Process Management in Spinning by R. Senthil Kumar

7:02 AM
Process Management in Spinning
by R. Senthil Kumar
Process Management in Spinning

Contents
Foreword..................................................................................................... xxi
Preface..........................................................................................................xxiii
Author................................................................................................................ xxv
1. Process Control in Mixing........................................................................1
1.1 Significance of Process Control in Mixing.................................................................1
1.2 Fiber Quality Index........................................................................................................3
1.3 Essential Properties of Fiber.........................................................................................3
1.3.1 Fiber Length......................................................................................................5
1.3.2 Fiber Strength and Elongation........................................................................6
1.3.3 Fiber Fineness and Maturity...........................................................................7
1.3.4 Trash................................................................................................................. 10
1.3.5 Color.................................................................................................................. 10
1.3.6 Neps.................................................................................................................. 11
1.4 Properties of Cotton: Global Scenario....................................................................... 11
1.5 Process Sequence: Short Staple Spinning................................................................. 12
1.6 Bale Packing and Dimensions.................................................................................... 13
1.7 Bale Management......................................................................................................... 15
1.7.1 Selection of Cottons for Mixing.................................................................... 16
1.7.2 Points to Follow for Effective Bale Management....................................... 17
1.8 Bale Lay Down Planning............................................................................................ 17
1.8.1 Procedure for Bale Lay Down Planning...................................................... 18
1.9 Linear Programming Technique for Cotton Mixing.............................................. 19
1.9.1 Formulation of LPT Model............................................................................ 19
1.9.2 LPT in the Optimization of Cotton Mixing................................................20
1.10 Cotton Property Evaluation Using HVI and AFIS.................................................. 21
1.10.1 High Volume Instruments............................................................................. 21
1.10.1.1 Modules of HVI...............................................................................22
1.10.2 Advanced Fiber Information System...........................................................23
1.11 Cotton Stickiness..........................................................................................................23
1.11.1 Effect of Stickiness on Various Processes.................................................... 24
1.11.1.1 Ginning............................................................................................... 24
1.11.1.2 Spinning........................................................................................... 24
1.11.1.3 Effect of Stickiness on Weaving....................................................25
1.11.2 Stickiness Detection and Measurement......................................................25
1.12 Contamination and Its Impact...................................................................................26
1.12.1 Effects of Contamination...............................................................................26
1.12.2 Measures to Reduce Contamination............................................................26
1.12.3 Contamination Cleaning Methods...............................................................27
1.12.3.1 Hand Picking Method....................................................................27
1.12.3.2 Blow Room Equipped with Contamination Detection
and Ejecting Units...........................................................................27
1.13 Soft Waste Addition in Mixing..................................................................................29
References.............................................................................................................30
2. Process Control in Blow Room........................................................................................... 31
2.1 Significance of Blow Room Process........................................................................... 31
2.2 Intensity of Fiber Opening......................................................................................... 32
2.3 Cleaning Efficiency......................................................................................................34
2.3.1 Classification of Cleaning Efficiency...........................................................35
2.3.2 Determination of Cleaning Efficiency.........................................................36
2.3.3 Points Considered for Attaining Better Cleaning Efficiency...................36
2.4 Neps in Blow Room..................................................................................................... 37
2.5 Lint Loss........................................................................................................................ 39
2.6 Blending Homogeneity............................................................................................... 41
2.7 Fiber Rupture and Its Measurement.........................................................................43
2.8 Microdust......................................................................................................................44
2.8.1 Classification of Dust.....................................................................................45
2.8.2 Problems Associated with Microdust..........................................................45
2.8.3 Microdust Extraction......................................................................................45
2.9 Lap Uniformity.............................................................................................................47
2.10 Technological Developments in Blow Room Machinery.......................................48
2.10.1 Automatic Bale Openers................................................................................48
2.10.2 Openers and Cleaners....................................................................................49
2.10.3 Blenders or Mixers.......................................................................................... 51
2.10.4 Contamination Sorting..................................................................................53
2.11 Chute Feed System and Its Control Mechanism.....................................................54
2.12 Process Parameters in Blow Room............................................................................54
2.13 Defects Associated with the Blow Room Process...................................................56
2.13.1 Lap Licking......................................................................................................56
2.13.2 Conical Lap......................................................................................................56
2.13.3 Soft Lap............................................................................................................. 57
2.13.4 Curly Cotton.................................................................................................... 57
2.13.5 Nep Formation in Blow Room...................................................................... 57
2.13.6 High Lap C.V% or Tuft Size Variation......................................................... 57
2.13.7 Other Defects...................................................................................................58
2.14 Work Practices in Blow Room....................................................................................58
