Textile Dyes by Mansoor Iqbal

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Textile Dyes
By Mansoor Iqbal
Textile Dyes

PREFACE
Textile industry is the backbone of our country economy. During last few years a wide net of the professional textile institutes both in private and Government sector have been established that shows the present demand and interest of our peoples in this field. The textile books available in our country are very rare and beyond the scope of our student both from purchasing and understanding point of view. Textile dyes is the first attempt of its kind ever published in Pakistan. Dyes are coloured organic compounds, which impart colour to the fabric. Most important classes of dyes for textile application are discussed in a simple and easy style. Discussions are lead from fundamental concepts to the fastness properties evaluations of dyes. Interactions of dye molecule with different fiber polymer system have also been discussed. A chapter Banned Amines also included, which will helpful to understand the modern ecological issues of dyestuffs and textile industry. The book will be a handy and reliable source of information for textile students, teachers of textile chemistry, sales executives in dyes, dye house laboratories, dyeing department of textile mills, research workers and many others. Reference departments in the libraries will find this volume an essential addition to their offerings. Suggestions are welcome for the improvement in book in next edition. I offer my warm welcome to book lovers, please feel free to contact me to share knowledge, literature and books regarding textile.

CONTENTS
Chapter # 1 DYES & COLOUR (1-6)
􀂙 Dyes and colour
􀂙 Modern theory of colour
􀂙 Otto Witt theory of colour
􀂙 Valence bond approach to colour
􀂙 Bathochromic effect
Chapter # 2 HISTORY OF DYESTUFFS (7-21)
Chapter # 3 CLASSIFICATION OF DYES (22-46)
􀂙 Classification of Dyes
􀂙 Classification according to chemical structure
􀂙 Nitro Dye
􀂙 Azo Dyes
􀂙 Aniline Yellow
􀂙 Butter Yellow
􀂙 Chrysoidine
􀂙 Methyl Orange
􀂙 Orange II
􀂙 Para Red
􀂙 Resorcin Yellow
􀂙 Disperse Red 1
􀂙 Congo Red
􀂙 Diphenlymethane Dyes
􀂙 Auramine O
􀂙 Triphenylmethane Dyes
􀂙 Malachite Green
􀂙 Pararosaniline
􀂙 Rosaniline
􀂙 Crystal Violet
􀂙 Xanthene Dyes
􀂙 Fluorescene
􀂙 Eosin
􀂙 Rhodamine B
􀂙 Phthaeleins
􀂙 Phenolphthalein
􀂙 Indigoid and Thioindigoid Dyes
􀂙 Preparation of Indigo
􀂙 Structure of Indigo
􀂙 Tyrian Purple
􀂙 Thioindigo
􀂙 Anthraquinoid Dyes
􀂙 Alizarin
􀂙 Structure of Alizarin
􀂙 Classification according to method of application
􀂙 Direct Dyes
􀂙 Mordant Dyes
􀂙 Vat Dyes
􀂙 Ingrain Deys
􀂙 Disperse Dyes
Chapter # 4 DYES AND FIBRE POLYMER SYSTEM (47-62)
􀂙 Wool Fibres
􀂙 Silk Fibres
􀂙 Cellulosic Fibres
􀂙 Monoazso Dyes
􀂙 Dyes with Mixed Chromophores
􀂙 Cellulose Acetate Fibres
􀂙 Cellulose Triacetate Fibres
􀂙 Poyamide Fibres
􀂙 Polyester Fibres
􀂙 Polypropylene Fibres
􀂙 Polyurethane Fibres
􀂙 Polyacrylonitrile Fibres
􀂙 How do dyes stick to fibres?
Chapter # 5 REACTIVE DYES (63-86)
􀂙 Nucleophilic substitution systems
􀂙 Vinylsulphone dyes
􀂙 Evidence for chemical combination
􀂙 Commercial popular reactive dyes
