Natural and Artificial Flavoring Agents and Food Dyes PDF by Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu and Alina Maria Holban

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Natural and Artificial Flavoring Agents and Food Dyes
By Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu and Alina Maria Holban
Natural and Artificial Flavoring Agents and Food Dyes

Contents
List of Contributors ........................................................................................... xiii
Foreword ........................................................................................................... xv
Series Preface .... ... .. ...... ... ........ ... ... ........ ........ .................... ........... ... ... ..... ... ...... xvii
Preface for Volume 7: Natural and Artificial Flavoring Agents and Food Dyes .......... xxi
Chapter 1: Flavoring and Coloring Agents: Health Risks and Potential Problems ........ 1
Muthusamy Ramesh, Arunachalam Muthuraman
I Introduction ..... . . ........... ...... ........ .. ......... ...... .. .... ............... ....... . ... ........................... . I
l.1 Flavor and Coloring Agents .. .. ...... .... ............. ........ .... ...... ........ ... .... .. .. .................... I
l.2 Flavors and Colors: A Recent Consequence .... .. ............. .. .. .... .. .... .. .. ......... ........ .. ... 2
1.3 Flavors and Colors: Natural Versus Artificial........ .. ................... ............... 3
2 Implications of Flavoring and Coloring Agents ... . ................ ..... ...... ....................... 4
2.1 Food Industry .... ... . ............ . .. .... .. .. ... . .. .. . . 4
2.2 Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic Industries ........................... ................ ... ...... .... . . ...... 5
3 Flavoring Agents . ...... ..... ... . .. .. . ... .. ...... . .. . . .. .. .. .. ... 5
3.1 atural Flavoring Agents .............. ........................................................ ............... 6
3.2 Artificial Flavoring Agents ... ................. ........................................................ ...... 7
3.3 Flavor-Enhancing Agents ....................................................................................... 8
4 Coloring Agents . . . . ........ . .  . . ... . ... . . . ............ 9
4.1 Natural Dyes .... ........ ............. ........ .. ................. ...... .. .. ...... ........... ........ ...... ............ 1 0
4.2 Artific ial Dyes . ... . .. ... ........... . ....... . . .. ............. . ..... . . .... ...... ..... . .. ......... . . .... .. .. ... . . . ...... 15
5 Regulatory Organizations for Food Flavors and Colors ....................................... 20
6 Common Health Effects of Flavoring and Coloring Agents ............................ .. ... 21
6.1 Therapeutic Potential ......... ...... .. ....... .. ...... .. ....... ........ ...... ................ .. .. . ....... ..... .. .. 21
6.2 TOJ<icily Profiles ............ ........................ ........................................ ................ .... 22
7 Safety Precautions and Future Perspectives .. . . . . . . ... . . . .. . . . .. . . . . ..... .. . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. 23
8 Concl usion s ........................................................................................................... 24
References . .. . . . . .. . . .... . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . ... . . . ... . . . .. . . . .... . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . 24
Chapter 2: Drying Process of Food: Fundamental Aspects and Mathematical Modeling ... 29
Lyes Bennamoun,jie Li
I Basis of Food Drying ........ ......... ................ .......................... ................ .............. 29
l.1 Drying Method ................ .. .......................................................................... 29
l.2 Drying Kinetics .... . . . . ........ . . .. . .. ... .. . . . . ..... . ...... ... . .. .. . . . . ..... . .. .... .. ... ..... . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . ... 38
1.3 Application of Imaging Techniques in Food Drying ........................................... .42
2 Mathematical Modeling and Simulation of Drying Process . ...... .......................... 50
2.1 Mathematical Modeling of the Drying Kinetics and Drying Curves ................... 50
2.2 Mathematical Modeling of Drying Systems ......................................................... 58
2.3 Exergy and Energy Efficiency of Drying Systems ............................................... 72
3 Concluding Remarks ............................................................................................. 78
References . . . .. . . . . .. . . . ... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 79
Chapter 3: Comparative Study of Natural and Artificial Flavoring Agents and Dyes .. 83
Rashmi Dikshit, Padmavathi Tallapragada
I Introduction ........................................................................................................... 83
2 Color and Colorants . .... . . . .... .. .. . ... .. . ... .. ... .. . ... .. ..... .... . . ..... .... .. ..... .... . .. .. . .. .. . ... .. . ... .. . . 85
3 History of Colorants . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . ... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .. .. . . . ... . . . ... . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 85
4 Types of Colors ..................................................................................................... 86
4.1 Syn thetic Food Colorants and Associated-Health H azards ...................... .......... 86
