Reactive Dyes for Textile Fibres by A Hunter M Renfrew


Reactive Dyes for Textile Fibres
By A Hunter M Renfrew

Reactive Dyes for Textile Fibres


Preface vii
CHAPTER 1 The chemistry of activated p-bonds as reactive groups 1
1.1 Michael-type reactions 1
1.2 Chemistry of the vinyl sulphone group 22
CHAPTER 2 Activated p-bonds as reactive groups 29
2.1 (Masked) Michael acceptors in commercial products 29
2.2 (Masked) Michael acceptors with no commercial application in reactive dyeing 31
2.3 (Masked) vinyl sulphones as reactive groups 31
2.4 (Masked) acrylamido reactive groups 44
2.5 (Masked) vinyl sulphonamides as reactive groups 46
2.6 Michael acceptors with leaving groups attached to the b-carbon atom 48
CHAPTER 3 Synthesis of (masked) Michael acceptor intermediates and groups 57
3.1 Introduction 57
3.2 Strategies for the synthesis of Michael acceptor intermediates and groups 58
3.3 Synthesis of b-substituted ethyl and vinyl sulphones 60
3.4 Synthesis of b-substituted propionamides and acrylamides 76
3.5 Synthesis of b-substituted ethyl sulphonamides 78
CHAPTER 4 Miscellaneous aliphatic reactive groups 81
4.1 The chemistry of N-(b-substituted-ethyl)sulphonamides as reactive groups 81
4.2 The chemistry of N-(b-substituted-ethyl)alkylamino reactive groups 90
4.3 The chemistry of epoxides, halohydrins and related compounds as reactive groups 92
4.4 The chemistry of b-substituted phenyl ethyl ethers 95
4.5 a-substituted acetamido reactive groups 96
4.6 Tetrafluorocyclobutyl and trifluorocyclobutenyl reactive groups 99
CHAPTER 5 Multifunctional reactive dyes 105
5.1 Bifunctional reactive dyes 105
5.2 Trifunctional reactive dyes 131
5.3 Tetrafunctional reactive dyes 132
5.4 Pentafunctional reactive dyes 133
CHAPTER 6 Neutral fixing reactive dyes 139
6.1 Introduction 139
6.2 Chemistry of triazinylammonium reactive groups 141
6.3 Triazinyl dyes with substituted pyridinium leaving groups 148
6.4 Kayacelon React dyes 153
CHAPTER 7 Acid fixing reactive dyes 156
7.1 Introduction 156
7.2 Formaldehyde derivatives as reactive groups 157
7.3 Phosphonic acid reactive dyes 162
CHAPTER 8 The chemistry of cellulose pretreatments, cotreatments and aftertreatments 168
8.1 Introduction 168
8.2 Origins of application and fastness problems of
reactive dyes 169
8.3 Cellulose pretreatment 174
8.4 Cellulose cotreatments 192
8.5 Cellulose aftertreatments 197
8.6 Indosol dyes 206

The chemistry and application of reactive dyes comprise an enormous subject. In this textbook I have tried to give a detailed account of the chemistry of one of the two principal reactive groups used in reactive dyes for textile fibres, i.e. activated p-bonds. The other topics were determined by my own particular interests or by a close relationship to the main area. An attempt has also been made to address new developments in reactive dyeing.

The first three chapters deal with the main topic and cover the underlying mechanisms and principles, commercial interests and syntheses. Chapter 5 addresses the important related area of multifunctional reactive dyes. The book contains many references and is aimed at academics, research workers and final year students in applied chemistry.

While I must acknowledge the help of a large number of colleagues for discussing various issues with me as they arose, I am particularly indebted to Dr C M Brennan (BASF), Dr S M Burkinshaw (Leeds University), Dr K Carr (Zeneca) and Professor D A S Phillips (UMIST) for their many valuable suggestions. I should also like to mention the contributions of Dr A J Lavery (Zeneca) and Dr J A Taylor (BASF). Finally, my thanks go to Dr S M Burkinshaw for suggesting the project and to Zeneca for the use of their outstanding library facilities.

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