Textile Finishing: Recent Developments and Future Trends Edited by K.L. Mittal and Thomas Bahners

7:56 AM
Textile Finishing: Recent Developments and Future Trends
Edited by K.L. Mittal and Thomas Bahners
Textile Finishing: Recent Developments and Future Trends

Contents
Preface xv
Part 1 Recent Developments and Current Challenges in Textile Finishing
1 Recent Concepts of Antimicrobial Textile Finishes 3
Barbara Simončič and Brigita Tomšič
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 Antimicrobial Agents 5
1.2.1 Mechanisms of Antimicrobial Activity 6
1.2.2 Structures of Antimicrobial Agents 7
1.2.2.1 Leaching Antimicrobial Agents 7
1.2.2.2 Bound Antimicrobial Agents 17
1.3 Low Adhesion Agents 21
1.4 Dual-Action Antimicrobial Agents 24
1.5 Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of
Functionalized Textiles 29
1.5.1 Standardized Methods for the Determination
of Antibacterial Activity 31
1.5.2 Standardized Methods for the Determination
of Antifungal Activity 35
1.6 Health and Environmental Issues 39
1.6.1 Health and Environmental Impacts of
Antimicrobial Compounds 41
1.7 Future Trends 46
1.8 Summary 46
Acknowledgement 48
References 48
2 Flame Retardant Textile Finishes 69
A Richard Horrocks
2.1 Introduction 70
2.2 Current Commercial, Durable Flame Retardants:
Advantages and Disadvantages 71
2.3 Current Challenges 78
2.3.1 Minimisation of Effluents 78
2.3.2 Replacing Formaldehyde Chemistry, Particularly
with Respect to Cotton and Blended Fabrics 82
2.3.2.1 Oligomeric Phosphate-Phosphonate 83
2.3.2.2 Multifunctional Carboxylic Acids 83
2.3.2.3 Alkyl Phosphoramidate Adduct 86
2.3.2.4 Phosphonyl Cyanurates 87
2.3.2.5 Cellulose-Phosphoramidate Ester
Interchange 88
2.3.2.6 Cellulose-Chloro Triazinyl Derivative
Condensation 89
2.3.2.7 Phosphorus Acid Derivatives of
Cellulose 90
2.3.2.8 Phosphorus-Nitrogen-Silicon
Developments 91
2.3.2.9 Polymer Networks 92
2.3.2.10 Other Finishing Treatments 93
2.3.3 Replacing Bromine, Notably in Coating and
Back-Coating Formulations 94
2.3.3.1 Reducing the BrFR Concentrations 95
2.3.3.2 Possible Bromine-Chlorine and
Phosphorus-Bromine Synergies 96
2.3.3.3 Effectiveness of Phosphorus 97
2.3.3.4 The Sensitisation of Decomposition or
Flame Retarding Efficiency of
Phosphorus-Based Systems 99
2.3.3.5 The Introduction of a Volatile and Possible
Vapour-Phase Active, Phosphorus-Based
Flame Retardant Component 99
2.4 Novel Surface Chemistries 101
2.4.1 Sol-Gel Surface Treatments 103
2.4.2 Layer-by-Layer Treatments 107
2.4.3 Polymer Coating and UV and Plasma Grafting
Treatments 111
2.4.3.1 Plasma Treatments 112
2.4.3.2 UV and Other Grafting Treatments 116
2.5 Summary 117
References 117
Bibliography 127
3 Striving for Self-Cleaning Textiles – Critical Thoughts
on Current Literature 129
Thomas Bahners and Kash Mittal
3.1 Introduction 130
3.2 Fundamental Principles 133
3.2.1 Self-Cleaning – The Super-Hydrophobic
Approach 133
3.2.2 Self-Cleaning – The Super-Hydrophilic
Approach 136
3.2.3 Expected Merits of the Concepts 138
3.3 Attempts to Attain Super-Hydrophobic Behavior 140
3.3.1 Minimized Surface Free Energy 140
3.3.1.1 Novel Chemical Finishes of Non-Polar
Character 141
3.3.1.2 Deposition of Non-Polar Thin Layers
by Plasma and Dielectric Barrier
Discharge (DBD) 142
3.3.1.3 Deposition of Non-Polar Thin Layers
by Photo-Chemical Surface Modification 145
3.3.2 Enhancing Liquid Repellence by Adding Surface
Roughness 147
3.3.2.1 Application of Micro- and Nano-Rough
(Hybrid) Coatings 147
3.3.2.2 Incorporation of Micro- and
Nanoparticles 149
3.3.2.3 Laser-Based Surface Roughening 151
3.4 Attempts to Attain Super-Hydrophilic Properties 153
3.4.1 Use of Photo-Catalytic TiO2 153
3.4.2 Making Use of Micro-Roughness According
to the Wenzel Model 155
3.5 Relevance for Dirt Take-Up, Cleanability,
and Self-Cleaning 156
3.6 Summary 160