4.2 Naturally Identical Synthetic Food Colorants .......... ........................ .88
4.3 Caramel Colors.. . .... ........... ...... ....... ... ............. .. .................... .......... 90
4.4 N atural Colorants and Dyes............. .. ................................................ ......... 90
4.5 Strategies to Enhance Microbial Pigments ........ ................................................. 101
4.6 Application of Microbial Pigments ..................................... ................................ 103
5 Legislation and Regulation for Natural Colorants and Food Additives .............. 104
6 Global Market for Food CoLorants .................................................... .................. 107
7 Natural Colorants Challenges ............................................................................. 109
8 Future Prospects ......... ................ ................................................. .......... ...... ..... ... 109
References . . . ... . . . ... . . . ... . . ... . . . ... . ..... . . .... .. ... . . . ... .. . ... .. ..... . .. .. . . . . . . . . .... . ..... . . .... . . ... . . . ... ...... 109
Chapter 4: Microbial Pigments From Bacteria, Yeasts, Fungi, and Microalgae
for the Food and Feed Industries ....................................................... 113
Laurent Dufosse
I Introduction ......................................................................................................... 113
2 Carotenoids ..... . ............................................................... ................................... . 114
2.1 Lutein and Zeaxanthin ........................................................................................ 114
2.2 Aryl Carotenoids (Orange Colors and Highly Active Antioxidants)
Are Specific to Some Microorganisms ............................................................... I 17
2.3 C'O Carotenoids (Sarcinaxanthin, Decaprenoxanthin), Not Being
Produced by Plants in ature . .. ........ ............... ....... ......... ................. ....... .. ... . ... . 119
2.4 Directed Evolution and Molecular Breeding Techniques for the
Production of Novel Carotenoid, Exerting Improved Color
Strength/Stability/Antioxidant Properties.......... .... .............. .. .............. 119
3 Azaphilones.................. .......................... ................... . ........... 121
3.1 Toward Mycotoxin-Free Monascus Red............ .. ..................................... 121
3.2 Monascus-Like Pigments From Nontoxigenic Fungal 5trains ........................... 124
4 Anthraquinones .................................................... ........... ...... ...... ........................ 125
4.1 Fungal Natural Red ........................... .................................................................. 125
4.2 Other Fungal Anthraquinones ............................................................................. 126
5 Phycobiliproteins ...... .... . ... . .. .................. . .......... . .............................................. ... 128
6 Conclusions ......................................................................................................... 128
References ............................................................................................................... I 30
Chapter 5: Binding of Food Colorants to Functional Protein Hemoglobin .. .. ......... .. . 133
Anirban Basu, Gopinatha S. Kumar
1 Introduction ........ ................. ....... ... ...... .. ... ...... ..... ..... ........ ... .. ...... ... .... ...... ...... ..... 133
1.1 UV-Vis Spectroscopy . . .. .. .... . . . .... . . . . ........ .. .... . . .. ... . .. . ...... .. ........ .. ........ ... .... ..... . .. 134
1.2 Fluorescence Spectroscopy ............................................................................... 135
1.3 Circular Dichroism ............. .. ................................................................ .. 137
1.4 Isothermal Titration Calorimetry ...................................................................... 137
1.5 Differential Scanning Calorimetry...... .. ............ ........... 139
2 Materials ............. ................ ...... ..... ........... ........... ... ..... ....... ...... .......... ................. 139
2.1 Preparation of Citrate-Phosphate Buffer Solution .................................. 139
2.2 Preparation of Hemoglobin Stock Solution ......... ................................ ........... 140
2.3 Preparation of Carmoisine Stock Solution ... ....... .. ..................... ........... 140
2.4 Preparation of Amaranth Stock Soluti.on ....... . .. ................................................ 140
2.5 Preparation of Tartrazine Stock Solution .......................................................... 141
2 .6 UV -Vis Spectrophotometer. ............................................................................. 141
2.7 Spectrofiuorimeter . ..... . .. .. ... . .. ..... . . . . . . . . . . .. .. ... . .. .. . . . . .. ...... . . . ..... . .. .. . . . . .. .. ... .. .. ..... . .. 141
2.8 Spectropolarimeter. ........................................................................................... 141
2.9 TTc..... . .......... .... .... ..... ... ... ... ... .. ...... .......... . ...... 141
2.10 DSC .................................................................................................................. 142
3 Methods .. ........... ...... ..... ...... ............. . . .. .. ... .. . . .. .. ............ ..... .......... . . ..... ...... ..... ..... . 142
3.] Determination of the Concentration of Stock Hb Solution by
UV-Vis Spectroscopy................ ................. .. ................... ..