􀂙 Cold Dyeing Brands
􀂙 Hot dyeing brands
􀂙 Bifunctional Dyes (Sumitomo Chemicals Japan)
􀂙 Reactive dyes in pakistan
􀂙 Sumitomo chemicals (Osaka, Japan)
􀂙 Kyung-in synthetic corporation
􀂙 Reaffix dyestuffs Korea
􀂙 P.T.Sinar (Indonesia)
􀂙 Meghmani dyes & intermediates India
􀂙 Jay chemicals India
􀂙 Dyestar (Germany)
􀂙 Sunfix Chemdyes Corporation
􀂙 Everzol dyes (Taiwan)
􀂙 Clarient dyes Switzerland
Chapter # 6 DIRECT DYES (87-91)
􀂙 Direct dyes
􀂙 Chemical constitution of direct dyes
􀂙 Classification according to dyeing behavior
􀂙 Class A
􀂙 Class B
􀂙 Class C
Chapter # 7 DISPERSE DYES (92-100)
􀂙 Azo Dyes
􀂙 Anthraquinone Disperse Dyes
􀂙 Miscellaneous Disperse Dyes
􀂙 Methine or Styryl Dyes
􀂙 Quinphthalone dyes
􀂙 Coumarin Dyes
Chapter # 8 VAT DYES (101-109)
􀂙 Indigoid Dyes
􀂙 Thioindigoid Dyes
􀂙 Anthraquinone Vat Dyes
Chapter # 9 SULPHUR DYES (110-116)
􀂙 Sulphurised Vat Dyes
􀂙 Ready-reduced and Solubilised Sulphur Dyes
􀂙 Recent Developments
􀂙 Examples of Important Commercial Sulphur Dyes
Chapter # 10 ACID (ANIONIC) DYES (117-123)
􀂙 Acid or anionic dyes
􀂙 Acid dyes can be divided into four groups
􀂙 Dyeing Process
􀂙 Dyeing of Nylon Carpets
􀂙 Application of Acid Dyes to Silk
􀂙 Dyeing of Modified Acrylic and Polypropylene
Chapter # 11 BASIC (CATIONIC) DYES(124-126)
􀂙 Basic or cationic dyes
􀂙 Dyeing of Acrylic Fibres
Chapter # 12 BANNED AMINES (127-142)
􀂙 What are banned amines?
􀂙 What is Eco-Labeling of Textiles?
􀂙 Name the agencies, which have accredited Textiles Committee Laboratories?
􀂙 what are the advantages of testing of textiles in an accredited laboratory?
􀂙 State the list of dyes banned by Government?
􀂙 Ecomark criteria for textiles
􀂙 Product specific requirement
􀂙 Jute and jute products
􀂙 Silk and silk products
􀂙 Pesticide registered for use on cotton
􀂙 Coupled Amines released from Azo-dyes
Chapter # 13 FASTNESS PROPERTIES OF DYES (143-166)
􀂙 Colour fastness
􀂙 Acids and Alkalies
􀂙 Evaluation and Classification
􀂙 Colourfastness to Bleaching with Chlorine
􀂙 Evaluation and Classification
􀂙 Colourfastness to Bleaching with Peroxide
􀂙 Carbonizing (AATCC 11-1975)
􀂙 Crocking (AATCC 8-1974/116-1974)
􀂙 Degumming (AATCC 7-1975)
􀂙 Dry cleaning (AATCC 132-1976)
􀂙 Fulling (AATCC 2-1975)
􀂙 Dry Heat (Excluding hot Pressing)
􀂙 Hot Pressing (AATCC 133-1976)
􀂙 Light fastness
􀂙 Lightfastness (General Method) (AATCC 16-1974)
􀂙 Lightfastness-Carbon Arc (AATCC –16-A-1974)
􀂙 Sunlight-Fastness (AATCC 16B-1974)
􀂙 Daylight Fastness (AATCC 16C-1974)
􀂙 Lightfastness Carbon Arc Alternate Light Darkness (16D-1974)
􀂙 Lightfastness-Xenon Lamp-Continuous Light
􀂙 Lightfastness-Xenon Lamp-Alternate Light-Darkness (AATCC 16F-1974)
􀂙 Carbon-Arc Lamp (Fade-Ometer)
􀂙 Exposure Cabinet
􀂙 Black-Panel Thermometer
􀂙 Lightfastness Standards
􀂙 Xenon-Arc Lamp
􀂙 Alternate Wash-and-Light (AATCC 83-1974)
􀂙 Phototropism (AATCC 139-1975)
􀂙 Ozone in the Atmosphere Under Low Humidity
􀂙 Wash fastness
􀂙 Prespiration (AATCC 15-1976)
􀂙 Steam Pleating (AATCC 131-1974)
􀂙 Stoving (AATCC 9-1975)
􀂙 Water Spotting (AATCC 104-19756)
􀂙 Dispersibility of Disperse Dyes
􀂙 Dyestuff Migration (AATCC 140-1976)

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