A Study of India’s Textile Exports and Environmental Regulations Edited by K.S. Kavi Kumar

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A Study of India’s Textile Exports and Environmental Regulations
Edited by K.S. Kavi Kumar
A Study of India’s Textile Exports and Environmental Regulations

Contents
1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
K.S. Kavi Kumar
2 Global and Indian Supply Chain of Textiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Zareena Begum and Sukanya Das
3 India’s Comparative Advantage in Export of Textiles
and Apparel Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Elumalai Kannan
4 Global Environmental Requirements—Textile Industry . . . . . . . . . . 61
Zareena Begum and K.S. Kavi Kumar
5 Non-tariff Barriers in Textiles: Incidence and Perceptions . . . . . . . . 73
K.S. Kavi Kumar, Zareena Begum and Sukanya Das
6 Exploring Linkages Between Pollution Abatement and Trade in
Textile Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
G. Badri Narayanan
7 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
K.S. Kavi Kumar
Annexure I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Annexure II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151

Preface
This study was undertaken by the Centre of Excellence in Environmental Economics at Madras School of Economics with financial support from the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India.

The study was initiated and largely coordinated by Dr. K.S. Kavi Kumar. The project team included Dr. Zareena Begum and Dr. Sukanya Das. In the initial stages of the project, Dr. S. Dinda, Dr. E. Kannan, and Dr. S. Subash have provided crucial inputs. Dr. G. Badri Narayanan of Purdue University, USA, served as consultant towards the end of the project term. Research assistance was provided by Ms. Prachi Pandey, Mr. Kalaiselvan, Mr. S. Raju, and Dr. A. Balasubramanian at different stages of the work. Ms. Saraswathi and Ms. Geetha provided secretarial help.

The book was written jointly by Dr. K.S. Kavi Kumar, Dr. Zareena Begum, Dr. Sukanya Das, Dr. Elumalai Kannan, and Dr. G. Badri Narayanan. While the analysis presented in the core chapters pertains to the year 2012, the data and discussion was subsequently updated to the year 2014–2015.

The research team would like to gratefully acknowledge the support and inputs received from Mr. R.S. Ahlawat, Senior Economic Adviser, Ms. Gur Pyari, Addl. Economic Adviser, and Mr. Anushman Mohanty, Deputy Economic Adviser during the course of the project. The research team would like to place on record their sincere thanks to the Chairman, Director, and staff of MSE for their help during the project. The research team would like to gratefully acknowledge the comments made by the participants of various workshops where the project findings were shared and in particular would like to thank Prof. Paul P. Appasamy, Prof. V.R. Muraleedharan, Dr. M. Madhusoothanan, Dr. Kurian Joseph, Mr. S. Karthikeyan, Dr. L. Venkatachalam, Dr. Prakash Nelliyat, and Shri Anushman Mohanty. The research team gratefully acknowledges the useful comments given by Prof. Ramprasad Sengupta and the officials of Departments of Industrial Policy and Promotion and Department of Commerce of the MoEF&CC.

List of Figures

Fig. 1.1 Textile industry—value chain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Fig. 1.2 Applied and bound tariff rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Fig. 2.1 Sources of textile imports to EU (1995, 2006 and 2012). . . . . . 22
Fig. 2.2 Sources of clothing imports to EU (1995, 2006 and 2012) . . . . 23
Fig. 2.3 Sources of textile imports to USA (1995, 2006 and 2012) . . . . 25
Fig. 2.4 Sources of clothing imports to USA
(1995, 2006 and 2012) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Fig. 2.5 Industrial upgradation by Asian Economies—apparel
value chain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Fig. 2.6 Textile and apparel supply chain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Fig. 3.1 Destination for India’s textile exports
(1995, 2007 and 2013) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Fig. 3.2 Destination for India’s clothing exports
(1995, 2007 and 2013) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Fig. 4.1 Environmental pollution—stages of textile processing. . . . . . . . 62
Fig. 5.1 Types of NTMs imposed by different countries on Indian
textile exports . . . . . 79
Fig. 5.2 Distribution of NTM types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Fig. 5.3 Value of exports of major textile commodities . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Fig. 5.4 Value of exports of minor textile commodities . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Fig. 5.5 Growth rates in the value of exports of major textile
commodities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Fig. 5.6 Growth rates in the value of exports of minor textile
commodities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Fig. 5.7 Shares in the total value of exports of major textile
commodities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Fig. 5.8 Shares in the total value of exports of minor textile
commodities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Fig. 5.9 Output trends in major textile processing sectors. . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Fig. 5.10 Output trends in minor textile processing sectors. . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Fig. 5.11 Employment trends in major textile processing sectors . . . . . . . 88
Fig. 5.12 Employment trends in minor textile processing sectors . . . . . . . 88
Fig. 5.13 Price indices of synthetic textiles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Fig. 5.14 Distribution of respondents on the basis of treatment plant . . . . 90
Fig. 5.15 Distribution of respondents on the basis of certification . . . . . . 91
Fig. 5.16 Adequacy of environmental testing facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Fig. 5.17 Adverse impact of environmental regulations on
competitiveness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92


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