Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Textile Terms, Volume II by Mathews Kolanjikombil


Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Textile Terms, Volume II
By Mathews Kolanjikombil

Encyclopaedic Dictionary2

Preface vii
Volume I
1. A 1
2. B 99
3. C 222
Volume II
4. D 409
5. E 511
6. F 552
7. G 659
8. H 704
9. I 761
10. J 794
Volume III
11. K 811
12. L 834
13. M 889
14. N 975
15. O 1006
16. P 1034
17. Q 1160
18. R 1165
Volume IV
19. S 1227
20. T 1405
21. U 1494
22. V 1507
23. W 1532
24. X 1586
25. Y 1588
26. Z 1605


D and K: Short form for Damaged and Kept. Denotes lengths of fabrics spoilt in processing.

D/Y ratio: The ratio of speed of movement (D) of a friction surface or surfaces in a friction spindle used in false twist texturising to the axial speed (Y) of untwisted yarn

D65: The CIE standard illuminate that represents a colour temperature of 6504K. This is the colour temperature most widely used in graphic arts industry viewing booths. See Kelvin (K).

D: (1) Symbol for: (a) Debye; (b) Dielectric constant; (c) Diffusion coefficient; (d) Deuterium. (2) (a) Unit prefix for Deci- (one tenth), factor 1/10; (b) Abbreviation for dextrorotatory (optical activity).

DA: Dye accessible. The term is used, for e.g., in connection with the bilateral structure of the cortex cell layer in wool (paracortex/orthocortex).

Da: Symbol for deca- (prefix indicating 10, as in decametre), factor 10.

Daba: A coarse, plain woven, unbleached cotton fabric, made in Asia.

Dabbing: Faults in silk fabrics with a brushed face (white or mealy marks) are rendered invisible by dabbing with a felt pad lightly impregnated with paraffin oil. Also on Dabbing machines.

Dabbing machine: Machines used for Dabbing. Dabbing is done continuously or intermittently by oiled felt rollers of these machines which are traversed by a cam mechanism across the cloth. Once an area has been treated the cloth moves on. See also Dabbing.

Dabbing print: Surface printing in the form of a stamp for printing industrial textiles using pigment printing, e.g. trademarks on drive belts and carpet backing. If necessary, the substrate to be printed should be pre-treated with primers (adhesion agents) or by corona treatment in order to overcome the polymer incompatibility between the substrate and the pigment printing binder.

Dabouis: The Indian name for a narrow, bleached cotton cloth made in eastern India; used for calico.

Dacca: Silk; Embroidered silk.

Dacca twist: Fine English plain or twilled calico; used for sheets, underwear, etc.

Dacey: Coarse wild silk, produced by an East Indian silk worm from six to eight times a year.

Dacron: The trade name for an American polyester fibre. Trade name of a polyester fibre. As with any other polyester it can be blended with various fibres. As blends or pure fibre it dyes well and also bleaches well. Used in the manufacture of various dress material or as furnishing filling pillows, etc. Since it is a hydrophobic fibre, it washes well and drip dries.

Dado: A usually two-coloured, printed cotton; used for wall hangings in Italy; usually has a cream ground.

Dagges: Used in gothic period, a cut out or a sewn – on flaps of fabric at the edges of a garment.

Daghestan rugs: Made in Caucasia; the web and the short and close pile being of wool and tied in Ghiorde’s knot; warp and weft in wool. The warp thread, which is often quite thick and brown in colour, can easily be seen on the back of the rug. The medium deep pile is of good quality, but the wool is lustreless. The field is completely divided into fairly narrow diagonal bands (5–10 cm wide) of different alternating colours. The most frequently used colours are blue in various shades, yellow, white and a faded green. These bands are closely decorated with small squares of different colours. At opposite corners of each square is a hooked motif. The decoration of these bands is completed by stylized roses or eight-pointed stars scattered in haphazard fashion. The ground colours are red and blue. The Turkish knot is used with a density of approximately 1,50,000 knots per m2. The design is almost always geometrical, mosaic patterns with many angular hooks being used in blue, red, yellow and ivory colours without any shading. Both ends are finished with a narrow selvage and knotted fringe; the sides are finished with a very narrow coloured selvage.

Dags: Parts of the fleece, consisting of matted fibres and dirt.

Daisy stitch or detached chain stitch: Works in the same way as chain stitch, but fashions each loop at the foot with a small stitch. This stitch may be worked singly or in groups to form flower petals.

Daka: Unbleached cotton muslin, made in Turkestan; the finer grades are used for turbans, the coarser for lining.

Dalecarlian lace: Very strong Swedish bobbin lace, made and worn by the peasant as starched ruffles. It is of buff colour.

Damajagua or Majagua: A fine, strong cloth-like bast that is yielded by a species of the mellow in South America; used for baskets, clothing and ropes.

Damaged feathers: The feathers that have been broken, damaged by insects, by mildew or rot, or otherwise materially injured.

Damaged selvage: See Cut selvedge.

Damas: French for damask.

Damascaffard: Tapestry damask, made of wool, silk waste, cotton, etc., and given a high finish on the face.

Damas chine: French silk damask dress goods, made with printed warp.

Damasen Dorure: French silk damask with gold flower designs.

Damaslisere: Silk damask, the Jacquard design being outlined in gold.

Damascene lace: Made of sprigs and lace braid joined with corded bars without any fillings. It is a modern adaptation of the Honiton pillow lace.

Damask: A very old type of fabric first made of silk in damascus. Elaborately woven on a Jacquard loom, the fabric has satin floats on a warp satin background. The surface designs run in the opposite direction from those in the background. It is now woven in different fibres and different weights and is mostly used in furnishings. Made with large weaving patterns on jacquard looms, it comes bleached. A guideline construction is 72 × 72 using 26s warp and weft. The 5 harness satin weave is usually used. In very fine damask construction, a face and back warp and 7 harness satin weave may be used. Such fabrics are called double damask. It comes in dyed shades also. Used as table linen, towels. It is rarely found now as a dress fabric. Most damask is self-toned, that is the warp and weft are in the same colour; the design creates the interest. Similar to brocade, but flatter and reversible, damask is used for napkins, tablecloths, draperies, and upholstery.

Damask satin: Double satin, the ground and the figures formed by warp and weft satin.

Damask stitch: In embroidery, a variety of Satin stitch, it takes in four horizontal threads of foundation or two stitches in a slanting direction and over two upright threads. The remaining second lines of the damask stitch are taken over the two lower threads of the upper line and two new threads instead of all the threads being new.

Damask (false): If a four-shaft broken twill structure is used in two blocks formed by areas of 1/3 twill next to areas of 3/1 twill, all woven in a broken treadling, then the cloth is called false damask or twill damask. The twill for false damask may be broken by way in which the blocks are threaded or by changing the treadling order.

Damask (twill): See Damask (false).

Damasquette: An 18th Century silk brocade of Venice, showing floral designs in gold thread which was rolled out flat under heavy pressure, after taken from the loom, forming a continuous gold surface.

Damasse’: (a) French shawl, made with combed wool warp and filling with large flower designs; (b) French for fabrics having both the ground and the large patterns woven in satin weave but of various coloured or lustred yarn; (c) In French, general term for fabrics woven on a Jacquard loom. See also Ouvre.

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