2.15 General Considerations in Blow Room Process......................................................58
References.......................................................................................................... 59
3. Process Control in Carding................................................................................................. 61
3.1 Significance of the Carding Process.......................................................................... 61
3.2 Neps in Carding........................................................................................................... 62
3.2.1 Nep Monitoring and Control........................................................................63
3.3 Influence of Licker-In Zone on the Carding Process..............................................64
3.3.1 Feeding.............................................................................................................64
3.3.2 Licker-In: Opening and Cleaning................................................................66
3.3.3 Quality of Blow Room Lap (in Lap Feeding System)................................68
3.4 Influence of the Carding Zone on the Carding Process.........................................68
3.4.1 Cylinder............................................................................................................68
3.4.2 Flats................................................................................................................... 69
3.4.3 Precarding and Postcarding Segments........................................................ 70
3.5 Doffer Zone...................................................................................................................71
3.5.1 Fiber Transfer Efficiency................................................................................72
3.6 Sliver Formation...........................................................................................................72
3.7 Wire Geometry in Licker-In, Cylinder, Flats, and Doffer......................................72
3.7.1 Point Density...................................................................................................73
3.7.2 Wire Point Profile............................................................................................ 74
3.7.3 Wire Angle....................................................................................................... 74
3.7.4 Tooth Depth..................................................................................................... 74
3.7.5 Basic Maintenance of Card Wire..................................................................75
3.7.5.1 Grinding...........................................................................................75
3.7.5.2 Stripping...........................................................................................75
3.7.5.3 Stationary Flats................................................................................75
3.8 Autoleveler in Carding................................................................................................ 76
3.8.1 Benefits Associated with Autoleveler.......................................................... 76
3.9 Process Parameters in Carding..................................................................................77
3.10 Defects Associated with the Carding Process......................................................... 78
3.10.1 Patchy Web....................................................................................................... 78
3.10.2 Singles...............................................................................................................79
3.10.3 Sagging Web....................................................................................................79
3.10.4 Higher Card Waste.........................................................................................79
3.10.5 Low Nep Removal Efficiency........................................................................80
3.10.6 Higher Unevenness of Sliver.........................................................................80
3.10.7 Higher Sliver Breaks.......................................................................................80
3.11 Ambient Conditions.................................................................................................... 81
3.12 Cleaning Efficiency and Lint Loss%......................................................................... 81
3.13 Control of Waste...........................................................................................................83
3.13.1 Control of Nonusable Waste..........................................................................83
3.13.2 Control of Soft Waste......................................................................................83
3.13.3 Automatic Waste Evacuation System...........................................................84
3.14 Productivity and Quality for Different End Uses...................................................84
3.14.1 Points for Effective Control of Quality in the Carding Process...............85
3.15 Technological Developments in Carding.................................................................85
3.15.1 Developments in Rieter Card: C70R.............................................................85
3.15.2 Developments in Trutzschler TC11R............................................................86
3.15.3 Developments in Marzoli C701R...................................................................86
References.....................................................................................................86
4. Process Control in Drawing................................................................................................89
4.1 Significance of the Drawing Process.........................................................................89
4.2 Fundamentals of Drafting System.............................................................................90
4.3 Fiber Control in Roller Drafting................................................................................ 91
4.4 Doubling........................................................................................................................92
4.5 Influence of Draw Frame Machine Elements on Process.......................................94
4.5.1 Creel..................................................................................................................94
4.5.2 Drafting Zone..................................................................................................95
4.5.2.1 Bottom Drafting Rollers.................................................................96
4.5.2.2 Top Rollers........................................................................................96
4.5.2.3 Top Roller Weighing System..........................................................97
4.5.3 Web Condenser...............................................................................................98
4.5.4 Coiler Trumpet................................................................................................98
4.6 Roller Setting................................................................................................................98
4.7 Top Roller Maintenance..............................................................................................99
4.7.1 Measurement of Shore Hardness.................................................................99
4.7.2 Berkolization of Top Roller.......................................................................... 100
4.7.3 Testing of Top Roller Concentricity and Surface Roughness................. 101
4.8 Draw Frame: Speeds and Draft Distribution......................................................... 102
4.9 Count C.V% and Irregularity U%............................................................................ 103
4.9.1 Causes and Control of U% in Draw Frame............................................... 104
4.9.2 Autoleveler..................................................................................................... 104
4.10 Defects Associated with Draw Frame Process...................................................... 105
4.10.1 Roller Lapping............................................................................................... 105
4.10.2 Sliver Chocking in Trumpet........................................................................ 106
