Principles of Fabric Formation by Prabir Kumar Banerjee

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Principles of Fabric Formation
By Prabir Kumar Banerjee
Principles of Fabric Formation

Contents
Preface.................................................................................................................... xiii
Acknowledgments.................................................................................................xv
Author................................................................................................................... xvii
1. Textile Fabrics: An Overview........................................................................1
2. A Brief Outline of Various Fabric Formation Systems............................9
2.1 Weaving System.....................................................................................9
2.2 Knitting System.................................................................................... 11
2.3 Braiding System.................................................................................... 14
2.4 Netting and Lacing Systems.............................................................. 15
2.5 Nonwoven Systems.............................................................................. 17
3. Yarn Winding................................................................................................. 21
3.1 Objectives.............................................................................................. 21
3.2 Package Build.......................................................................................22
3.3 Unwinding Behavior...........................................................................25
3.4 Precision and Random Winding.......................................................27
3.5 Features of a Modern Surface-Driven Cone-Winding Machine....... 35
3.5.1 Tensioner.................................................................................. 37
3.5.2 Yarn Splicer.............................................................................. 37
3.5.2.1 Ends-Opposed Pneumatic Splicing......................38
3.5.2.2 Ends-Together Pneumatic Splicing.......................38
3.5.2.3 Principles of Pneumatic Splicing.......................... 39
3.5.2.4 Non-Pneumatic Splicers.........................................40
3.5.3 Yarn Clearers........................................................................... 41
3.5.4 Yarn Waxing............................................................................42
3.5.5 Drum Winding........................................................................43
3.5.5.1 Drum Drive..............................................................43
3.5.5.2 Effects of Drum Groove Geometry.......................43
3.5.5.3 Package Cradle........................................................45
3.5.6 Peripheral Features.................................................................46
4. Warping...........................................................................................................47
4.1 Objectives..............................................................................................47
4.2 Warping Systems.................................................................................47
4.3 Elements of Warping Systems............................................................49
4.3.1 Creel..........................................................................................50
4.3.2 Leasing System........................................................................ 51
4.3.3 Expandable Reed and Length-Measuring System............. 52
4.3.4 Drum for Winding Sections..................................................53
4.3.5 Beaming Systems....................................................................58
Further Reading.............................................................................................. 59
5. Yarn Sizing...................................................................................................... 61
5.1 Objectives.............................................................................................. 61
5.2 Importance of Sizing........................................................................... 61
5.3 Sizing Material..................................................................................... 62
5.3.1 Desirable Nature of Bonds between Adhesives and
Fiber Material..........................................................................63
5.3.1.1 van der Waals Forces..............................................63
5.3.1.2 Dipole–Dipole Interactions....................................63
5.3.1.3 Hydrogen Bonds......................................................63
5.3.2 Starch as a Suitable Material for Sizing Cotton..................64
5.3.2.1 Boiling of Starch......................................................65
5.3.2.2 Acid Treatment (Thin Boiling Starch)..................65
5.3.2.3 Alkali Treatment.....................................................66
5.3.2.4 Oxidation of Starch.................................................66
5.3.2.5 Typical Behavior of Starch as Aqueous
Suspension...............................................................66
5.3.3 Sizing of Synthetic Fibers...................................................... 67
5.3.4 Hot Melt Adhesives................................................................68
5.4 Sizing Machine.....................................................................................68
5.4.1 Creel..........................................................................................68
5.4.2 Size Box.................................................................................... 69
5.4.3 Drying Zone............................................................................72
5.4.4 Splitting Zone.......................................................................... 74
5.4.5 Beaming Zone.........................................................................75
5.4.6 Controls on a Modern Sizing Machine................................ 76
5.4.6.1 Stretch Control......................................................... 76
5.4.6.2 Tension Control....................................................... 76
5.4.6.3 Moisture Control..................................................... 76
5.4.6.4 Pressure Control...................................................... 76
5.4.6.5 Temperature Control..............................................77
5.4.6.6 Level Control............................................................77
5.5 Special Sizing Systems........................................................................77
5.5.1 Dye Sizing................................................................................77