3.2 Determination of the Concentration of Stock Carmoisine Solution .... .
3.3 Determination of Binding of Hb With Carmoisine by
..142
. 1 43
UV-Vis Spectroscopy .............................. .......... .................. ....... .................. . ... 143
3.4 Determination of Binding Affinity and Binding Stoichiometry
Using UV-Vis Spectroscopy ............................................................................ 144
3.5 Determination of Binding or Hb With Carmoisine by Steady-State
Fluorescence Spectroscopy . . .... ... ..... ....... .. .. . . .. ..... ............. ... . .. ... .. ........... 146
3.6 Inner Filter Effect Correction and Determination of Stern-Volmer
Quenching Constant From Temperature-Dependenl
Fluorescence Studies ..........
3 .7 Time-Dependent Fluorescence Studies .. .. ................... ..
3.8 Forster Resonance Energy Transfer Studies
3.9 Evaluation of the Binding Constants and the Number of
..147
...... .. ........ ........ . 148
. ...................... .. 150
Binding Sites ..... ........................ .......................... ........ ..... .......................... 15J
3.10 Synchronous Fluorescence Experiments . . . . . . .. ...... .. ......... ....... . .......... ....... ..... . . . 151
3.11 Circular Dichroism Experiments ...................................................................... 152
3.12 ITC Expcrimcnts ............................................................................................... 155
3.13 DSC Experiments ............................................................................................. 158
References ........................................................................................... .................... 160
Chapter 6: Nonconventional Yeast·Promoted Biotransformation for the
Production of Flavor Compounds ....................................................... 165
Luca Forti, Maria R. Cramarossa, Sara Filippucci, Giorgia Tasselli,
Benedetto Turchetti, Pietro Buzzini
I Introducti o n ........................................................................................................ 165
1.1 Nonco nventiona l Yeasts (NCY s ) as B io catal ysts ..... .. ...... 166
1.2 Defini tion of B iocatal ys is and TheirImpact on the Pro duc tio n of Flavo rs ........ 167
2 Biocatalytic Pro du ction of Flavors by NCYs ... .......... ........ . . ........... 168
2.1 Aldehydes , Ketone s , and Alcohols ........................... ........................ ................ 168
2.2 Lactones .. . ... .... .. .. .... . .. ......... . ... . . .. ... . .. .. ...... .. .. ... .. . ... .. . .. .... .... .. ..... .. . ... .. .. . ... . .. . .... 170
2.3 Terpenes and Terpenoids .............. ................................. ..................................... 171
2.4 Alken es ............................................................................................................... 178
2.5 Sulfur Compounds .............................................................................................. 179
2.6 Phenols . . .. . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .... . . . . ..... . . . . . .. . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
3 Conclusions ..... ...... .................... ...... ............................................................. ..... .. 182
References ............................................................................................................... 183
Chapter 7: Fruits: A Source of Polyphenols and Health Benefits ............................ 189
Mariel Calderon· Oliver, Edith Ponce·Alquicira
I Oxidative Stress a nd Its Relati on With Diseases ................................................ 189
1.1 Definition of Oxi dative St res s and Oxi dant Damage ..................... .................... 189
1.2 D iabetes .. .. ........ ... ... .....1 90
1.3 C ardiova scular Disea s e s an d Obe s ity .. ...... .. .. ... . .. . . ... . ... . . .... .... .. .. .... .. . . ... ........ ..... 190
1.4 Cancer..... ................. ................ ........................ .. .................... . ...... 191
2 Functional Products an d Nutraceuticals .. . . .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. ... ... .. .. . ... . .. ... ... ... . ... .. . .... . ..... 191
3 Polyphenols . . .... ...... . . .... . . .. . . . ... . .. ... . .. ... ... .. . ... .. . .. .. . ... . . .... .. ... . . .... ...... . ... . .. .. .. .. .. . . .... . 192
3.1 Flavonoids ........................................................................................................... 196
3.2 Nonftavonoid Compounds........................ ............... .. ............................. 210
3.3 Sununary of Action Mechanism of Polyphenols ................................................ 213
3.4 Bioava ilabili t y of Pol yp he no Is . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
