Nonwovens: Process, Structure, Properties and Applications | T. Karthik, R. Rathinamoorthy and C. Praba Karan

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Nonwovens: Process, Structure, Properties and Applications
By T. Karthik, R. Rathinamoorthy and C. Praba Karan
Nonwovens: Process, Structure, Properties and Applications

Contents
Preface ix
Foreword xiii
List of figures xv
List of tables xxi
1. Introduction to nonwovens 1
1.1 Definition of nonwoven 2
1.2 Classification of nonwovens 3
1.3 History of nonwovens 4
1.4 Market growth of nonwoven industry 6
1.5 Features of nonwoven fabrics 10
1.6 Raw materials for nonwovens 11
1.7 Product properties and applications of nonwovens 27
2. Web formation 34
2.1 Introduction 34
2.2 Staple fiber web formation system 35
2.3 Polymer lay process 75
2.4 Comparison of different web forming techniques 88
3. Nonwoven bonding techniques 95
3.1 Introduction 95
3.2 Mechanical bonding 97
3.3 Chemical bonding 132
3.4 Thermal bonding 138
3.5 Comparison of different web bonding techniques 150
4. Finishing of nonwovens 156
4.1 Introduction 156
4.2 Mechanical finishing 157
4.3 Chemical finishing 167
5. Testing of nonwovens 181
5.1 Introduction 181
5.2 Characterization of bonding structures 182
5.3 Testing of nonwovens 185
6. Applications of nonwovens 211
6.1 Introduction 211
6.2 Application of nonwovens in apparel 215
6.3 Application of nonwovens in agriculture 218
6.4 Application of nonwovens in geotextiles 222
6.5 Application of nonwovens in medical textiles 225
6.6 Application of nonwoven in automotive textiles 232
6.7 Application of nonwovens in filtration 235
6.8 Application of nonwovens in home textiles 242
6.9 Application of nonwovens in roofing and construction 244
6.10 Application of nonwovens in packaging 244
7. Composite nonwovens 249
7.1 Definition 249
7.2 Importance of composite nonwovens 250
7.3 Types of composite nonwovens 250
7.4 Composite nonwoven manufacturing processes 251
7.5 Application of composite nonwoven structures 271
8. Natural fiber nonwovens 285
8.1 Introduction 285
8.2 Cotton fiber nonwovens 287
8.3 Flax fiber nonwovens 289
8.4 Jute fiber nonwovens 292
8.5 Hemp fiber nonwovens 295
8.6 Kenaf fiber nonwovens 298
8.7 Milkweed fiber nonwovens 299
8.8 Pineapple fiber nonwovens 303
8.9 Abaca fiber nonwovens 304
8.10 Sisal fiber nonwovens 305
8.11 Wool fiber nonwovens 307
8.12 Kapok fiber nonwovens 307
Index 315

Preface
Industries play a vital role in economy of nations as these industries manufacture different kind of products and relive the nation from importing them from other countries. Textile industries are also manufacturing different kind of fabric for clothing, furnishing, and industrial utility applications. In the conventional fabric, the fibre is first made into yarns; on the other hand, nonwovens are manufactured sheets or webs directionally or randomly orientated fibres, bonded through resistance, solidity or sticking together into a fabric.

The demands for fabrics have increased sharply over the years and conventional textiles are not in a position to meet the production cost and higher cost of upgradation along with demanding consumers in new fields of consumption. With better customization of characteristics into the fabric and appropriateness to certain end uses being advantages, nonwovens have emerged rapidly as the fabrics of the future. The ability to produce nonwovens with excellent characteristics in lesser response time and at affordable cost is the most vital factor contributing to its rapid development and commercial acceptance worldwide. On the other hand, nonwoven fabrics hold some natural characteristics, which led them to be counted for non-usable in certain applications. At present, many research and development has been conducted on enhancing the characteristics of nonwoven fabrics. Nonwovens are also entering into some astonishing fields, with making its mark in fashion apparel also.

