Knowledge-Intensive Entrepreneurship: An Analysis of the European Textile and Apparel Industries by Nancy J. Hodges, Albert N. Link

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Knowledge-Intensive Entrepreneurship: An Analysis of the European Textile and Apparel Industries
by Nancy J. Hodges, Albert N. Link
Knowledge-Intensive Entrepreneurship: An Analysis of the European Textile and Apparel Industries

Contents
1 Setting the Stage 1
2 The European Textile and Apparel Industries: An Institutional and Literature Review 15
3 Trends in the European Textile and Apparel Industries 29
4 The AEGIS Database 45
5 Characteristics of KIE Textile and Apparel Firms and Founders 53
6 Sources of Knowledge Used by KIE Textile and Apparel Firms 81
7 The Strategic Behavior of KIE Textile and Apparel Firms 105
8 The Entrepreneurial Performance of KIE Textile and Apparel Firms 135
9 The Antecedents of Entrepreneurial Performance in KIE Textile and Apparel Firms 139
10 Prescriptions for Growth for US Textile and Apparel Firms 145
11 Concluding Remarks 163
References 167

List of Figures

Fig. 1.1 Representation of direct and indirect paths from sources of knowledge to entrepreneurial performance ����� 14
Fig. 3.1 Annual growth rate in industrial production in the EU textile and apparel industries, 2002–2013 �������������������������� 32
Fig. 3.2 Annual growth rate in employment in the EU textile
and apparel industries, 2002–2013 ��������������� 32
Fig. 3.3 Annual growth rate in hours worked in the EU textile
and apparel industries, 2002–2013 ���������������� 33
Fig. 3.4 Annual growth rate in labor productivity per person
employed in the EU textile and apparel industries, 2002–2013 ��������� 33
Fig. 6.1 Illustration of mean firm responses about the importance
of factors for the formation of the company, by industry ������������������� 84
Fig. 6.2 Illustration of mean firm responses about the importance
of alternative sources of knowledge for exploring
new business opportunities, by industry ������� 86
Fig. 6.3 Representation of direct and indirect paths from sources
of knowledge to entrepreneurial performance ���� 103
Fig. 7.1 Representation of direct and indirect paths from sources
of knowledge to entrepreneurial performance ����� 105
Fig. 7.2 Illustration of mean firm contribution of factors
in creating and sustaining the competitive advantage
of the company, by industry ���������� 109
Fig. 7.3 Illustration of mean firm agreement to statements about
the sensing and seizing of opportunities within the firm,
by industry ������������� 117
Fig. 8.1 Illustration of descriptive data on measures
of entrepreneurial performance, by industry ������ 137
Fig. 9.1 Representation of the indirect paths from sources
of knowledge to entrepreneurial performance ����� 144
Fig. 10.1 Annual growth rate in US employment in the textile
mills industry, 2006–2015 ������ 148
Fig. 10.2 Annual growth rate in US employment in the textile
product mills industry, 2006–2015 ������������ 149
Fig. 10.3 Annual growth rate in US employment in the apparel
industry, 2006–2015 �������� 149
Fig. 10.4 Textile fibers (HS codes 50–53, 55, and 63) import
and export, 2006–2015 ������ 152
Fig. 10.5 Textile (NAICS 313) domestic shipment (Production),
1997–2012 ��������� 152
Fig. 10.6 Textile yarn, fabrics, made-up articles, NES, and retail
products (HS codes 50–60, 63, and 65) import and export,
2006–2015 ��������� 153
Fig. 10.7 Apparel (NAICS 315) domestic shipment (production),
1997–2012 ������������������ 153
Fig. 10.8 Articles of apparel and clothing accessories
(HS codes 61, 62, and 65) import and export, 2006–2015 ��������������� 154