4 Conclusions .... ....... .... .......................................... ........... .... .. ...... ......................... 215
References .. . ...... .... . . ... . . . . . .. . ... . ... . . . . .. . . .... . . .... . . . . . . . .... . ......... . . .. . . . ...... ... . . . ... . . .... . . ... . . .... 216
Chapter 8: LC-MSIMS Approach for the Identification of Unknown
Degradation Products of Dyes in Beverages .......... ........... ........... ........ 229
Fabio Gosetti, Bianca 8olp, Eleonora Mazzucco, Marcello Manfredi,
Elisa Robotti, Emilio Marengo
I Introductio n ........................................................................................................ 229
2 Food Safety an d L egis lat ion ............................................................................... 232
3 Main Processes of Dye Degradation in Beverages ............................ . ..... . .... . ..... 234
3.1 Degradation in Presence of Titanium Dioxide ................................................... 234
3.2 Degradat ion Due to Photoi rradiation . . . . . .... . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . .. . . .. .. . . . . .. . .. .. . . . . . 236
3.3 Effect of Temperature an d pH ............................................................................ 237
3.4 Interactions Among the Ingre dients .................................................................... 237
4 LC-MS/MS Approaches for the Identification of Knowns and Unknowns ....... 238
4.1 Target Analysis ................................................................................................... 240
4.2 Suspect Screening Anal ysis ................................................................................ 24 l
4.3 ontarget Analysis . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . .... . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . .. . .. . . ... . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . ... . . . . . . 241
5 Strategy for the Identification of Dye Degradation Products in
Beverages Subjected to Photoirradiation ................. .. ... . ..... . ............. ....... 243
5.1 Mass Spectrometry Characterizatioll ..... .... .. .. ....................... ... ......................... 243
5.2 Simulation of the Degradation With Model Solutions ... .... .. .. .. .. ........... ....... .. .. 244
5.3 Sample Pretreatment Procedures for Unknown Species . . . ....... . . ...... .. .... . . . . .. . . . . . 247
5.4 Optimization of the Chromatographic Conditions. .. ..................... ........... 248
5.5 Choice of the Mass Analyzer for Nontarget Analysis;
Strengths and Drawbacks . . .. . . . . .... . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . ..... . . . .. ... . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 248
5.6 Software; An lrdispensable Tool for Data Elaboration ...................................... 25 l
6 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....... .. . . . . . . . . . . . .... .. .. . . . ........ .. . . . . . . . 255
References ...... ........... ....... ...... ...................... ..... ................... ................. ....... ..... ...... 256
Chapter 9: Computer-Aided Drug Design Studies in Food Chemistry ..................... 261
Luciana Scotti, Franciscoj.B.M.Junior, Hamilton M. Ishiki, Frederico F. Ribeiro,
Marcelo C. Duarte, Cracielle S. Santana, Tiago B. Oliveira,
Margareth de Fatima Formiga Melo Diniz, Lucindo j. Quintans-junior, Marcus T Scotti
I Introduction ......................................................................................................... 261
2 QSAR . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .... . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .......... . . . 262
3 Molecular Docking ....................................................................................... .. 272
3.1 Aldose Reductase............. .. ............... ................................ ........................ . 274
3.2 Xanthine Oxidase ............ .. ..................... .. 276
3.3 Tyrosinase....................... .................. ....................... .. ..................... .. 278
3.4 Hen Egg-White Lysozyme........... ......... .. .... . ........... .......... 280
3.5 BACEI. .... .................... ................ ................. .. ........................ 284
4 Chemometrics in Food Science and Food Informatics ....................................... 285
4.1 Cluster and Classification Studies , ..................................................................... 285
4.2 Attribute Selection .............................................................................................. 286
4.3 Modeling ............................................................................................................. 287