4.10.3 Creel Breakage............................................................................................... 106
4.10.4 More Sliver Breakages.................................................................................. 106
4.10.5 Improper Sliver Hank.................................................................................. 106
4.10.6 Singles............................................................................................................. 106
4.11 Process Parameters in Draw Frame........................................................................ 107
4.12 Work Practices............................................................................................................ 109
4.13 Technological Developments in Draw Frame........................................................ 110
4.13.1 Rieter Draw Frame........................................................................................ 110
4.13.2 Trutzschler Draw Frame.............................................................................. 110
References.......................................................................................................... 111
5. Process Control in Comber and Its Preparatory............................................................ 113
5.1 Significance of Combing Process............................................................................. 113
5.2 Lap Preparation.......................................................................................................... 114
5.2.1 Lap Preparation Methods............................................................................ 114
5.2.2 Precomber Draft............................................................................................ 115
5.2.3 Degree of Doubling...................................................................................... 116
5.3 Factors Influencing the Combing Process.............................................................. 116
5.3.1 Fiber Properties............................................................................................. 116
5.3.2 Lap Preparation............................................................................................. 116
5.3.3 Machine Factors............................................................................................ 117
5.4 Setting Points in Comber Machine.......................................................................... 118
5.4.1 Feed Setting................................................................................................... 118
5.4.1.1 Type of Feed................................................................................... 118
5.4.1.2 Amount of Feed per Nip.............................................................. 119
5.4.2 Detachment Setting...................................................................................... 119
5.4.3 Point Density and Wire Angle of Comb.................................................... 120
5.4.4 Top Comb Parameters (Depth of Penetration
and Needle Density)........................................................................... 120
5.4.5 Timing............................................................................................................ 121
5.4.6 Nips per Minute (Comber Speed)............................................................... 121
5.4.7 Piecing............................................................................................................122
5.5 Draft.............................................................................................................................122
5.6 Noil Removal..............................................................................................................122
5.6.1 Combing Efficiency...................................................................................... 123
5.6.2 Degrees of Combing..................................................................................... 123
5.7 Nep Removal in Combing........................................................................................ 124
5.8 Hook Straightening in Comber................................................................................ 124
5.9 Sliver Uniformity....................................................................................................... 125
5.10 Control of Feed Lap Variation.................................................................................. 126
5.11 Defects and Remedies............................................................................................... 126
5.11.1 Inadequate Removal of Short Fibers and Neps........................................ 126
5.11.2 Short-Term Unevenness............................................................................... 127
5.11.3 Hank Variations............................................................................................ 127
5.11.4 Higher Sliver Breaks at Coiler..................................................................... 127
5.11.5 Coiler Choking.............................................................................................. 127
5.11.6 Web Breakages at Drafting Zone................................................................ 128
5.11.7 Breakages in Comber Heads....................................................................... 128
5.11.8 Excessive Lap Licking and Splitting.......................................................... 129
5.12 Technological Developments in Comber and Its Preparatory............................ 129
5.12.1 RieterR Comber and Lap Former................................................................ 129
5.12.2 TrutzschlerR Comber.................................................................................... 130
5.12.3 MarzoliR Comber.......................................................................................... 131
5.12.4 ToyotaR Comber............................................................................................ 131
5.13 Work Practices............................................................................................................ 131
References........................................................................................... 132
6. Process Control in Speed Frame....................................................................................... 133
6.1 Significance of Speed Frame..................................................................................... 133
6.2 Tasks of Speed Frame................................................................................................ 134
6.3 Importance of Machine Components in Speed Frame......................................... 135
6.3.1 Creel Zone...................................................................................................... 135
6.3.2 Drafting System............................................................................................ 136
6.3.2.1 Bottom Rollers............................................................................... 136
6.3.2.2 Top Rollers...................................................................................... 138
6.3.2.3 Aprons, Cradle, Condensers, and Spacer................................... 138
6.3.2.4 Top Arm Loading.......................................................................... 141
6.3.3 Flyer and Spindle.......................................................................................... 142
6.4 Draft Distribution...................................................................................................... 143
6.5 Twist............................................................................................................................. 145
6.6 Bobbin Formation...................................................................................................... 147
6.6.1 Taper Formation............................................................................................ 148
6.7 Quality Control of Roving........................................................................................ 148
6.7.1 Ratching......................................................................................................... 148
6.7.1.1 Procedure to Determine Ratching% in Roving........................ 149
6.7.2 Roving Strength............................................................................................ 149
6.7.3 Count C.V%.................................................................................................... 149
