Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Textile Terms, Volume III by Mathews Kolanjikombil


Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Textile Terms, Volume III
by Mathews Kolanjikombil

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Textile Terms _ Volume 3

Preface vii
Volume I
1. A 1
2. B 99
3. C 222
Volume II
4. D 409
5. E 511
6. F 552
7. G 659
8. H 704
9. I 761
10. J 794
Volume III
11. K 811
12. L 834
13. M 889
14. N 975
15. O 1006
16. P 1034
17. Q 1160
18. R 1165
Volume IV
19. S 1227
20. T 1405
21. U 1494
22. V 1507
23. W 1532
24. X 1586
25. Y 1588
26. Z 1605


K index: (1) Index in general is used for characterizing a commercial grade of polyvinylchloride, calculated from its viscosity in solution and indicating its molecular weight. Polyvinylchloride with a K value of approximately 68–80 is usually used for coating. (2) Index is used for the classification of basic (cationic) dyes with respect to their rate of strike (Association index K). (3) Index is used in association with machines for measuring fabric length because of the effect on standardized length measurement due to the stretching of the material.

KA: Casein fibres.

Kabakaraman rugs: Coarse and heavy, small rugs made by the nomad Karamanian in Asia Minor. The warp and weft are of heavy and coarse wool. The long and very loose pile is tied in G-hordes knot. The design is usually that of a prayer rug.

Kabistan rugs: Very fine rugs made in Caucasia with cotton web, occasionally wool warp, and short, wool pile, tied closely in G-hordes knot. The designs are geometrical, stars and diamonds and pearls in rows often occur. The field is often divided into horizontal rows of pears or finely blended stripes. The border often contains conventionalized animal figures. The ends are finished with a narrow selvage and a loose or knotted fringe. The sides are overcast, occasionally having only one warp thread left.

Kabylo: French shawl, made with carded warp and filling.

Kachoji: Mosquito netting in Japan.

Kadu: Sleeping mat in Java, made of palm leaves.

Kaffir hemp: Very strong, white bast fibre, yielded by the South African, the Grewia occidentalis; used for rope and cloth toy the Kaffirs.

Kaffir sheet: Very coarse, twilled cotton fabric, with fancy coloured heading; used for garments by the natives of South Africa.

Kaga: Trade term for the medium grade Japanese silk fabrics.

Kagotsuko printing: Typical Japanese resist printing process, comparable with paste resist printing. See Resist printing.

Kaikai: A thin, cheap Japanese silk fabric.

Kaimakani: Fine sheer cotton cloth; used in Turkey to bind the turbans with.

Kairens: Turkish wool rug of good quality; used as floor and furniture cover.

Kairuan: Rug from Tunis, made by the natives of wool with hand tied knots.

Kaisarich rugs: Very bright-coloured hand-knotted rugs; the cotton or silk pile is tied in Ghiorde’s knot; made in Kaisa, in Asia Minor.

Kakarally: Very fine and thin layers of fibrous bast, obtained from the Monkey-pot tree in South America; used for wrapping, cordage, baskets, etc.

Kakeda fine: Japanese raw silk.

Kalamal: Striped cotton fabric with a white ground; used in Turkestan for dresses.

Kalasiris: Ancient national robes for men and women; narrow shell with straps, richly ornamented, shift style, transparent and finely pleated.

Kalga: Indian applique work; used for curtains and covers.

Kalamkari: Traditional printing with vegetable colours in India.

Kalmuck (fries, swanboy): In general, a 2-sided strongly raised soft cotton fabric, weight and roughened effect are even more marked than in Melton; twill(cross) weave with back pick or as double cloth, striped or with a check pattern. Also long-haired, coarse, thick woollen fabrics. Application for heavy blankets, bed padding, table under-cloths, back-cloth materials, ironing board and mangle covers.

Kaloz process (lime and ozone): It is a combined process for effluent cleaning, as a single stage or sequentially (better results) by the precipitation of organic/inorganic impurities using calcium hydroxide. By the use of the correct techniques, even fused and difficult to oxidise substances be made to oxidise more easily. Particularly suited for the cleaning of textile effluents due to its good decolourising effect.

Kama: Japanese trade term for the cotton cop.

Kambaliya: A bandhani design. See Bandhani.

Kamdani: Ancient Indian gold embroidery (silk thread wrapped in metal foil) of lighter style on fine fabric.

Kanakin: Generic trade term in Japan for a variety of plain woven cotton goods, shirting and print cloths.

Kanthas (embroidered quilts): Made from old saris and dhotis, for generations, by women of West Bengal, India, using coloured threads from borders for motifs and white and off-white thread from ground fabric for quilting. Rich folklore and landscape of rural Bengal with its green paddy fields, rhythm of seasons, festivals and daily life, rivers with boat and fish, animals, birds and plant life inspire the repertoire of motifs of kanthas. A style similar to the kantha are made in the neighbouring states of West Bengal called Ledra in Jharkhand, and Sujini in Bihar, India.

Kaolin: China clay, porcelain clay, terra alba, Al2O3 · 2SiO2· 2H2O, density 2.1–2.6. White, loose powder, practically insoluble in water. Application – with starches and oils for filling and softening of finishes (bleached cotton goods, light coloured lining fabrics); pigment for viscose de-lustring (fixed in particular by sulphonated surfactants); also as spotting powder; as tailor’s chalk, etc.

Kapok: Vegetable hair fibres from the fruit pod of tropical cotton of the Bombaceen family (kapok, cotton or silk cotton; East and West Africa, India, Java, Sumatra, Mexico, Brazil).The fibre resembling cotton but silkier, it is a seed fibre which is round, smoothand light. It is only used as a bulky soft filling in upholstery, cushions, mattresses, toys, etc.

Karabagh carpets: Knotted carpets from the Southern Caucasus, patterning and colours similar to Kazakh carpets, but shorter pile made of less lustrous wool. Approximately 1,50,000 Turkish knots per m2.

Karl-Fischer method (KF process): Simple and volumetric process for water determination, based upon the fact that iodine oxidizes sulphur dioxide to sulphuric acid in the presence of water. Particularly suitable in the presence of the smallest quantities of water in organic solvents, dyes, also in textiles.

Kasan: In Germany and Austria, a woollen dress goods that is similar to a stout flannel.

Kasha: (1) Kasha may also be a cotton flannel, with a napped right side, slightly ecru in colour and made as sheeting. (2) A softly napped fabric with a crosswise streak caused by darker hairs, may be made of fine wool and Tibet goat hair.

Kashan carpets: Knotted carpet from Central Persia. Fine ornamentation on a matt red, violet or dark blue background. Around 3,50,000 Persian knots per m2. Low, smooth pile made of fine wool.

Kasheda: Indian fabric, made of wild silk, often mixed with cotton, and embroidered.

Kashgar: Coarse cotton rugs with long loose wool pile tied in Senna knot. They are made in Central Asia. The design consists of Chinese fret, dragons, fish, etc., in bright pinks, orange, yellows, etc.

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