Scientific Protocols for Forensic Examination of Clothing by Jane Moira Taupin and Chesterene Cwiklik

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Scientific Protocols for Forensic Examination of Clothing
by Jane Moira Taupin and Chesterene Cwiklik
Scientific Protocols for Forensic Examination of Clothing

Table of Contents
Preface xi
Acknowledgments xv
About the Authors xvii
1 Protocols, Procedures, and Philosophy 1
1.1 The Importance of Clothing Examination 1
1.2 Clothing a “Crime Scene” 2
1.3 Multiple Hypotheses, Alternative Explanations 3
1.4 The Origin of Evidence 4
1.5 Searching for Evidence and the Screening Effect 5
1.6 Checklists, Guidelines, and Protocols 6
1.7 Nonprescriptive Holistic Approach 7
1.8 References 7
2 Preliminary Inquiries 9
2.1 Focus of the Examination 9
2.2 Information Concerning the Crime 9
2.3 Levels of Information 10
2.3.1 Description vs. Identification 10
2.3.2 Data, Results, Conclusions, Interpretations 11
2.3.3 Stability of Information 11
2.4 History of Exhibit 11
2.5 Reference and Control Samples 12
2.6 Preservation, Handling, and Storage 13
2.7 Contamination Issues 14
2.8 Health and Safety 14
2.9 References 15
3 Preliminary Assessment 17
3.1 Documentation 17
3.2 Detection 18
3.3 Recovery 20
3.4 Clothing Construction 21
3.5 Yarn and Fabric Composition 23
3.6 Yarns or Threads 23
3.7 Fabric 24
3.7.1 Weave 24
3.7.2 Knit 26
3.7.3 Felts, Leather, and Other “Non-Wovens” 27
3.8 Definitions 28
3.9 Sewing Terminology 28
3.10 Clothing Construction Terminology 29
3.11 References 29
4 Stains and Deposits 31
4.1 Introduction 31
4.2 Information from Preliminary Examination 34
4.2.1 Overview 34
4.2.2 Class of Material 36
4.2.3 Appearance of Deposit 36
4.2.4 Manner of Deposit 36
4.2.5 Sequence of Deposit and Time of Deposit 38
4.2.6 Deposit from the Outside or the Inside Surface 38
4.2.7 Direct or Indirect Transfer 39
4.2.8 Alteration 39
4.2.9 Wear 42
4.2.10 Alteration from Immersion in Water and Alteration
from Burning 44
4.2.11 Alteration from the Examination 45
4.2.12 Relationship to Other Stains, Deposits, or Damage 45
4.3 Getting Started: Workflow for Examination of Stains and Deposits 49
4.3.1 Examining Individual Stains and Deposits 53
4.3.2 Smears and Directional Contact Deposits 53
4.3.3 Projected Stains and Deposits — Spatters, Scatters,
and Splashes 57
4.3.4 Grouped Stains, Deposits, and Damage 57
4.3.5 Comparing Stains and Deposits on Different Items 59
4.4 Sampling of Stains and Deposits 62
4.4.1 Basis for Sampling 62
4.4.2 Preliminary Sampling 63
4.4.3 Crusts and Films 63
4.4.4 Caked Deposits and Heterogeneous Agglomerates 64
4.4.5 Powdery Deposits 64
4.4.6 Stains 65
4.4.7 Viscous Deposits 65
4.5 Questions That Can Be Addressed by Stains and Deposits 65
4.6 Sorting Tools for Stains and Deposits 66
4.6.1 Sorting Tools for Preliminary Evaluation 66
4.6.2 Sorting Tools for Examining Samples Received
from Another Examiner 66
4.7 Establishing a Reference Collection 66
4.8 Writing Reports 68
4.9 Summary 69
4.10 Terminology for Stains and Deposits 71
4.10.1 Terminology for Appearance 71
4.10.2 Terminology for Manner of Deposit 72
4.11 References 72
5 Pattern Evidence 75
5.1 Blood Pattern Analysis (BPA) 75
5.1.1 Impact Blood Spatter 79
5.1.1.1 Gunshot 79
5.1.1.2 Beating and Stabbing 79
5.1.2 Projected Blood Spatter 80
5.1.2.1 Expirated Blood 80
5.1.2.2 Arterial Spurt 81
5.1.2.3 Cast-Off Spatter 82
5.1.2.4 Secondary Spatter 82
5.1.3 Directionality 83
5.1.4 Clotted Blood 83
5.1.5 Transfer Bloodstain Patterns and Contact Bloodstains 83
5.1.6 Altered Bloodstain Patterns 85
5.1.7 Limitations 87
5.1.8 BPA Terminology Suggested for Use in Clothing Examination 87
5.2 Firearm Discharge Residue Patterns 88
5.3 Direct Contact Impressions: Imprints and Indentations 90