6.7.4 Unevenness.................................................................................................... 149
6.8 Defects in Roving....................................................................................................... 150
6.8.1 Higher U% of Rove....................................................................................... 150
6.8.2 Higher Roving Breakages............................................................................ 150
6.8.3 Soft Bobbins................................................................................................... 150
6.8.4 Lashing-In...................................................................................................... 151
6.8.5 Hard Bobbins................................................................................................. 151
6.8.6 Oozed-Out Bobbins...................................................................................... 151
6.8.7 High Roving Count C.V%............................................................................ 152
6.8.8 Roller Lapping............................................................................................... 152
6.8.9 Slubs................................................................................................................ 153
6.9 Technological Developments in Speed Frame....................................................... 153
References................................................................................................ 155
7. Process Control in Ring Spinning................................................................................... 157
7.1 Significance of Ring Spinning Process................................................................... 157
7.1.1 Ring Spinning Machine............................................................................... 157
7.2 Influence of Ring Spinning Machine Components on Spinning Process......... 158
7.2.1 Creel................................................................................................................ 158
7.2.2 Roving Guide................................................................................................. 160
7.2.3 Drafting Elements......................................................................................... 160
7.2.3.1 Bottom Rollers............................................................................... 161
7.2.3.2 Top Roller Cots.............................................................................. 162
7.2.3.3 Top Arm Loading.......................................................................... 164
7.2.3.4 Spacer–Apron Spacing.................................................................. 165
7.2.4 Lappet............................................................................................................. 166
7.2.5 Balloon Control Ring.................................................................................... 166
7.2.6 Ring and Traveler.......................................................................................... 167
7.2.6.1 Load on Ring and Traveler.......................................................... 168
7.2.6.2 Shape of the Traveler..................................................................... 169
7.2.6.3 Traveler Friction............................................................................. 169
7.2.6.4 Traveler Mass................................................................................. 170
7.2.6.5 Traveler Speed and Yarn Count.................................................. 171
7.2.6.6 Traveler and Spinning Tension................................................... 172
7.2.6.7 Traveler Clearer............................................................................. 172
7.2.6.8 Prerequisites for Smooth and Stable Running
of Traveler on Ring........................................................................ 173
7.2.6.9 Traveler and Spinning Geometry............................................... 173
7.2.6.10 Traveler Fly..................................................................................... 176
7.2.6.11 Impact of Ring and Traveler on Yarn Quality........................... 176
7.2.7 Roller Setting................................................................................................. 177
7.2.7.1 Top Roller Overhang..................................................................... 178
7.2.7.2 Spinning Geometry...................................................................... 179
7.2.8 Spindle and Its Drive.................................................................................... 180
7.2.8.1 Spindle Speed................................................................................ 182
7.2.8.2 Ring Spinning Empties or Tubes................................................ 182
7.3 End Breakage Rate..................................................................................................... 183
7.3.1 Occurrence of End Breakage....................................................................... 183
7.3.2 Conditions in the Spinning Triangle......................................................... 184
7.3.2.1 Forces in the Yarn during the Spinning Process...................... 184
7.3.3 Causes of Yarn Breaks.................................................................................. 185
7.3.3.1 Breakage during Doffing.............................................................. 186
7.3.3.2 Breaks during Spinning Process................................................. 186
7.3.4 Effects of End Breakage............................................................................... 186
7.3.5 Influence of Various Parameters on End Breakage
Rate in Spinning..................................................................................... 187
7.3.5.1 Yarn Count..................................................................................... 187
7.3.5.2 Traveler Wear................................................................................. 188
7.3.5.3 Defective Feed Bobbin.................................................................. 188
7.3.5.4 Operator Assignment................................................................... 188
7.3.6 Control of End Breakage in Ring Frame.................................................... 189
7.3.7 End Breakage and Economics..................................................................... 190
7.4 Draft Distribution...................................................................................................... 191
7.5 Twist............................................................................................................................. 192
7.6 Nonconformities in the Ring Spinning Process.................................................... 194
7.6.1 Hard Twisted Yarn....................................................................................... 194
7.6.2 Unevenness.................................................................................................... 194
7.6.3 Soft Twisted Yarn.......................................................................................... 194
7.6.4 Hairiness........................................................................................................ 194
7.6.5 Undrafted Ends............................................................................................. 194
7.6.6 Higher Thick and Thin Places.................................................................... 194
7.6.7 Idle Spindles.................................................................................................. 196
7.6.8 Slub.................................................................................................................. 196
7.6.9 Neps................................................................................................................ 196
7.6.10 Snarl................................................................................................................ 196
7.6.11 Crackers.......................................................................................................... 198
7.6.12 Bad Piecing.................................................................................................... 198
7.6.13 Kitty Yarn....................................................................................................... 198
7.6.14 Foreign Matters............................................................................................. 199
7.6.15 Spun-In Fly.................................................................................................... 199