5.5.2 Single-End Sizing.................................................................... 78
5.5.3 Hot Melt Sizing....................................................................... 78
5.5.4 Solvent Sizing..........................................................................80
5.5.5 Cold Sizing............................................................................... 81
5.5.6 Features of New Sizing Methods.........................................82
Reference..........................................................................................................82
Further Reading..............................................................................................82
6. Basic Weaves and the Process of Drawing In..........................................83
6.1 Basic Concepts......................................................................................83
6.2 Identification of Warp and Weft........................................................84
6.3 Introduction to the Basic Weaves.......................................................84
6.4 Repeat and Shift...................................................................................88
6.5 Drafting and Lifting............................................................................92
6.6 Methods of Generating Weaves.........................................................95
6.7 Transformation Methods of Fabric Weave Design..........................96
6.8 Process of Drawing In.........................................................................99
References...................................................................................................... 100
Further Reading............................................................................................ 100
Appendix....................................................................................................... 100
7. Primary and Secondary Motions of a Weaving Loom......................... 103
7.1 Basic Machine Elements.................................................................... 103
7.2 Principles of Shedding...................................................................... 111
7.2.1 Shedding Tappet................................................................... 112
7.2.2 Shed Geometry...................................................................... 113
7.2.2.1 Shed Angle............................................................. 113
7.2.2.2 Cyclic Variation in Yarn Strain............................ 114
7.2.2.3 Shed Envelope........................................................ 114
7.2.2.4 Asymmetric Shed................................................... 115
7.2.2.5 Staggered Shed...................................................... 116
7.2.2.6 Geometry of Warp Line....................................... 117
7.2.2.7 Types of Shed......................................................... 118
7.3 Principle of Shuttle Picking.............................................................. 120
7.3.1 Mechanism............................................................................ 120
7.3.2 Kinematics of a Picking System.......................................... 123
7.4 Beating Up........................................................................................... 126
7.4.1 Reed........................................................................................ 127
7.4.2 Mechanics of the Beating-Up Process................................ 128
7.4.2.1 Development of Crimp and Widthwise
Contraction of Fabric............................................ 128
7.4.2.2 Stabilizing Fabric Width at the Reed.................. 130
7.4.2.3 Cloth Fell Displacement during Beating Up.........131
7.5 Principles of Take Up......................................................................... 132
7.6 Principles of Let Off........................................................................... 135
7.6.1 Negative Let-Off Motion...................................................... 135
7.6.2 Positive Let-Off Motion........................................................ 137
7.6.2.1 Variation in Warp Tension................................... 138
References...................................................................................................... 143
Further Reading............................................................................................ 143
8. Developments in Shedding Motions....................................................... 145
8.1 Limitations of Shedding Tappet...................................................... 145
8.2 Functional Principles of Dobby....................................................... 147
8.2.1 Principle of Programming................................................... 147
8.2.2 Driving System...................................................................... 150
8.2.3 Limitations of Dobby............................................................ 156
8.3 Functional Principles of Jacquard.................................................... 157
8.3.1 Selection System.................................................................... 157
8.3.2 Limitations of Mechanical Jacquard.................................. 162
8.4 New Generation (Electronic) Jacquards.......................................... 162
8.5 New Concepts of Jacquard Shedding............................................. 164
8.6 Next-Generation Shedding Systems................................................ 164
References...................................................................................................... 165
Further Reading............................................................................................ 165
9. Developments in Weft Insertion Systems.............................................. 167
9.1 Drawbacks of a Conventional System............................................. 167
9.2 Basic Principle of the Unconventional System............................... 169
9.3 Functional Principles of Shuttleless Weft Insertion Systems...... 171
9.3.1 Partially Guided Solid Carrier............................................ 171
9.3.2 Fully Guided Solid Carrier.................................................. 180
9.3.3 Basic Concepts of Fluid Carrier.......................................... 187
9.3.4 Guided Fluid Carrier............................................................ 190
9.3.5 Completely Unguided Fluid Carrier.................................. 199
References...................................................................................................... 202
Further Readings.......................................................................................... 202
Appendix.......................................................................................................203