References 162
4 Metallization of Polymers and Textiles 171
Piotr Rytlewski, Krzysztof Moraczewski
and Bartłomiej Jagodziński
4.1 Introduction 171
4.2 Main Methods of Metallization 173
4.2.1 Methods Based on Physical Vapor Deposition 173
4.2.2 Chemical Vapor Deposition Methods 178
4.3 Electroless Metallization 184
4.4 Summary 198
References 199
5 Wettability Characterization in Textiles – Use and
Abuse of Measuring Procedures 207
Thomas Bahners, Helga Thomas and Jochen S. Gutmann
5.1 Introduction 208
5.2 Peculiarities of Textile Substrates 209
5.3 Wettability Measurements on Fabrics 213
5.3.1 Contact Angle Measurements 213
5.3.2 Drop Penetration Tests 217
5.3.3 Soaking or Rising Height Test 222
5.3.4 The Wilhelmy Method 224
5.4 Contact Angle Measurements on Fibers 226
5.4.1 Adapting the Wilhelmy Plate Method to
Single Fibers 226
5.4.2 The Washburn Approach – Wilhelmy
Wicking Method 226
5.5 Summary and Concluding Remarks 228
Acknowledgements 231
References 231
Part 2 Surface Modification Techniques for Textiles
6 Surface Functionalization of Synthetic Textiles
by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma 237
Keiko Gotoh
6.1 Introduction 237
6.2 Processing Parameters of Atmospheric Pressure
Plasma (APP) Jet 239
6.3 Change in Single Fiber Wettability Due to APP Jet
Treatment 241
6.4 Hydrophobic Recovery after APP Jet Treatment 244
6.5 Chemical and Topographical Changes on Fiber Surface
Due to APP Jet Treatment 245
6.6 Fabric Damage Due to APP Jet Treatment 247
6.7 Improvement of Textile Serviceability Properties by
APP Jet Treatment 250
6.7.1 Water Wicking Property 250
6.7.2 Detergency 251
6.7.3 Dyeability 252
6.8 Summary and Prospects 254
Acknowledgements 254
References 255
7 UV-Based Photo-Chemical Surface Modification
of Textile Fabrics 261
Thomas Bahners and Jochen S. Gutmann
7.1 Introduction 261
7.2 Fundamentals of the Process 263
7.2.1 Photo-Addition, Irradiation in Air 263
7.2.2 Layer Formation by Homo-Polymerization
and Graft-co-Polymerization 265
7.2.3 Experimental Concept 268
7.3 Fiber Properties Defined by the Surface Chemistry
of Deposited Layers 269
7.3.1 Wetting and Adhesion 269
7.3.2 Wetting and Protein Adhesion – Antifouling
Surfaces 271
7.3.3 Highly Liquid Repellent Technical Textiles 276
7.3.4 Patterned Wettablitity 280
7.4 Fiber Modification by Bulk Properties of Deposited Layers 281
7.4.1 Mechanical and Thermal Stability 282
7.4.2 Barrier Function 284
7.4.3 Charge Storage 285
7.4.4 Permanent Flame Retardant Finish 287
7.5 Summary and Outlook 289
References 291
Part 3 Innovative Functionalities of Textiles
8 Glimpses into Tunable Wettability of Textiles 299
Pelagia Glampedaki
8.1 Introduction 300
8.2 Paths to Tunable Wettability 302
8.2.1 Fibre and Textile Surface Functionalisation 305
8.2.2 Stimuli-Responsive Hydrogel Functionalising
Systems 306
8.2.3 Modes of Functionalisation and Additional
Parameters to be Considered 308
8.3 Practical Aspects and Applications 314
8.4 Prospects 316
8.5 Summary 318
References 318
9 3D Textile Structures for Harvesting Water from Fog:
Overview and Perspectives 325
Jamal Sarsour, Thomas Stegmaier and Goetz Gresser
9.1 Introduction 326
9.2 Biological Models 327
9.2.1 Namib Desert Grass 327
9.2.2 Black Beetle in the Namib Desert 328
9.2.3 Epiphytic bromeliads 328
9.2.4 Pinus canariensis 330
9.3 Textile Development and Engineering 331
9.3.1 Fog Harvesting Efficiency in the Laboratory 333
9.3.2 Model of Drop Formation on the Yarn System
of 3D Textiles 324
9.3.3 Scale Up to an Industrial Process 326
9.4 Technical Realization 340
9.5 Summary and Prospects 342
References 342
10 Textile-Fixed Catalysts and their Use in
Heterogeneous Catalysis 345
Klaus Opwis, Katharina Kiehl, Thomas Straube,
Thomas Mayer-Gall and Jochen S. Gutmann
10.1 Introduction 346
10.2 Immobilization of Catalysts on Textile Carrier Materials 348