7.6.16 Corkscrew Yarn............................................................................................. 199
7.6.17 Oil-Stained Yarn............................................................................................200
7.6.18 Slough-Off......................................................................................................200
7.6.19 Low Cop Content..........................................................................................200
7.6.20 Improper Cop Build..................................................................................... 201
7.6.21 Ring Cut Cops............................................................................................... 201
7.6.22 Lean Cops......................................................................................................203
7.7 Package Size or Cop Content....................................................................................203
7.7.1 Coil Spacing...................................................................................................204
7.7.2 Cop Bottom or Base Building Attachment................................................205
7.8 Count C.V% and Evenness........................................................................................205
7.8.1 Drafting Waves............................................................................................. 207
7.9 Tenacity and Tenacity C.V%.....................................................................................208
7.10 Roller Lapping............................................................................................................209
7.10.1 Factors Influencing Roller Lapping............................................................209
7.10.2 Measures to Prevent Lapping Tendency...................................................209
7.11 Yarn Quality Requirements for Different Applications....................................... 210
7.11.1 Weaving.......................................................................................................... 210
7.11.2 Knitting.......................................................................................................... 210
7.12 Technological Developments in Ring Spinning.................................................... 212
7.12.1 Developments in RieterR Spinning Machines.......................................... 212
7.12.2 Developments in ToyotaR Spinning Machines......................................... 214
7.12.3 Developments in ZinserR Spinning Machines......................................... 215
7.12.4 Compact Spinning System.......................................................................... 215
References.................................................................................................. 216
8. Process Control in Winding.............................................................................................. 219
8.1 Significance of the Winding Process....................................................................... 219
8.1.1 Objectives of Winding Process................................................................... 219
8.1.2 Types of Wound Packages...........................................................................220
8.1.3 Cross-Winding Technology: Terminologies.............................................220
8.2 Demands of Cone Winding Process........................................................................220
8.2.1 Quality Requirements of Ring Bobbins for Winding Operation........... 221
8.2.2 Bobbin Rejection in Automatic Winding Machine..................................222
8.2.3 Acceptable Deterioration in Quality from Ring Bobbin to Cone...........223
8.3 Factors Influencing Process Efficiency of Automatic Winding Machine..........223
8.4 Winding Speed........................................................................................................... 224
8.4.1 Slough-Off in High-Speed Unwinding..................................................... 224
8.5 Yarn Tension...............................................................................................................225
8.5.1 Tension Control in Unwinding Zone.........................................................226
8.5.2 Tension Control in Winding Zone..............................................................226
8.6 Package Density of Cone...........................................................................................227
8.7 Yarn Clearing..............................................................................................................229
8.7.1 Yarn Faults.....................................................................................................229
8.7.2 Yarn Clearers.................................................................................................230
8.7.3 Yarn Clearer Setting in Automatic Winding Machine............................ 231
8.8 Waxing......................................................................................................................... 231
8.8.1 Factors Influencing Correct Waxing.......................................................... 232
8.9 Knotting and Splicing............................................................................................... 232
8.9.1 Factors Influencing Quality of Knot..........................................................234
8.9.2 Quality Assessment of Yarn Splicing........................................................234
8.9.3 Factors Influencing Properties of Spliced Yarn........................................235
8.10 Package Defects in Winding.....................................................................................235
8.10.1 Missing Tail End...........................................................................................235
8.10.2 Cut Cone.........................................................................................................236
8.10.3 Yarn Entanglement.......................................................................................236
8.10.4 Hard Waste/Bunch.......................................................................................236
8.10.5 Stitch/Jali Formation....................................................................................236
8.10.6 Patterning/Ribbon Formation.................................................................... 237
8.10.7 Sloughing Off................................................................................................ 237
8.10.8 Wrinkle/Cauliflower-Shaped Cone........................................................... 237
8.10.9 Hard/Soft Cones...........................................................................................238
8.10.10 Double End....................................................................................................238
8.10.11 Missing End/Cob Web.................................................................................238
8.10.12 Drum Lap.......................................................................................................238
8.10.13 Ring in Cone.................................................................................................. 239
8.10.14 Oily/Greasy Stains on Cone........................................................................ 239
8.11 Determination of Shade Variation in Yarn Package............................................. 239
8.12 Control of Hard Waste.............................................................................................. 240
8.12.1 Practices to Be Adopted to Control Hard Waste...................................... 240
8.13 Wrong Work Practices in the Winding Department............................................. 240
8.13.1 Poor Work Practices in Manual Winding Process................................... 240
8.13.2 Poor Work Practices in Automatic Winding Process............................... 244
8.14 Yarn Conditioning..................................................................................................... 246
8.14.1 Benefits of Yarn Conditioning..................................................................... 247
8.15 Technological Developments in Winding Machine.............................................. 247
8.15.1 Antiribboning or Ribbon Breaker Mechanism........................................ 248
8.15.2 Hairiness Reduction..................................................................................... 248
