and
Picks – Classification of Woven Structures – Single Cloths – Ordinary
Structures-Rib Structures-Warp Ribs-Weft Ribs-Backed ClothsDouble
Cloths-The Tying of Backed and Double Cloths Pages 84.111
CHAPTER VII.
DRAFTS AND PEGGING PLANS.
Method of Drafting-Pegging Plan-Calculation for Mails per Shafts in Plain
and Fancy Drafts-Fancy Drafts-Casting-out-Crammed Stripes
Pages II2-121
CHAPTER VIII.
EFFECTS OF DYEING AND FINISHING ON WOOL CLOTHS.
General Conditions-Finishing all Wool Cloths-Vicuna Coating-Routine of
Finishing Processes-Variation of an” All Wool” Fabric after tne Various
Finishing Operations: Dyed Indigo Blue, Vicuna Finish-Clear Finished
Coating-Variation of an ” All Wool” Fabric after the Various Finishing
Operations: Dyed Indigo Blue, Clear Finieh-Dyeing and Finishing a
Worsted Coating-Variation of a Worsted Coating after the Various Finishing Operations: Dyed Black, Clear Fimsh-Grey and Finished
Cloths-Loss in Weight (Worsteds)-Loss of Weight Incurred during
Finishing” Woollens “-Contraction and 8hrinkage of Yarns-Comparison
of Dimensions of Grey and Finished Cloths-Variation in the Dimensions
of Worsted Cloths-z/2 Twills-Covert Fabric-Effects of Shrinkage”
Veight per Yard-Counts of Warp and Weft-Threads and Picks per Inch
Pages 122-I42
CHAPTER IX_
EFFECTS OF Ih-EING AND FINI>’HING ON 1.:NION DRE..,’; FABRICS,
LINING, AND COTTON CLOTHS_
(jeneral Conditions-Finishing a Plain Lustre Dress Fabric-Alteration of
Structure-Crabbing Union Cloths-Contraction in ‘Width and Elongation
in Length-Classification of Union Dress Fabrics-Variation of a Crossdyed
Lustre Cloth after the various Finishing Operations-Variation of a
Bleached Lustre Cloth after the various Finishing Operations-Standardization
of Dimensions-Variation of the Dimensions in Union Cloths
(Cotton Warp and Lustre Weft) submitted to a “Bright” Finish-Variation
in Threads and Picks per Inch-Loss in Weight-Italian LiningsVariation
of a Lining Cloth after the various Finishing Processes-Lengths
of Italian Lining Cloths-Loss in Weight incurred during DyelOg and
Finishing Cotton Yarns and Fabrics • Pages 143-I58
CHAPTER X.
OBTAINING THE LOOM PARTICULARS FROM A SMALL SAMPLE
OF FINISHED CLOTH.
Cutting the Pattern a Suitable Size-Weight per Yard-Loss in WeightAscertaining
the Contraction of Warp and Weft-Measuring Contraction of
Wool Yarns-Counts of Warp and Weft-Threads and Picks per InchWidth
in Loom-Selection of Reed-The Length of Warp-Length of
Grey Cloth-Length of Finished Cloth-Grey and Finished Weights Compared-
Edges or Lists Pages I59-180
CHAPTER Xl.
EXAMPLES IN THE ANALYSIS OF ””OVEN FABRICS.
Worsted Costume Cloth-Figured Mohair, Lustre Dress Fabric-Extra Warp
Striped Cotton-Striped Moirette-Cotton and Artificial Silk Dress Fabric
-Corduroy Woollen-Double Cloth Woollen-Weft Cut Pile Corduroy
Woollen-Colour and Weave Worsted Costume Cloth Pages 181-213
CHAPTER XII.
QUICK :IETHOD”, OF /nLLYSIS, ST.ND_-RD WEIGHTS .HIll GAUGES.
Contraction Table-Standard Weight~-Ounces per Yard and Grammes per
Square :/etre-To obtain the Counts of Yarn-Basis of Calculation for
Standard Weights-Ounces per Yard-Counts of Yarn-Yarn Gauge-Basis
of Calculation for Yarn Gauge~Analysis by Comparison-ConditionsComparison
of .. Known” and .. Unknown” Cloths-Examples-Analysis
of Standard Cloths without Resort to Calculations-Method of Analysis
Pages 2I4-230
CHAPTER XIII.
QC_l.IT.T1VK _l’ll ()U_XTIT_TJVE .X_LYSIS OF FII1RES 1:-.1 ‘Yon~l
F.BRICS.
::’Ildhod of Determining the Nature and Quality of Fibres in Voven FabricsGeneral
Observations- Burning Tests- Microscopical ExaminationChemical
Reaction on Textile Fibres-Distinguishing Tests for Flax and
Jute-Loading Worsteds and Woollens-Influences of Loading ori Wool
Fabrics-Standard Regains of Moisture-Loading and Filling of Cotton
Goods-Removing Size or Dressing from Cotton Cloths-Loading and
Filling in Silk Fabrics-Determination of Adulteration and FillingPhysical
Examination – Determination of Moistllre – Determination of
Extraneous Substances-Ether Test for Insolubles-N et Fatty Matters
by the Ether Process-To ascertain the amount of Cotton and Wool in
~/ ixed or Union Cloths-To ascertain the amount of Silk and Cotton in
l”fixed or Union Cloths-Separation of Silk and Wool-Removing Rubber
from Ruhbered Waterproof Cloth-Fastness of Colour-Nitric Acid Test
lor Indigo-Tests for Indigo Dye-Test for Mercerized Cotton
Pages 23I-244
CHAPTER XIV.
TH~; COSTING OF \’OVEN FABRICS.
Organization of the Worsted and Woollen Trades-Conditions of and Costing
in the Bradford Textile Trade-Cost of Materials (Yarns)-To Estimate
the Price of Yarns Spun from a Botany Top-To Estimate the Price of
Yarns Spun from Crossbred, Lustre, and Mohair Tops-Cost of Woollen
Yarns-Preparation for the Loom-vVinding-Warping-Sizing or Slashing-
Warp Dressing-Price List for Warp Dressing-Twisting-in, Looming,
and Sleying-Price List for T:-“isting-in, Looming, and SleyingCost
of Weaving-Standard Wagel.ist for Weavers-Perching, Picking,
Burling, and Mending-Cost of Burling and Mending Worsted Coatings
-Cost of Burling and Mending Dress Fabrics-u Other Expenses”General
Expenses-Working Expenses-Depreciation-Rates, Insurance~
Fuel, Lighting, ‘Vater, Carriage of Yarn and Cloth-Interest on Capital -Price Paid in Bradford for Room and Power-” Otht:r Expt:ns~~” involved
in the Manufacture of Worsted Coatings-” Other Expenses”
involved in the Manufacture of Dress Goods-Dyeing and Finishing
Woven Fabrics – Price List for Dyeing and Finishing Dress Goods-·
Price List for Dyeing and Finishing Voollens and ‘Worsteds-Price List
for Dyeing and Finishing 1I0reens and Venetians (Cotton~)-Example
in Costing a Mixture Won,ted Coating-Example in Costing a MohaIr
Lustre Cloth Pages 245 269
CHAPTER XV.
DEFINITIONS.
GLOSSARY OF T~:RlfS ApPLIED TO l’ROlll:CflO;’; 0[- VOn:N
FABRIC:;.
Pages 270-316
INDEX Pages 317-322

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