Materials in Sports Equipment, Volume 2 Edited by Aleksandar Subic


Materials in Sports Equipment, Volume 2
Edited by Aleksandar Subic

Materials in Sports Equipment. Volume 2

Contributor contact details xi
Preface xv
Introduction xvii
Part I General issues 1
1 Modelling of materials for sports equipment 3
M. Strangwood, The University of Birmingham, UK
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 Properties of metallic alloys 4
1.3 Modelling the properties of metallic alloys 9
1.4 Modelling polymeric materials 15
1.5 Properties and modelling of composites 18
1.6 Modelling sandwich structures 23
1.7 Future trends 31
1.8 Acknowledgements 32
1.9 References 33
2 Non-destructive testing of sports equipment:
the use of infrared thermography 35
M. P. Luong, LMS CNRS, France
2.1 Introduction 35
2.2 Principles of infrared thermography testing 36
2.3 Infrared thermography technology 40
2.4 Applications: mechanical performance of tennis
racket strings 42
2.5 Applications: damage detection in leather sports
footwear 47
2.6 Applications: testing sailcloth for yachts 52
2.7 Applications: soccer and long distance walking 53
2.8 Summary 57
2.9 References 57
3 Materials and design for sports apparel 60
K. B. Blair, Sports Innovation Group LLC, USA
3.1 Introduction 60
3.2 Textiles for sports apparel: fibers, yarns and fabrics 61
3.3 Finishing and fasteners 66
3.4 Testing sports apparel performance 69
3.5 Design of sports apparel: thermal performance 72
3.6 Design of sports apparel: water resistance and
other properties 78
3.7 Future trends 81
3.8 Sources of further information and advice 84
3.9 References 85
4 Protective helmets in sports 87
S. V. Caswell, George Mason University, USA;
T. E. Gould and J. S. Wiggins,
University of Southern Mississippi, USA
4.1 Introduction 87
4.2 Incidence of mild traumatic brain injury in sport 88
4.3 Biomechanics and dynamics of head impacts
in sport 89
4.4 Helmet construction: shell materials 95
4.5 Helmet construction: liner materials 100
4.6 Helmet safety standards and performance testing 104
4.7 Helmet design for particular sports: lacrosse,
ice hockey, rugby and football/soccer 110
4.8 Future trends 117
4.9 Sources of further information and advice 117
4.10 Acknowledgements 123
4.11 References 123
5 Mouth protection in sports 127
T. E. Gould, S. G. Piland, C. E. Hoyle and
S. Nazarenko, University of Southern Mississippi,
5.1 Introduction 127
5.2 The development and classification of mouth protection in sport 128
5.3 Incidence of orofacial injury in sport 131
5.4 Biomechanics and dynamics of dental injury 132
5.5 Polymeric materials and fabrication techniques for mouthguards 140
5.6 Standards and testing for mouthguards 145
5.7 Comfort and fit of mouthguards 148
5.8 Future trends 149
5.9 Sources of further information and advice 150
5.10 Acknowledgements 154
5.11 References 154
Part II Specific sports 157
6 Design and materials in baseball 159
J. Sherwood and P. Drane, University of
Massachusetts–Lowell, USA
6.1 Introduction 159
6.2 Ball design and construction 162
6.3 Bat design and construction 166
6.4 Baseball gloves 176
6.5 Protective and other equipment 178
6.6 Future trends 181
6.7 Sources of further information and advice 182
6.8 Acknowledgements 183
6.9 References 184
7 Design and materials in snowboarding 185
A. Subic and J. Kovacs, RMIT University, Australia
7.1 Introduction 185
7.2 Riding styles in snowboarding 186
7.3 Snowboard design 188
7.4 Materials and their configuration in snowboards 192
7.5 Manufacture of snowboards 195
7.6 Summary and future trends 200
7.7 Acknowledgements 202
7.8 References 202
8 Design and materials in ice hockey 203
D. Pearsall and R. Turcotte, McGill University, Canada
8.1 Introduction 203
8.2 Skate design 203
8.3 Evaluating skate design 205
8.4 The design of ice hockey sticks 213
8.5 Evaluating ice hockey stick design 217
8.6 Summary 222
8.7 References 222
9 Design and materials in fly fishing 225
G. Spolek, Portland State University, USA
9.1 Introduction 225
9.2 Performance requirements: hooking and landing
the fish 228
9.3 Performance requirements: casting 231
9.4 Leaders 234
9.5 Flylines 236
9.6 Rods 239
9.7 Reels 244
9.8 Summary and future trends 245
9.9 References 246
10 Design and materials in archery 248
B. W. Kooi, Vrije Universiteit, The Netherlands
10.1 Introduction 248
10.2 Modelling bow performance 250
10.3 Modelling bow design 255
10.4 Modelling bow materials and their properties 258
10.5 Summary and future trends 267
10.6 Conclusions 268
10.7 References 269
11 Design and materials in rowing 271
B. K. Filter, Consultant, Germany
11.1 Introduction 271
11.2 International regulation of competitive rowing
equipment 271
11.3 Design of modern rowing boats 277
11.4 Materials and technologies for modern rowing boats 281
11.5 Materials and technologies for rowing boat equipment 286
11.6 Materials and technologies for oars 291
11.7 Testing of rowing material 292
11.8 Leisure rowing boats and equipment 294
11.9 Acknowledgements 295
12 Design and materials in athletics 296
N. Linthorne, Brunel University, UK
12.1 Introduction 296
12.2 Pole vault design and materials 297
12.3 Javelin design and materials 304
12.4 Design and materials for the shot put, hammer and discus 307
12.5 Design and materials for hurdles, starting blocks and shoes for athletes 309
12.6 Design and materials for running surfaces and other athletic facilities 312
12.7 Design and materials in timing and other equipment 314
12.8 Future trends 317
12.9 Sources of further information and advice 318
12.10 References 318
13 Design and materials in fitness equipment 321
M. Caine and C. Yang, Loughborough University, UK
13.1 Introduction 321
13.2 Market research for fitness equipment 322
13.3 The product development process 325
13.4 Using materials and processes to improve design of fitness equipment 332
13.5 Future trends 335
13.6 Sources of further information and advice 337
13.7 Acknowledgements 338
13.8 References 338