Demand for nonwovens in developed countries is expected to accelerate from the pace set from 2007 to 2012, when recessionary conditions for most of the period brought outright declines in manufacturing and construction activity. Between 2013 and 2018, the global nonwovens market will experience projected annual growth rates of 7.6% (tonnage), 7.5% ($) and 8.2% (m2) according to a new market report by Smithers Apex. Nonwovens are divided into two major categories: disposable and durable nonwovens. According to the report, disposable nonwovens surpassed durables in value growth between 2008 and 2013, increasing from $9.1 billion to $12.5 billion, resulting in an annual growth rate of 6.7%. Within the same timeframe, durable nonwovens grew from $15.3 billion to $20.6 billion tonnes, at an annual growth rate of 6.1%. According to The Future of Global Nonwovens to 2018, spunlaid is projected to grow at the highest rate of all processes, with consumption projected to reach 5.8 million tonnes by 2018.

This book ‘Nonwovens: Process, Structure, Properties and Applications’ plays a vital role in outlining the basic concepts of selection of raw material, manufacturing principles of nonwoven, finishing and characterization of nonwovens. Further, the book provides brief about the composite nonwoven structures and its applications and the application of natural fibre nonwovens in various sectors.

Chapter 1 outlines the various definitions of nonwoven, their classification and market potential of nonwoven based on manufacturing technologies and application areas. Further, the raw material requirements for the manufacturing of nonwoven such as fibres, additives and binders are also discussed in detail. Chapter 2 outlines the various web formation techniques for the manufacturing of nonwovens such as drylaid, wetlaid, spunbond and meltblown. The web formation principle, influence of material and process variables on web formation and product characteristics are discussed in detail for all web formation techniques.

Chapter 3 discusses the different web bonding techniques such as mechanical, chemical and thermal bonding methods. In case of mechanical bonding needle punching, stitch bonding and hydroentanglement; in chemical bonding saturation, spray, print, foam and powder bonding; in case of thermal bonding hot and belt calendaring, through-air thermal bonding, ultrasonic and radiant heat bonding methods are dealt in detail with respect to principle, influence of machine and process parameters on bonding, product characteristics. Further, comprehensive comparison of three web bonding methods is also given in detail.

Chapter 4 provides brief information about the various kinds of finishes for nonwoven structures categorized as mechanical, chemical and specialty finishes with respect to the principle of finishing process, their application areas and limitations.

Chapter 5 provides the comprehensive information about the various testing methods and standards for testing of raw materials and nonwoven products. Apart from the basic testing methods, porosity of nonwoven structure, fibre orientation angle and distribution and contact angle measurement are also discussed. Further, product-specific testing of nonwovens such as testing parameters and standards for medical and hygiene textiles, house hold products, protective clothing, geotextiles and filter media are also provided. Chapter 6 discusses about the application areas of nonwoven products in various sectors such as apparel, agrotech, geotech, medical and hygiene, automotive textiles, filtration products, home textiles, roofing and construction and packaging.

Chapter 7 provides brief information about the advanced method of production of nonwoven called as composite nonwoven structures for specific end-use applications. Various methods of production of composite nonwoven such as blending of two or more fibres, layered composite nonwovens, laminated composite nonwovens, hybrid nonwovens, particulate nonwovens and nanofibre nonwovens and their application in medical & hygiene, filtration, sound and thermal insulation products are discussed in detail. The last chapter (Chapter 8) reviews the application potential of natural fibre based nonwovens in various sectors. The natural fibres such as cotton, flax, jute, hemp, kenaf, milkweed, pineapple, abaca, sisal, wool and kapok are discussed with respect to their application as nonwoven structures.

This book is primarily a text book intended for Textile Technology and Fashion Technology students in universities and colleges, researchers, industrialists and academicians, as well as professionals in the apparel and textile industry.


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