8.15.3 Tension Control............................................................................................. 248
References.............................................................................................................................. 249
9. Process Control in Rotor Spinning.................................................................................. 251
9.1 Significance of Rotor Spinning................................................................................ 251
9.1.1 Tasks of Rotor Spinning Machine..............................................................253
9.2 Raw Material Selection..............................................................................................253
9.2.1 Fiber Strength................................................................................................254
9.2.2 Fiber Fineness................................................................................................254
9.2.3 Fiber Length..................................................................................................254
9.2.4 Cotton Cleanliness........................................................................................254
9.2.5 Fiber Friction.................................................................................................255
9.3 Sliver Preparation.......................................................................................................255
9.4 Influence of Machine Components on Rotor Spinning Process.........................256
9.4.1 Opening Roller..............................................................................................256
9.4.1.1 Opening Roller: Wire Profile....................................................... 257
9.4.1.2 Opening Roller: Speed..................................................................258
9.4.2 Rotor................................................................................................................258
9.4.2.1 Rotor Diameter.............................................................................. 259
9.4.2.2 Rotor Groove..................................................................................260
9.4.2.3 Rotor Speed.................................................................................... 261
9.4.2.4 Slide Wall Angle............................................................................263
9.4.3 Navel or Withdrawal Tube or Draw-Off Nozzle......................................264
9.4.4 Winding Zone...............................................................................................265
9.4.4.1 Tension Control............................................................................. 266
9.4.4.2 Cradle Pressure............................................................................. 266
9.4.4.3 Stop Motion....................................................................................266
9.4.4.4 Ribbon Breaker..............................................................................266
9.5 Draft............................................................................................................................. 267
9.6 Twist............................................................................................................................. 267
9.7 Doubling Effect.......................................................................................................... 269
9.8 Winding Angle........................................................................................................... 270
9.9 Waxing......................................................................................................................... 271
9.10 End Breakage in Rotor Spinning............................................................................. 271
9.11 Relative Humidity in Rotor Spinning Process....................................................... 273
9.12 Defects Associated with Rotor Spinning Process................................................. 274
9.12.1 Neppy and Uneven Yarn............................................................................. 274
9.12.2 Stitches............................................................................................................ 274
References.............................................................................................................................. 274
10. Energy Management in the Spinning Mill....................................................................277
10.1 Significance of Energy Management in the Spinning Mill.................................277
10.2 Manufacturing Cost of Yarn in Spinning Mill......................................................277
10.3 Energy Distribution in Ring Spinning Process..................................................... 278
10.4 Calculation of Energy Consumption of Ring Frame Machines.......................... 279
10.5 Energy Management Programs............................................................................... 279
10.6 Energy Conservation in the Spinning Mill............................................................ 281
10.6.1 Spinning Preparatory Process.................................................................... 281
10.6.1.1 High-Speed Carding Machine.................................................... 281
10.6.1.2 Installation of Electronic Roving End-Break Stop-Motion
Detectors Instead of Pneumatic Systems................................... 281
10.6.1.3 Ring Frame..................................................................................... 281
10.6.2 Energy Conservation in Postspinning Process........................................285
10.6.2.1 Intermittent Modes of the Movement of Empty Bobbin
Conveyors in Autoconer/Cone Winding Machines.................285
10.6.2.2 Two for One (TFO) Twister..........................................................285
10.6.2.3 Yarn Conditioning Process..........................................................285
10.6.3 Energy Conservation in Humidification System.....................................285
10.6.3.1 Replacement of Aluminum Fan Impellers with
High-Efficiency FRP Fan Impellers in Humidification
Plants and Cooling Tower Fans...................................................285
10.6.3.2 Installation of Variable Frequency Drive on
Humidification System Fan Motors for Flow Control.............286
10.6.3.3 Other Areas in Humidification System..................................... 287
10.6.4 Overhead Traveling Cleaners...................................................................... 287
10.6.4.1 Attachment of Control Systems in OHTC................................. 287
10.6.4.2 Provision of Energy-Efficient Fan Instead of Blower Fan
in OHTC.........................................................................................288
10.6.5 Electrical Distribution Network.................................................................288
10.6.5.1 Cable Losses...................................................................................288
10.6.5.2 Power Factor...................................................................................288
10.7 Lighting.......................................................................................................................288
10.7.1 Replacement of T-12 Tubes with T-8 Tubes................................................ 289
10.7.2 Replace Magnetic Ballasts with Electronic Ballasts.................................290
10.7.3 Optimization of Lighting (Lux) in Production
and Nonproduction Areas...........................................................................290
10.7.4 Optimum Use of Natural Sunlight............................................................290
10.8 Compressed Air System............................................................................................290
10.9 Energy Demand Control........................................................................................... 291
10.9.1 Calculating the Load Factor........................................................................ 291
10.10 Motor Management Plan.......................................................................................... 292
10.10.1 Motor Maintenance...................................................................................... 292
10.10.2 Energy-Efficient Motors............................................................................... 293
10.10.3 Rewinding of Motors................................................................................... 293
