Textile Dyes by Mansoor Iqbal


Textile Dyes
By Mansoor Iqbal


Textile industry is the backbone of our country economy. During last few years a wide net of the professional textile institutes both in private and Government sector have been established that shows the present demand and interest of our peoples in this field. The textile books available in our country are very rare and beyond the scope of our student both from purchasing and understanding point of view. Textile dyes is the first attempt of its kind ever published in Pakistan. Dyes are coloured organic compounds, which impart colour to the fabric. Most important classes of dyes for textile application are discussed in a simple and easy style. Discussions are lead from fundamental concepts to the fastness properties evaluations of dyes. Interactions of dye molecule with different fiber polymer system have also been discussed. A chapter Banned Amines also included, which will helpful to understand the modern ecological issues of dyestuffs and textile industry. The book will be a handy and reliable source of information for textile students, teachers of textile chemistry, sales executives in dyes, dye house laboratories, dyeing department of textile mills, research workers and many others. Reference departments in the libraries will find this volume an essential addition to their offerings. Suggestions are welcome for the improvement in book in next edition. I offer my warm welcome to book lovers, please feel free to contact me to share knowledge, literature and books regarding textile.


Chapter # 1 DYES & COLOUR (1-6)
Dyes and colour
Modern theory of colour
Otto Witt theory of colour
Valence bond approach to colour
Bathochromic effect
Chapter # 2 HISTORY OF DYESTUFFS (7-21)
Chapter # 3 CLASSIFICATION OF DYES (22-46)
Classification of Dyes
Classification according to chemical structure
Nitro Dye
Azo Dyes
Aniline Yellow
Butter Yellow
Methyl Orange
Orange II
Para Red
Resorcin Yellow
Disperse Red 1
Congo Red
Diphenlymethane Dyes
Auramine O
Triphenylmethane Dyes
Malachite Green
Crystal Violet
Xanthene Dyes
Rhodamine B
Indigoid and Thioindigoid Dyes
Preparation of Indigo
Structure of Indigo
Tyrian Purple
Anthraquinoid Dyes
Structure of Alizarin
Classification according to method of application
Direct Dyes
Mordant Dyes
Vat Dyes
Ingrain Deys
Disperse Dyes
Wool Fibres
Silk Fibres
Cellulosic Fibres
Monoazso Dyes
Dyes with Mixed Chromophores
Cellulose Acetate Fibres
Cellulose Triacetate Fibres
Poyamide Fibres
Polyester Fibres
Polypropylene Fibres
Polyurethane Fibres
Polyacrylonitrile Fibres
How do dyes stick to fibres?
Chapter # 5 REACTIVE DYES (63-86)
Nucleophilic substitution systems
Vinylsulphone dyes
Evidence for chemical combination
Commercial popular reactive dyes
Cold Dyeing Brands
Hot dyeing brands
Bifunctional Dyes (Sumitomo Chemicals Japan)
Reactive dyes in pakistan
Sumitomo chemicals (Osaka, Japan)
Kyung-in synthetic corporation
Reaffix dyestuffs Korea
P.T.Sinar (Indonesia)
Meghmani dyes & intermediates India
Jay chemicals India
Dyestar (Germany)
Sunfix Chemdyes Corporation
Everzol dyes (Taiwan)
Clarient dyes Switzerland
Chapter # 6 DIRECT DYES (87-91)
Direct dyes
Chemical constitution of direct dyes
Classification according to dyeing behavior
Class A
Class B
Class C
Chapter # 7 DISPERSE DYES (92-100)
Azo Dyes
Anthraquinone Disperse Dyes
Miscellaneous Disperse Dyes
Methine or Styryl Dyes
Quinphthalone dyes
Coumarin Dyes
Chapter # 8 VAT DYES (101-109)
Indigoid Dyes
Thioindigoid Dyes
Anthraquinone Vat Dyes
Chapter # 9 SULPHUR DYES (110-116)
Sulphurised Vat Dyes
Ready-reduced and Solubilised Sulphur Dyes
Recent Developments
Examples of Important Commercial Sulphur Dyes
Chapter # 10 ACID (ANIONIC) DYES (117-123)
Acid or anionic dyes
Acid dyes can be divided into four groups
Dyeing Process
Dyeing of Nylon Carpets
Application of Acid Dyes to Silk
Dyeing of Modified Acrylic and Polypropylene
Chapter # 11 BASIC (CATIONIC) DYES(124-126)
Basic or cationic dyes
Dyeing of Acrylic Fibres
Chapter # 12 BANNED AMINES (127-142)
What are banned amines?
What is Eco-Labeling of Textiles?
Name the agencies, which have accredited Textiles Committee Laboratories?
what are the advantages of testing of textiles in an accredited laboratory?
State the list of dyes banned by Government?
Ecomark criteria for textiles
Product specific requirement
Jute and jute products
Silk and silk products
Pesticide registered for use on cotton
Coupled Amines released from Azo-dyes
Chapter # 13 FASTNESS PROPERTIES OF DYES (143-166)
Colour fastness
Acids and Alkalies
Evaluation and Classification
Colourfastness to Bleaching with Chlorine
Evaluation and Classification
Colourfastness to Bleaching with Peroxide
Carbonizing (AATCC 11-1975)
Crocking (AATCC 8-1974/116-1974)
Degumming (AATCC 7-1975)
Dry cleaning (AATCC 132-1976)
Fulling (AATCC 2-1975)
Dry Heat (Excluding hot Pressing)
Hot Pressing (AATCC 133-1976)
Light fastness
Lightfastness (General Method) (AATCC 16-1974)
Lightfastness-Carbon Arc (AATCC –16-A-1974)
Sunlight-Fastness (AATCC 16B-1974)
Daylight Fastness (AATCC 16C-1974)
Lightfastness Carbon Arc Alternate Light Darkness (16D-1974)
Lightfastness-Xenon Lamp-Continuous Light
Lightfastness-Xenon Lamp-Alternate Light-Darkness (AATCC 16F-1974)
Carbon-Arc Lamp (Fade-Ometer)
Exposure Cabinet
Black-Panel Thermometer
Lightfastness Standards
Xenon-Arc Lamp
Alternate Wash-and-Light (AATCC 83-1974)
Phototropism (AATCC 139-1975)
Ozone in the Atmosphere Under Low Humidity
Wash fastness
Prespiration (AATCC 15-1976)
Steam Pleating (AATCC 131-1974)
Stoving (AATCC 9-1975)
Water Spotting (AATCC 104-19756)
Dispersibility of Disperse Dyes
Dyestuff Migration (AATCC 140-1976)

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