5.3.1 Fingerprints 91
5.3.2 Footwear 91
5.3.3 Tire Marks 91
5.3.4 Lipstick Prints 93
5.3.5 Weapon, Tool, and Object Marks 93
5.3.6 Fabric Impressions 93
5.4 Physical Fit 94
5.5 References 94
6 Damage 97
6.1 Introduction 97
6.2 Damage Categories 98
6.3 Examination Approach 101
6.4 Normal Wear and Tear and “Recency” 104
6.5 Cuts 105
6.6 Tears 108
6.7 Holes and Punctures 110
6.8 Stabbing 110
6.9 Simulations 113
6.10 Physical Fit 114
6.11 Glass Cuts 114
6.12 Microbial Damage 115
6.13 Thermal (Fire and Heat) Damage 116
6.14 Firearm Damage 117
6.15 Other Textiles 120
6.16 Limitations 120
6.17 Glossary of Terms 120
6.18 References 121
7 Human Biological Evidence 123
7.1 Blood 124
7.1.1 Testing for Blood 124
7.2 Semen 127
7.2.1 Testing for Semen 128
7.3 Saliva 131
7.3.1 Testing for Saliva 133
7.4 Vaginal Secretions, Urine, Feces, and Vomit 133
7.4.1 Vaginal Secretions 133
7.4.2 Urine 133
7.4.3 Feces 134
7.4.4 Vomit 134
7.5 Dandruff 134
7.6 DNA 135
7.7 Wearer DNA 137
7.8 Trace DNA 137
7.9 Multiple Body Sources 138
7.10 Mixtures 139
7.11 Nonhuman Biological Evidence 140
7.12 Conclusion 140
7.13 References 141
8 Traces and Debris 145
8.1 The Nature of Debris 146
8.2 Sorting Tools for Evaluating Traces and Debris 146
8.3 Composition of Debris 147
8.3.1 Normal Debris vs. Foreign Debris 147
8.3.2 Individual Types of Material vs. Sets of Debris 149
8.4 Component vs. Non-Component Debris 150
8.5 Transfers of Debris 150
8.5.1 Transfers of Individual Types of Material 151
8.5.1.1 Paint 151
8.5.1.2 Glass 154
8.5.1.3 Hair 156
8.5.1.4 Fibers 160
8.5.1.5 Gunpowder Particles 161
8.5.1.6 Soil and Sand 161
8.5.1.7 Pollen, Spores, Wood, and Other Plant Parts 163
8.5.1.8 Insects and Insect Parts 164
8.5.1.9 Cosmetics and Glitter 164
8.5.1.10 Foam Rubber and Plastics 165
8.5.1.11 Lubricants from Condoms, Contraceptive Creams,
and Related Materials 167
8.5.1.12 Soot and Other Black Smudges 168
8.5.1.13 Beads and Spheres from Welding, Soldering,
Burning, and Incineration 168
8.5.1.14 Materials from Evidence Packaging 170
8.5.2 Transfer via Direct or Indirect Contact 171
8.5.3 Transfer, Persistence, and Detection 174
8.5.3.1 The Problem of Detection 174
8.5.3.2 Evaluating Transfer and Persistence 176
8.6 Questions That Can Be Addressed by Examinations of Traces and
Debris 177
8.7 Questions of Contact 181
8.8 Target vs. Context-Based Examinations 182
8.9 Absence of Debris 182
8.10 Summary: Nature, Composition, Source, and Transfers of
Traces and Debris 184
8.11 Sampling and Sorting 184
8.11.1 Sampling Rationale 185
8.11.2 Sampling Criteria 186
8.11.3 Sequence of Sampling and Collection 188
8.11.4 Techniques for Sampling and Collection 189
8.11.4.1 Sample Size and Composition 189
8.11.4.2 Sampling and Sorting Techniques 189
8.11.4.3 Special Problems in Sample Collection 193
8.11.5 Collecting Samples for Target Examinations 194
8.11.6 Collecting Samples for Context-Based Examinations 195
8.12 Reference Samples and Reference Standards 196
8.12.1 Reference Samples 196
8.12.2 Reference Standards 196
8.12.3 Primary and Secondary Reference Samples 197
8.13 Reconstruction of Events 198
8.14 Process-Based Descriptive Terminology for Traces and Debris 199
8.15 Trace Evidence Recovery Guidelines 200
8.16 References 201
9 Results and Their Significance 205
9.1 Significance of the Evidence 205
9.2 Expectations 206
9.3 Context of Evidence Obtained from Clothing 207
9.4 Objectivity and Opinion 208
9.5 The Adversarial System and the Law 209
9.6 Interpretation and Communication of the Evidence 209
9.7 Peer, Technical, and Administrative Reviews 210
9.8 Training and Maintaining the Expertise of the Clothing Examiner 211
9.9 References 212
Appendix 1 213
Appendix 2 215
Appendix 3 217
Appendix 4 219


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