10.2.1 Inorganic Catalysts 348
10.2.2 Organo-Metallic Catalysts 350
10.2.3 Enzymes 352
10.2.4 Organic Catalysts 355
10.3 Summary and Outlook 357
Acknowledgements 358
References 359
11 Medical Textiles as Substrates for Tissue Engineering 363
Sahar Salehi, Mahshid Kharaziha, Nafiseh Masoumi,
Afsoon Fallahi, and Ali Tamayol
11.1 Introduction 364
11.1.1 Concept of TE 364
11.1.2 Background of Medical Textiles in TE 365
11.2 Fiber Formation Approaches 368
11.2.1 Wet Spinning 368
11.2.2 Melt Spinning 369
11.2.3 Microfluidic Spinning 369
11.2.4 Self-Assembly 371
11.3 Fiber-Based Architectures for the TE Scaffold 371
11.3.1 Woven Fabrics 371
11.3.2 Knitted Fabrics 373
11.3.3 Braided Fabrics 375
11.3.4 Non-Woven Fabrics 375
11.3.5 Bioprinting 377
11.4 Applications of Medical Textiles in TE 380
11.4.1 Musculoskeletal Tissues 380
11.4.2 Muscular Tissues 387
11.4.3 Ocular Tissues 391
11.4.4 Nerve Tissue 394
11.4.5 Skin 397
11.5 Summary and Prospects 399
Note 400
References 400
Part 4 Fiber-Reinforced Composites
12 Thermoset Resin Based Fiber Reinforced Biocomposites 425
D. Kalita and A. N. Netravali
12.1 Introduction 426
12.1.1 Reinforcements and Fillers 427
12.1.2 Resins 429
12.1.3 Composites 430
12.1.4 Nanocomposites 430
12.1.5 Interfaces 431
12.1.6 Petroleum Based and Biobased Resins
and Fibers 432
12.2 Characteristics of Biocomposites 433
12.3 Composite Classification 434
12.3.1 Hybrid Composites 434
12.3.2 ‘Greener’ Composites 435
12.3.3 ‘Green’ Composites 435
12.4 Natural Fiber Processing 436
12.4.1 Fiber Extraction 437
12.4.2 Fiber Treatments 437
12.4.3 Fiber Forms (Nonwoven, Woven, Knitted) 438
12.5 Polymeric Resins 439
12.5.1 Green Resins 440
12.5.2 Thermoset Green Resins 441
12.5.2.1 Protein Based Resins 441
12.5.2.2 Starch Based Resins 444
12.5.2.3 Fats/Lipids/Oils Based Resins 447
12.6 Biobased Thermoset Composites 448
12.6.1 Plant Based Cellulose Fiber Biocomposites 449
12.6.2 Starch Based Biocomposites 450
12.6.3 Protein Based Biocomposites 452
12.6.4 Chitosan Based Biocomposites 453
12.6.5 Lipid Based Biocomposites 453
12.7 Bionanocomposites 456
12.7.1 Starch Based Nanocomposites 457
12.7.2 Cellulose Based Nanocomposites 458
12.7.3 Protein Based Nanocomposites 460
12.7.4 Chitosan Based Nanocomposites 462
12.8 Applications and Advantages of Biocomposites 463
12.9 Opportunity and Challenges 466
12.10 Summary 468
References 469
13 Characterisation of Fibre/Matrix Adhesion in Biobased
Fibre-Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites 485
J. Müssig and N. Graupner
13.1 Introduction 485
13.1.1 Terms and Definitions 487
13.1.1.1 Fibre 487
13.1.1.2 Fibre Bundle 487
13.1.1.3 Equivalent Diameter 488
13.1.1.4 Critical Length 488
13.1.1.5 Aspect Ratio and Critical
Aspect Ratio 489
13.1.1.6 Single Element versus Collective 489
13.1.1.7 Collective Test to Measure Pull-Out 490
13.1.1.8 Interface and Interphase 490
13.1.1.9 Adhesion and Adherence 492
13.1.1.10 Practical & Theoretical Fibre/Matrix
Adhesion 492
13.1.2 Terminology and Properties of Fibres and
Matrices 492
13.1.2.1 Polymer Matrices 492
13.1.2.2 Natural Fibres 496
13.1.2.3 Regenerated Cellulose Fibres 497
13.2 Methods 503
13.2.1 Overview 503
13.2.2 Single Fibre/Single Fibre Bundle Tests 504
13.2.2.1 Pull-Out and Microbond Tests 504
13.2.2.2 Fragmentation Test 529
13.2.3 Composite Tests 534
13.2.3.1 Double-Notched Tensile Test 534
13.2.3.2 Iosipescu Shear Test 536
13.2.3.3 90° (Off-Axis) Tensile Test and 90°
(Off-Axis) Bending Test 537
13.2.3.4 Short Beam Shear Test 538
13.3 Comparison of Data 539
13.4 Summary 543
Acknowledgements 545
References 545
Index 557

Read "Textile Finishing: Recent Developments and Future Trends" as PDF
How to Get Book? To get any book you can send Email: textileebooks@gmail.com

Share this

Related Posts

Previous
Next Post »