10. Features of Modern Shuttleless Weaving Systems............................... 207
10.1 Machine Drive and Power Consumption....................................... 207
10.2 Drive to Sley........................................................................................209
10.3 Fabric Selvedge................................................................................... 211
10.4 Productivity and Fabric Quality...................................................... 213
10.5 Application of Electronics................................................................. 215
10.6 Application of Composite Materials................................................ 217
10.7 QSC and Automation in Drawing In.............................................. 217
10.8 Preparatory Process........................................................................... 219
10.8.1 Modern Cone Winder........................................................... 219
10.8.2 Modern Warper..................................................................... 221
10.8.3 Modernization in Sizing......................................................222
10.9 Noise Generation................................................................................222
10.10 Techno-Economics............................................................................. 224
11. Nonconventional Weaving Systems........................................................229
11.1 Multiphase Weaving..........................................................................229
11.1.1 Circular Weaving.................................................................. 231
11.1.2 Ripple Shed Weaving........................................................... 237
11.1.3 Wave Shed Weaving............................................................. 239
11.2 Narrow Fabric Weaving.................................................................... 242
References...................................................................................................... 248
12. Formation of Weft-Knitted Fabrics.......................................................... 249
12.1 Introduction........................................................................................ 249
12.2 Basic Concepts....................................................................................250
12.3 Process of Loop Formation...............................................................254
12.4 Basic Weft Knits................................................................................. 257
12.4.1 Plain or Single Jersey............................................................ 257
12.4.1.1 Derivatives of Single Jersey................................. 257
12.4.2 Instability and Asymmetry of Plain Loop........................260
12.4.2.1 Curling of Fabric Edges........................................260
12.4.2.2 Spirality of Wale Line........................................... 262
12.4.2.3 Stabilization of Knitted Structure....................... 268
12.4.3 Rib Knit..................................................................................268
12.4.4 Purl Knit................................................................................. 270
12.4.5 Interlock Knit......................................................................... 272
12.5 Conventions for Representation of Weft-Knitted Stitches........... 273
12.6 Systems of the Basic Weft-Knitting Machines............................... 274
12.6.1 Needles and Beds................................................................. 274
12.6.2 Sinkers....................................................................................280
12.6.3 Knitting Cams....................................................................... 281
12.7 Sequence of Loop Formation............................................................283
12.7.1 Single Bed...............................................................................283
12.7.1.1 Loop Formation on Single Flat Bed....................283
12.7.1.2 Loop Formation on Single Circular Bed............284
12.7.2 Double Bed............................................................................. 287
12.7.2.1 Rib Gating.............................................................. 287
12.7.2.2 Interlock Gating..................................................... 289
12.7.2.3 Purl Gating.............................................................290
12.8 Guidelines on Control of the Knitting Process..............................290
12.8.1 Relationship between Machine Gauge and Yarn Count....290
12.8.2 Control of Loop Length....................................................... 291
12.8.3 Productivity of Knitting Machines.................................... 293
12.9 Relationship between Geometry and Properties of a Loop........ 295
12.9.1 Importance of Loop Length and Loop Shape................... 295
12.9.2 Geometry of Weft-Knitted Loop......................................... 296
12.9.3 Some Useful Expressions..................................................... 298
12.9.3.1 Fabric Areal Density............................................. 298
12.9.3.2 Fabric Width...........................................................299
12.9.3.3 Fabric Length.........................................................299
12.9.3.4 Tightness Factor of Fabric (TF)............................299
References......................................................................................................300
Further Readings..........................................................................................300
Appendix....................................................................................................... 301
13. Formation of Warp-Knitted Fabrics.........................................................305
13.1 Warp-Knitting Machines..................................................................305
13.1.1 Broad Classification..............................................................305
13.1.2 Tricot Machine.......................................................................305
13.1.3 Raschel Machine...................................................................309
13.2 Basic Warp Knits................................................................................ 312
13.2.1 Convention for Representation of Stitches........................ 312
13.2.2 Single Bar Knits..................................................................... 315
13.2.2.1 Pillar Stitch............................................................. 315
13.2.2.2 1 and 1 or Tricot Lap............................................. 316
13.2.2.3 2 × 1 Stitch.............................................................. 317
13.2.2.4 3 × 1 and 4 × 1 Stitches......................................... 318