Today, more people than ever before are participating in sports. With increased interest and participation in sports, and the extensive media coverage of sporting events worldwide, sport has evolved into a global business worth around US$600 billion in total. The world sporting goods market is estimated at US$120 billion retail, with footwear accounting for US$30 billion, apparel US$50 billion and equipment US$40 billion. The sporting goods industry has diversified over the years to accommodate the different interests and needs of the athletes and also of consumers in general. The industry has also promoted and helped to develop new sports that have in turn served as catalysts for new types of products.

The quest for new markets, records and sports supremacy has led to millions of dollars being spent on research in and development of sport techniques and equipment. Athletes are now involved in increasingly complex systems that rely heavily on advanced technologies. New technologies and materials readily adopted from other industries have made sport faster, more powerful and enjoyable. For example, materials such as carbon fibre reinforced polymers, new elastomers, new sandwich and foam structures and high-strength steel, titanium and aluminium alloys developed initially for defence and space applications, have improved sports products dramatically. The sports equipment industry has been exceptionally receptive to new materials and processes, due primarily to the fact that it is less material- cost sensitive than other, more conventional, industry sectors. The price of sports equipment, as in the case of biomedical equipment for example, easily compensates for the cost of the materials used. This is due mainly to the high ‘value-added’ generated through innovation and design whereby the value of the product as perceived by the customer is much higher than the costs involved in making it, especially if the equipment in question enhances the performance of the athlete.

Materials in sports equipment Volume 1 introduced this topic and discussed details of advancements in materials and processes used for sports equipment. Also, it provided in-depth coverage of selected equipment used in specific sports. The main objective of this second volume is to expand the body of knowledge in the area by offering a greater insight into some contemporary topics of relevance to the design of modern sports equipment using new and improved materials and structures. Volume 2 combines coverage of recent developments in both advanced materials and novel processing methods which have enhanced the properties of materials and improved the design of individual sporting goods. It provides comprehensive coverage of equipment used for popular sports not addressed by other texts in the field. This volume in particular describes in detail the interrelationships between the design intents and materials used, taking into account broader considerations such as life cycle design of sports equipment and sustainability issues in general.

The book comprises two distinct parts, the first covering general issues of interest to all sports and the second focusing on specific sports. Specific sports such as baseball, snowboarding, ice hockey, fly fishing, archery, rowing, athletics, and fitness equipment are covered in detail in individual chapters.

I gratefully acknowledge all the authors who have contributed to this book, and also thank Woodhead Publishing for continued support and assistance in the production of this publication. Finally, I hope that the book’s diversity of topics and approaches to the interdisciplinary subject of design and materials for sports equipment will make it an essential reference source for all materials scientists and sports equipment designers and also for manufacturers developing products in this rapidly evolving field.

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