10.10.4 Motor Burnouts............................................................................................. 294
10.10.5 Power Factor Correction.............................................................................. 294
10.10.6 Minimizing Voltage Unbalances................................................................ 294
References.............................................................................................................................. 294
11. Humidification and Ventilation Management.............................................................. 297
11.1 Importance of Maintaining Humidity in Spinning Process............................... 297
11.1.1 Humidification: Terms................................................................................. 298
11.2 Humidity and Working Conditions........................................................................ 298
11.3 Humidity and Yarn Properties................................................................................299
11.4 Humidity and Static Electricity...............................................................................300
11.5 Humidity and Hygiene............................................................................................. 301
11.6 Humidity and Human Comfort..............................................................................302
11.7 Humidity and Electronic Components...................................................................302
11.8 Humidity and Dust Control.....................................................................................303
11.9 Moisture Management in Ginning..........................................................................303
11.10 Humidification Management in Spinning Mill.....................................................304
11.10.1 Air Washer.....................................................................................................304
11.10.2 Determination of Department Heat Load.................................................304
11.10.2.1 Solar Heat Gain through Insulated Roof...................................305
11.10.2.2 Heat Dissipation from the Machines..........................................306
11.10.2.3 Heat of Air......................................................................................306
11.10.2.4 Heat Load from Lighting.............................................................307
11.10.2.5 Occupancy Heat Load..................................................................307
11.10.3 Determination of Supply Air Quantity.....................................................307
11.10.4 Water Quality................................................................................................308
11.10.5 Types of Humidifiers....................................................................................309
11.10.5.1 Steam Humidification...................................................................309
11.10.5.2 Atomizing Humidifiers................................................................309
11.10.5.3 Air Washer Humidifiers...............................................................309
11.11 Conventional Humidification System.....................................................................309
11.11.1 Merits..............................................................................................................309
11.11.2 Demerits.........................................................................................................309
11.12 Modern Humidification System.............................................................................. 310
11.12.1 Merits.............................................................................................................. 310
11.12.2 Demerits......................................................................................................... 310
References.............................................................................................................................. 310
12. Pollution Management in Spinning Mill....................................................................... 313
12.1 Significance of Pollution in Spinning Mill............................................................. 313
12.1.1 Types of Pollutant in the Spinning Process.............................................. 313
12.2 Cotton Dust................................................................................................................. 313
12.2.1 Classification of Cotton Dust...................................................................... 314
12.2.2 Types of Dust................................................................................................. 314
12.2.3 Generation of the Cotton Dust during Manufacturing........................... 315
12.2.4 Health Hazards Associated with Cotton Dust Exposure....................... 315
12.2.4.1 Byssinosis....................................................................................... 315
12.2.5 Permissible Exposure Limits for Cotton Dust
for Different Work Areas............................................................................. 316
12.2.6 Medical Monitoring...................................................................................... 316
12.2.7 Environmental Exposure Monitoring....................................................... 317
12.2.8 Vertical Elutriator.......................................................................................... 317
12.2.9 Dust Control Measures................................................................................ 318
12.2.10 Preventive Measures to Be Followed during Manufacturing Process..... 318
12.2.10.1 General Practices.......................................................................... 318
12.2.10.2 Work Practices during Material Handling and Cleaning...... 318
12.3 Pollution in Cotton Cultivation and Processing.................................................... 319
12.3.1 Impact of Chemical Used in Cotton Cultivation...................................... 319
12.3.2 Cotton Usage................................................................................................. 320
12.3.3 Organic Cotton.............................................................................................. 320
12.3.4 Necessity to Shift to Organic Production.................................................. 321
12.3.5 Comparison of Conventional Cotton and Organic Cotton
Production..................................................................................................... 321
12.3.6 Limitations of Organic Cotton Production............................................... 322
12.4 Significance of Noise Pollution................................................................................ 322
12.4.1 Noise: Terminologies.................................................................................... 323
12.4.2 Ambient Air Quality Standards in Terms of Noise................................. 323
12.4.3 Perceived Change in Decibel Level............................................................ 323
12.4.4 Noise in the Textile Industry....................................................................... 323
12.4.5 Method of Noise Evaluation........................................................................ 324
12.4.6 Effect of Noise Pollution.............................................................................. 325
12.4.7 Suggestion to Eradicate Noise Pollution in Textile Industry.................. 325
12.4.8 Preventive Measures to Control Noise Pollution..................................... 326
References....................................................................................................... 326
13. Process Management Tools................................................................................... 329
13.1 Significance of Process Management...................................................................... 329
13.1.1 Process Management in Spinning Mill..................................................... 329
13.2 Process Management Tools......................................................................................330
13.2.1 5S.....................................................................................................................330
13.2.2 Application of 5S in Spinning Mill............................................................. 331
13.2.2.1 Bale Godown................................................................................ 331
