The Science of Footwear by Ravindra S. Goonetilleke

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The Science of Footwear
By Ravindra S. Goonetilleke
The Science of Footwear

Contents
Preface.................................................................................................................... xiii
Acknowledgments.....................................................................................................xv
Editor......................................................................................................................xvii
Contributors.............................................................................................................xix
Part I T he Human Foot
Chapter 1 Foot Structure and Anatomy.................................................................3
Ma Xiao, Yan Luximon, and Ameersing Luximon
Chapter 2 Foot Morphology................................................................................. 19
Inga Krauss and Marlene Mauch
Chapter 3 Foot Characteristics and Related Empirical Models........................... 47
Shuping Xiong, Asanka S. Rodrigo, and Ravindra S. Goonetilleke
Anthony C. Redmond
Part II Scanning and Processing
Chapter 5 3D Shape Capture of Human Feet and Shoe Lasts........................... 113
Carl G. Saunders and Jeffrey Chang
Chapter 6 3D Surface Scanning......................................................................... 127
Sudhakar Rajulu and Brian D. Corner
Chapter 7 Three-Dimensional Data Processing Techniques............................. 147
Jianhui Zhao, Yihua Ding, and Ravindra S. Goonetilleke
Part III Footwear Design
Chapter 8 Capturing Footwear Needs for Delighting Customers...................... 177
Emily Y.L. Au and Ravindra S. Goonetilleke
Chapter 9 Shoe-Last Design and Development................................................. 193
Ameersing Luximon and Yan Luximon
Chapter 10 Computer-Aided Design of Footwear............................................... 213
Ajay Joneja and Fan Sai Kit
Chapter 11 High-Heeled Shoes............................................................................ 261
Makiko Kouchi
Chapter 12 Footbed Design................................................................................. 279
Ravindra S. Goonetilleke and Thilina W. Weerasinghe
Chapter 13 Design of Insoles............................................................................... 291
Tammy M. Owings and Georgeanne Botek
Chapter 14 Design of Custom Shoe Lasts for Challenging Feet.........................309
Carl G. Saunders, Claudia Kieserling, and Johan Steenwyk
Chapter 15 Finite Element Analysis Methods in Footwear Design..................... 321
Philip Azariadis
Chapter 16 Footwear—The Forgotten Treatment—Clinical Role
of Footwear.................................................................................. 341
Helen Branthwaite, Nachiappan Chockalingam, and Aoife Healy
Part IV Testing
Chapter 17 Foot Pressure Measurements............................................................ 359
Ewald M. Hennig
Chapter 18 Plantar Pressure Analysis.................................................................. 377
Noël Keijsers
Chapter 19 Virtual Shoe Test Bed.......................................................................409
Sandra Alemany, José Olaso, Sergio Puigcerver,
and Juan Carlos González
Chapter 20 Measuring the Motion Control Properties of Footwear:
Assessment of Footwear and Foot Function Should Be
Harmonized....................................................................................... 437
Stephen Urry, Lloyd Reed, and William Gordon
Part V Footwear Effects
Chapter 21 Footwear Effects on Running Kinematics........................................ 457
Joseph Hamill, Allison H. Gruber, and Ross H. Miller
Chapter 22 Footwear Influences on Running Biomechanics............................... 475
Gordon A. Valiant, Allison R. Medellin, Lorilynn Bloomer,
and Sharna M. Clark-Donovan
Chapter 23 Effects of Footwear on Muscle Function..........................................489
George S. Murley and Karl Landorf
Chapter 24 Postural Stability Measurement: Implications for Footwear
Interventions...................................................................................... 513
Anna Lucy Hatton and Keith Rome
Chapter 25 Footwear, Balance, and Falls in the Elderly...................................... 535
Jasmine C. Menant and Stephen R. Lord
Part VI A ctivity-Specific Footwear
Chapter 26 Soccer Shoe Design and Its Influence on Player’s Performance....... 561
Ewald M. Hennig and Katharina Althoff
Chapter 27 Footwear for Preventing Acute Sport-Related Ankle
Ligamentous Sprain Injury................................................................ 577
Daniel Tik-Pui Fong, Kai-Ming Chan, and Kam-Ming Mok
Chapter 28 Kinematics Analysis of Walking with Negative-Heeled Shoes
on Treadmills.................................................................................... 595
Youlian Hong and Jing Xian Li
Chapter 29 Athletic Footwear Research by Industry and Academia..................605
Thorsten Sterzing, Wing Kai Lam, and Jason Tak-Man Cheung
Part VII Customization
Chapter 30 Mass Customization and Footwear................................................... 625
Chenjie Wang and Mitchell M. Tseng
Chapter 31 Strategic Capabilities to Implement Mass Customization
of Athletic Footwear: The Example of Miadidas..............................643
Frank Piller, Evalotte Lindgens, and Frank Steiner
Chapter 32 selve Model: Custom Shoes in the Twenty-First Century.................663
Claudia Kieserling
Chapter 33 Footwear Customization for Manufacturing Sustainability............. 673
Claudio R. Boër and Paolo Pedrazzoli

