Practical Dyeing (Volume 1-3) by James Park and John Shore


Practical Dyeing (Volume 1-3)
by James Park and John Shore

Practical Dyeing (Volume 1) – Dye Selection and Dyehouse Support
By James Park and John Shore

Practical Dyeing


Volume 1 – Dye Selection and Dyehouse Support
Chapter 1 Globalisation of Textile Coloration and Related Industries 1
Chapter 2 Impact of Dyeing And Finishing on the Environment 24
Chapter 3 Services and Resources 56
Chapter 4 Control, Automation and Robotics 90
Chapter 5 Product Evaluation 106
Chapter 6 Colour Communication, Colorimetry and Match Prediction 129

Practical Dyeing
Volume 2 – Fibre Types and Dyeing Processes

Volume 2 – Fibre Types and Dyeing Processes
Chapter 7 Dyeing of Cellulosic Fibres 1
Chapter 8 Dyeing of Wool, Silk and Other Animal Fibres 82
Chapter 9 Polyester Dyeing 134
Chapter 10 Nylon Dyeing 176
Chapter 11 Acrylic Dyeing 198
Practical Dyeing
Volume 3 – Dyeing Equipment and Textile Form

Volume 3 – Dyeing Equipment and Textile Form
Chapter 12 Producer Coloration, Loose Fibre and Tow Dyeing 1
Chapter 13 Yarn and Narrow Fabric Dyeing 32
Chapter 14 Dyeing of Knitted Fabrics 68
Chapter 15 Preparation and Dyeing of Woven Fabrics 92
Chapter 16 Continuous Dyeing of Woven Fabrics 130
Chapter 17 Garment Dyeing 165
Chapter 18 Carpet Dyeing 182
Chapter 19 Closing Comments 199
Authors’ Preface
The original idea of practical monographs was conceived in the 1970s as a result of an on-going debate as to what constituted a practical paper and the lack of such papers within the pages of the Journal of the Society of Dyers and Colourists. There is of course no absolute definition of a practical paper since this depends on the interests of the individual reader, location within the industry, topicality and, not least, the burning issues of the day.

The Society of Dyers and Colourists attempted to rectify this lack of practical information by encouraging such papers for publication in the Journal, as well as initiating a series of practical monographs, authored by experts in various areas of textile coloration. Between the years 1981 and 1993, nine such monographs were published. Only two of these are still available:

1. Batchwise Dyeing of Woven Cellulosic Fabrics, by G W Madaras, G J Parish and J Shore (1993)
2. Instrumental Colour Formulation, by J Park (1993).

For several reasons, not least the diminishing educational resources available for textile coloration, sources of practical, current information are increasingly required. This was the incentive behind the production of this practical e-book intended to assist practitioners occupying ‘hands-on’ positions at all levels within the industry.

Copious recent references are included in each chapter. Two further e-books by the current authors will augment the information in this publication:

1. Dyeing Laboratory Practice, by J Park and J Shore (in preparation)
2. Dyehouse Management Practice, by J Park and J Shore (in preparation).

Chapter 1 Globalisation of Textile Coloration and Related Industries
1.1 Impact of the Oil Crisis on Global Fibres Production

Although religious tradition [1] describes that, having eaten of the forbidden fruit of the tree of knowledge, man required some form of cover for reasons of modesty, it is more likely that primitive Homo sapiens required protection from the elements. In earliest times, skins and fur from animals gave some protection but skins in particular were inflexible and did not fit the body contours snugly. At some point in time, it was found that the long thin fibres from plants or animals could be twisted together and that the thread produced in this way could be interlaced to form more flexible clothing.

The domestic origins of textile manufacture are lost in prehistory, but natural fibres are known to have served man’s needs for thousands of years. Recent archaeological evidence shows the imprint of woven materials on clay pots estimated to be 27000 years old, made long before settled farming and domestication of animals first began. More specific records suggest that woollen garment making began in Central Asia around 9000 BC, linen in Europe about 8000 BC and silk cultivation in China about 5000 BC [2].

Natural fibre processing remained a cottage industry until the industrial revolution in the second half of the eighteenth century. Man-made fibres were first produced at the end of the following century by regeneration of cellulose filaments from solution. Synthetic fibres began with the discovery of nylon in the 1930s, followed by polyester and acrylic fibres during the Second World War, although it was not until the 1950s that these completely new fibrous polymers achieved significant commercial use for civilian purposes. Today worldwide synthetic fibre production exceeds 28 megatons annually [3].

Establishment of the OPEC cartel by the major oil-exporting nations following the 1973 Yom Kippur war between Israel and neighbouring Arab states had a devastating immediate effect on the world’s chemical industries. The price of crude oil was increased at a stroke from US$ 3 to US$ 12 per barrel. Chemical companies were tightly squeezed by the discrepancy between the soaring costs of energy and raw materials and the declining selling prices for their finished products. New plants erected at great expense could not be filled as demand fell dramatically. These effects were aggravated further by the second oil crisis of 1979 following the fundamentalist revolution that deposed the Shah of Iran, when the oil price doubled again [4]. Operating costs had to be lowered by closing unprofitable units, laying off personnel and saving energy.

World overcapacity in petrochemicals and polymers was even more serious and its effects extremely far-reaching. The 1980s saw strong growth in exports of cheap synthetic fibres, especially polyester, from Turkey, Mexico, Eastern Europe and the Asia Pacific region. Rationalisation measures were easier to organise in Japan than elsewhere because of the discipline that the trade ministry (MITI) was able to exert through a cartel that had been formed between firms producing petrochemicals. Between 1978 and 1982 a 17% cut in production of synthetic fibres was achieved, although this did not restrict the range of fibres manufactured by each producer.

In Western Europe there was more regard for the principles of free competition. Bilateral arrangements between individual firms in the 1980-84 period led to the closure of unprofitable units and increased specialisation by each producer. In the field of synthetic fibres, a European Community agreement allowed each company to specialise in certain polymer types while giving up production of unprofitable ones. Such efforts reduced the total capacity for synthetic fibres in Europe by almost a million tons.

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