13.2.2.2 Preparatory Department............................................................. 331
13.2.2.3 Spinning Department.................................................................. 331
13.2.2.4 Maintenance Department........................................................... 332
13.2.3 Advantages of 5S........................................................................................... 332
13.2.4 Implementation Program of 5S...................................................................333
13.2.5 5S Radar Chart..............................................................................................333
13.3 Total Productive Maintenance.................................................................................334
13.3.1 Conventional Maintenance System............................................................334
13.3.2 TPM: Definition.............................................................................................335
13.3.3 Objectives of TPM.........................................................................................335
13.3.4 TQM versus TPM..........................................................................................335
13.3.5 Different Modules in the Implementation of TPM
in a Spinning Mill.........................................................................................336
13.3.5.1 Preparatory Module.....................................................................336
13.3.5.2 Introduction Module...................................................................336
13.3.5.3 Implementation Module.............................................................336
13.3.6 Eight Pillars of TPM..................................................................................... 337
13.4 Lean Manufacturing Concepts................................................................................338
13.4.1 Lean Manufacturing: Definition................................................................ 339
13.4.2 Principle of Lean Manufacturing............................................................... 339
13.4.3 Goals of Lean Manufacturing..................................................................... 339
13.4.4 Lean Concepts in the Spinning Mills........................................................ 339
13.4.5 Implementation of Lean Concept............................................................... 341
13.4.6 Lean Manufacturing Tools.......................................................................... 341
13.4.7 Advantages of Lean Manufacturing..........................................................342
References...........................................................................................................342
14. Productivity, Waste Management, and Material Handling........................................343
14.1 Productivity in the Spinning Process.....................................................................343
14.1.1 Factors Influencing Productivity of a Spinning Mill...............................344
14.1.2 Productivity Measurement..........................................................................345
14.1.2.1 Production per Spindle.................................................................345
14.1.2.2 Labor Productivity........................................................................346
14.1.2.3 Operatives per 1000 Spindles (OHSAM)....................................346
14.1.3 Measures to Improve Productivity in the Spinning Mill.......................346
14.2 Yarn Realization..................................................................................346
14.2.1 Measures to Improve Yarn Realization.....................................................347
14.2.2 Waste Management in Spinning Mill........................................................348
14.2.2.1 Waste Investigation.......................................................................349
14.2.2.2 Recording of Waste.......................................................................349
14.2.2.3 Waste Reduction and Control......................................................349
14.2.3 Invisible Loss................................................................................350
14.3 Material Handling.................................................................................... 351
14.3.1 Principles of Material Handling................................................................. 352
14.3.2 Factors Governing Selection of Material Handling Equipment............ 352
14.3.3 Material Handling Equipment in Spinning Mills...................................353
14.3.3.1 Bale Godown..................................................................................353
14.3.3.2 Mixing and Blow Room Department.........................................353
14.3.3.3 Trolleys Used in Carding, Drawing, and Comber...................354
14.3.3.4 Roving Bobbin Trolley..................................................................355
14.3.3.5 Ring Bobbin Trolley......................................................................356
14.3.3.6 Winding and Packing...................................................................356
14.3.4 Automation in Roving Bobbin Transportation.........................................356
14.3.5 Automation in Ring Bobbin Transportation............................................. 357
References................................................................................................ 357
15. Case Studies.................................................................................................... 359
15.1 Mixing-Related Problems......................................................................................... 359
15.1.1 Higher Needle Breakage in Knitting......................................................... 359
15.1.2 Barre Effect in the Woven Fabric................................................................ 359
15.1.3 Poor Fabric Appearance due to Black Spots in the Knitted Fabric........360
15.1.4 Higher Sliver Breakage in Carding............................................................360
15.1.5 Higher Roller Lapping in Spinning Preparatory Process.......................360
15.1.6 Higher Polypropylene Contamination in Yarn........................................ 361
15.2 Blow Room–Related Problems................................................................. 361
15.2.1 Higher Sliver Breakages in Card Sliver..................................................... 361
15.2.2 Higher End Breakage in Rotor Groove...................................................... 362
15.2.3 Holes in the Blow Room Lap....................................................................... 362
15.2.4 High Short Thick Places in Yarn................................................................. 362
15.3 Carding-Related Problems......................................................................363
15.3.1 Higher Yarn Imperfections..........................................................................363
15.3.2 Higher Creel Breakages in Drawing..........................................................363
15.4 Draw Frame–Related Problems.....................................................363
15.4.1 Poor Fabric Appearance...............................................................................363
15.4.2 High Yarn Count C.V%................................................................................364
15.5 Comber....................................................................................................364
15.5.1 High Yarn Unevenness................................................................................364
15.6 Speed Frame....................................................................................365
15.6.1 High Level of Thin Places in the Yarn.......................................................365
15.7 Ring Frame...........................................................................................365
15.7.1 Higher Hard Waste in Winding.................................................................365
15.7.2 Shade Variation in Cone..............................................................................366
15.7.3 Higher Yarn Breakages in Weaving...........................................................366
15.7.4 Barre in Fabric...............................................................................................366
Bibliography.................................................................................................. 367

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