Preface
The global footwear market in 2011 was $241,294.3 million, and it grew by 5% from the year before. In the next five years, the footwear market is expected to grow by 29% (MarketLine, 2012) with most footwear manufactured in South-East Asia. Footwear suppliers have maintained their position in the market by differentiating the products, by offering specialized items, and by manufacturing high-end designer footwear, all of which require careful thought and research. All footwear go through the same process — from eliciting market needs to design, from manufacture to testing, and finally to market even though how each aspect is executed changes every day. Footwear-related information and research are spread across different disciplines. I have focused on bringing together high-quality contributions from designers, biomechanists, ergonomists, engineers, podiatrists, and scientists from industry and academia into one book. The differing perspectives give a holistic view of the science behind footwear. The book contains very useful data from past research and the state-of-the-art methodologies that are now used in the design and manufacture of footwear. The first four chapters are related to the foot. Feet among people are quite varied, and knowing the various characteristics helps with the design as well as the selection of footwear.

In the early days, lasts were made using simple measurements taken from people’s feet. Even today, foot length is the common measurement to determine the size of a shoe that one can wear. With improvements in technology, we now have sophisticated devices that can give the complete three-dimensional shape of an object. These scanning technologies are ideal for determining the shapes and sizes of feet and for matching the fit for shoes and feet using differing algorithms and techniques. The three chapters on scanning and processing give a very broad view of the various processes and highlight the challenges of using the scanning technologies. Even though shoes were primarily “carved” by artisans, modern-day shoemaking uses various technologies so that multiples of the same product can be made reliably knowing the basic needs of the consumers. The use of computers, scanners, numerically controlled machines, and rapid prototyping machines is quite common in footwear manufacture. The chapters on design provide an exclusive coverage of these computer-aided technologies. A number of chapters outline the design aspects of the various components of a shoe from mass manufacturing to personalized shoes and components. Footwear testing may be performed in vivo or in vitro. Both types have been covered. Footwear is meant to enhance safety, improve performance, and reduce stress on the human body. However, not all footwear can make a positive impact on a person, and some could be detrimental, if not carefully selected. The various effects of footwear are highlighted, and many chapters discuss activity-specific footwear as well. In today’s world, high variability, injury, or being “outsized” often makes one search for a more personalized and customized product. The last few chapters discuss the issues of customization with a view to minimizing waste, enhancing overall performance, and delighting customers.

The figures in the book are all in black and white. Color figures are on the CRC website related to the book, Science of Footwear. Each chapter in the book has excellent content, written by an expert. Anyone interested in footwear has all the information he or she needs, from eliciting customer needs to testing footwear. The book will undoubtedly be useful to academicians, practitioners, designers, researchers, and all others working in the area of footwear who strive to incorporate the biomechanical and ergonomics principles into footwear to enhance performance, safety, and comfort and to reduce injury.


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