13.2.2.5 Atlas Stitch............................................................. 319
13.2.3 Multi-Bar Warp Knit Constructions.................................. 322
13.3 Sequence of Loop Formation............................................................ 328
13.3.1 Compound Needle on Tricot Machine.............................. 328
13.3.2 Latch Needle on Single-Bed Raschel................................. 329
13.3.3 Latch Needle on Double-Bed Raschel................................330
13.3.3.1 Special Features of Machine and Product.........330
13.3.3.2 Special Features of Lapping Diagrams and
Lapping Plans........................................................333
13.4 Shogging Motion of Guide Bars.......................................................335
13.4.1 Pattern Disk...........................................................................335
13.4.2 Pattern Chain.........................................................................336
13.4.3 Electronic Shogging..............................................................338
13.5 Some Important Warp Knits............................................................338
13.5.1 Single-Bed Knits.................................................................... 339
13.5.1.1 Nets......................................................................... 339
13.5.1.2 Inlaid Structures....................................................340
13.5.1.3 Weft-Inserted Structures......................................342
13.5.1.4 Loop or Pile Structure..........................................343
13.5.2 Double-Bed Spacer and Cut Plush Fabrics........................344
13.6 Comparison of Warp-Knitting Process Vis-a-Vis Other
Yarn-
to-Fabric Conversion Processes..............................................344
Further Readings..........................................................................................346
14. Formation of Braids.....................................................................................347
14.1 Introduction........................................................................................347
14.2 Geometry of Tubular Braids.............................................................347
14.3 Elements of a Tubular Braiding Machine.......................................354
14.4 Differences between Flat and Tubular Braid................................. 367
14.5 Limitations of Braiding Systems...................................................... 370
References...................................................................................................... 370
15. Formation of Nonwoven Fabrics.............................................................. 373
15.1 Introduction........................................................................................ 373
15.2 Classification....................................................................................... 375
15.3 Fibers in Nonwoven Fabrics............................................................. 376
15.4 Web Formation from Fibers.............................................................. 377
15.4.1 Dry Method........................................................................... 377
15.4.1.1 Carding Process..................................................... 377
15.4.1.2 Laying of a Carded Web....................................... 378
15.4.1.3 Aerodynamic Process...........................................383
15.4.2 Wet Method...........................................................................383
15.5 Web Formation from Polymer Chips..............................................386
15.5.1 Web Formation by Spunlaid Route.................................... 387
15.5.2 Web Formation by Meltblowing......................................... 389
15.5.3 Web Formation by Flashspinning and Electrospinning.... 391
15.6 Reinforcement of Web....................................................................... 395
15.6.1 Mechanical Method.............................................................. 395
15.6.1.1 Needle Punching................................................... 396
15.6.1.2 Hydro-Entanglement............................................404
15.6.1.3 Stitch Bonding.......................................................408
15.6.2 Thermal Bonding..................................................................409
15.6.3 Adhesive Bonding................................................................ 415
15.6.3.1 Physics and Chemistry of Adhesive Binders.... 415
15.6.3.2 Method of Application of Binders to
Nonwovens............................................................ 419
References...................................................................................................... 421
Further Readings..........................................................................................423
16. Formation of Triaxial and Multiaxial 2-D and 3-D Fabrics................425
16.1 Introduction........................................................................................425
16.2 Triaxial Fabric.....................................................................................426
16.2.1 Woven Triaxial Fabric...........................................................426
16.2.1.1 Warp Guidance System........................................429
16.2.1.2 Beating Up System................................................429
16.2.2 Braided Triaxial Fabric.........................................................430
16.2.3 Comparison of Woven and Braided Triaxial Fabrics.......430
16.3 Multiaxial Fabrics............................................................................... 431
16.3.1 Quartaxial Weaving............................................................. 431
16.3.2 Multiaxial Warp Knitting.................................................... 432
16.4 Three-Dimensional Fabrics..............................................................436
16.4.1 Three-Dimensional Knitted Products...............................436
16.4.2 Three-Dimensional Braided Products............................... 437
16.4.3 Three-Dimensional Woven Products.................................448
16.4.3.1 Formation of Three-Dimensional Flat
Woven Products.....................................................448
16.4.3.2 Formation of Three-Dimensional
Cylindrical Woven Products................................ 461
16.5 Key Technological Concerns for 3-D Fabric-Formation
Systems................................................................................................464
References...................................................................................................... 467
Further Reading............................................................................................468

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