List of Tables

Table 1.1 Characterization of the static versus dynamic roles of an entrepreneur �� 5
Table 1.2 Definitions of knowledge-intensive entrepreneurship (KIE) �� 8
Table 3.1 Taxonomy of the European textile industry �������� 30
Table 3.2 Taxonomy of the European apparel industry ���� 31
Table 3.3 Number of EU textile industry enterprises,
by country, 2005–2014 �������� 35
Table 3.4 Number of EU textile industry employees,
by country, 2005–2014 ���������� 37
Table 3.5 Number of EU apparel industry enterprises,
by country, 2005–2014 ��������� 39
Table 3.6 Number of EU apparel industry employees,
by country, 2005–2014 �������� 41
Table 4.1 AEGIS sampling population and survey sample,
by country ������������ 48
Table 4.2 Distribution of AEGIS firms, by country and by sector ������������������� 49
Table 4.3 Distribution of AEGIS firms in the European textile
and apparel industries, by country ������������ 50
Table 4.4 Segmentation of EU industries, by sector ��� 52
Table 5.1 Distribution of AEGIS firms in the European textile
and apparel industries, by country ������������ 55
Table 5.2 Characteristics of textile and apparel firms ������ 56
Table 5.3 Correlation matrix among firm age, number
of full-time employees, number of part-time
employees,
and percent of workers that are part-time employees,
by industry �������������� 58
Table 5.4 Characteristics of textile and apparel firm founders ������������������������� 59
Table 5.5 Human capital and financial capital characteristics
of textile and apparel firms ������������� 60
Table 5.6 Percent of textile founders by most recent
occupational experience, by country (n = 91) ������ 63
Table 5.7 Percent of apparel founders by most recent occupational
experience, by country (n = 84) ��������� 64
Table 5.8 Correlation matrix among founder age, education,
and experience, by industry �������������� 65
Table 5.9 Firm founder characteristics in the textile
and apparel industries, by gender ����������������� 66
Table 5.10 Characteristics of nascent entrepreneurs
and established entrepreneurs in firms in the textile
and apparel industries ����������� 68
Table 5.11 Annotated literature review related to financial capital �������������������� 70
Table 5.12 Annotated literature review related
to nascent entrepreneurs ���������� 78
Table 6.1 Mean firm responses about the importance
of factors for the formation of the company, by industry ����� 84
Table 6.2 Mean firm responses about the importance
of alternative sources of knowledge for exploring
new business opportunities, by industry ��� 86
Table 6.3 Mean textile firm responses about the importance
of factors for the formation of the company,
by country (n = 91) ������������� 88
Table 6.4 Mean apparel firm responses about the importance
of factors for the formation of the company,
by country (n = 84) ���������� 89
Table 6.5 Mean textile firm responses about the importance
of alternative sources of knowledge for exploring
new business opportunities, by country (n = 91) ������������������������������ 90
Table 6.6 Mean apparel firm responses about the importance
of alternative sources of knowledge for exploring
new business opportunities, by country (n = 84) ������� 91
Table 6.7 Correlation matrix between the importance
of factors for the formation of the company
from the perspective of textile firms (n = 91) �������������� 94
Table 6.8 Correlation matrix between the importance of factors
for the formation of the company from the perspective
of apparel firms (n = 84) ������������������� 95
Table 6.9 Correlation matrix between the importance of alternative
sources of knowledge for exploring new business
opportunities from the perspective of textile firms (n = 91) ������ 97
Table 6.10 Correlation matrix between the importance
of alternative sources of knowledge for exploring
new business opportunities from the perspective
of apparel firms (n = 84) �������� 99
Table 7.1 Mean firm responses about the contribution
of factors in creating and sustaining the competitive
advantage of the company, by industry ��� 108
Table 7.2 Mean textile firm responses about the contribution
of factors in creating and sustaining the competitive
advantage of the company, by country (n = 91) ����������������������������� 110
Table 7.3 Mean apparel firms’ responses about the contribution
of factors in creating and sustaining the competitive
advantage of the company, by country (n = 84) ��� 111
Table 7.4 Correlation matrix between the textile firm responses
to the contribution of factors in creating and sustaining
the competitive advantage of the company (n = 91) ����������������������� 113
Table 7.5 Correlation matrix between the apparel firms’ responses
to the contribution of factors in creating and sustaining
the competitive advantage of the company (n = 84) ����������������������� 114
Table 7.6 Mean firm agreement to statements regarding
the sensing and seizing of opportunities within the firm,
by industry �������������������������� 116
Table 7.7 Mean agreement by textile firms to statements
about the sensing and seizing of opportunities within
the firm, by country (n = 91) ������������������ 118
Table 7.8 Mean agreement by apparel firms to statements about
the sensing and seizing of opportunities within the firm,
by country (n = 84) ��������������������� 120
Table 7.9 Correlation matrix between textile firms’ agreement
to statements about the sensing and seizing
of opportunities within the firm (n = 91) ������������ 122
Table 7.10 Correlation matrix between apparel firms’
agreement to statements about the sensing and seizing
of opportunities within the firm (n = 84) �������������� 125
Table 7.11 Correlation matrix among textile firms’ source
of knowledge and strategic behavior indices (n = 91) �������������������� 131
Table 7.12 Correlation matrix among apparel firms’ sources
of knowledge and strategic behavior indices (n = 84) �������������������� 132
Table 8.1 Descriptive data on measures of entrepreneurial
performance, by industry ���������������� 137
Table 9.1 Correlation matrix between sources of knowledge,
strategic behavior, and entrepreneurial performance
for textile firms (n = 91) �������������� 141
Table 9.2 Correlation matrix between sources of knowledge,
strategic behavior, and entrepreneurial performance
for apparel firms (n = 84) ���������������������� 142
Table 10.1 Taxonomy of the US textile mills industry ��������������������������� 146
Table 10.2 Taxonomy of the US textile product mills industry ��� 147
Table 10.3 Taxonomy of the US apparel industry ����������������������������� 148
Table 10.4 The largest occupations in the US textile
and apparel industries from May 2015 ��������������������������� 150
Table 10.5 Establishments in textile, textile product,
and apparel manufacturing (in thousands), 2014 ��������������������������� 151
Table 11.1 Correlation matrix between strategic behavior
and entrepreneurial performance for textile firms (n = 91) ������������ 165
Table 11.2 Correlation matrix between strategic behavior
and entrepreneurial performance for apparel firms (n = 91) ���������� 165


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