4.4 Examples ........................ ................................. ....................... .. 287
4.5 Outliers ............................................................................................................... 289
5 Conclusions ... . ..... ..... . ..... ...... ........ ............................. .... ...... . ..... .......... . .............. 290
References .............. ...... ..... ...... ....................... .......... .......................... ..................... 290
Chapter 10: Turmeric: A Review of Its Chemical Composition, Quality Control,
Bioactivity, and Pharmaceutical Application ..................................... 299
Fan-Cheng Meng, Yan-Qing Zhou, Dai Ren, Ruibing Wang, Chunming Wang,
Li-Cen Lin, Xiao-Qi Zhang, Wen-Cai Ye, Qing-Wen Zhang
1 Tntroduction . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ................... ...... . . . . . . . . . .. . . ... . . . . . 299
2 Phytochemical Investigation ........ . ..... ....... .... . ...... ..... .... ....... .................... ..... ...... 300
2.1 Chemical Constituents ........................................................................................ 300
3 Quality Control of Turmeric ............................................................................... 312
3.1 GC and GC-MS Analysis ................................................................................... 314
3.2 HPLC and UPLC Analy sis ................................................................................. 317
3.3 Other Methods . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
4 Pharmacological Activi ties ................................................................................. 325
4.1 Antitumor Effects. .... ........ ......... ... .............. . ....... 325
4.2 Antimicrobial Effect ............ .. . . .. ...... ................ . .. .. .. . . . ..... ....... . . ....... . ... .... . .. ....... 329
4.3 Antiinflammatory Effects ........ . . .. ... .. .... . .......... ................... 330
4.4 Antioxidative Effects ..... . .... .. ... .. .. .... .. ... ........ . ....... . .. .. .. .......... . ...... .. .... ..... .... .... 331
4.5 Antidiabetic Effect . ..... . .. ... ..... .. .. .. ...... ..... .. .. . ... .. .. ... . . ....... .... ...... .. ........... .... .. 332
4.6 Hypolipidemic Effect.,. ........... . "" ....., . ...... . , .. ..... ,' ,., . . ", ......, . ...... . ,.,' ... ,". ' ...... . , .... 333
4.7 Hepatoprotective Effects."", ...." " ... . . . , ..... .... ' . . . . . ,' ' .. . . ,',. , ... .. " , . . . . ' .. ', ... ," ' .... " .... , .. 334
4.8 Neuroprotccti vc Effect.. ...... .. ..... , ................ , ....... , .......................... , ..... , .............. 335
5 Pharmaceutical Research .................................................................................... 336
6 Conclusions" .... " ... " .... , .... , ..... " ......................................... , ............... " ... , ..... , ..... , 338
References", . . ,", .. ,', ... ,',. . ,",. ., ', ... " ...." ...., ., .. "., .., ., ...." .., "', .. ,", .. ,', ... ,',. .." ... , ,. .. ,', ... , 338
Chapter 11: A Review of the Botany, Phytochemical, and Pharmacological
Properties of Galangal ................................................................... 351
Yan·Qing Zhou, Hui Liu, Mu·Xue He, Ruibing Wang, Qing·Qian Zeng,
Ying Wang, Wen·Cai Ye, Qing-Wen Zhang
I Introduction., .... " .... , .... " ... , ..... " ..................... , ............. , ..... , .... , ..... , .... " ... , ..... " .... , 351
2 Botanical Description .. , .... , ................. , ................... , ..... " ... , ..... , .... " ... , .... , ..... , ..... , 353
3 Adulterant and Authentication ." " .. "" ... " .... " ............................ " .... " .. " ..... " .. "",354
4 Phytochemistry" .. .. " .... """. ".". "., .. "., .. ", ... ", .......... , ... , .... , ..... , ..... , ... ".,,",.,,',. "., 356
4.1 Phenylpropanoids ...... ......... . .... ...." ......" ". .. ..." . .. .." ........., . .... ..... ,. .... ........ 356
4.2 Flavonoids. ...." . .. "". . .. .... " ....... ." " .. .. . ... "" .... 358
4.3 D iary Iheptanoi ds .... "............ .... . .. .." .................. .. .." ."" ....... .. ..... 360
4. 4 Glycosides " "" . "" ... """ ... "". """,,366
4.5 Sesquiterpenes and Diterpenes . ..... .. ...... "......... .................. .. .............. 366
4.6 Other Compounds ... , .......... , ..... ,., ..... , ........... , ...... , ... ",.,. ""." .......... , ... ,., ... " ......... 366
4.7 Qualitative and Quantitative Analys is .. " ............... " ................. " ........................ 367
5 Biological Activities, .... , ... , ..... " .......... , ......................... , .......... , ..... , ... , .......... , ..... , 370
5.1 Biological Activities of A. galanga (Greater Galangal) ..................................... 371
5.2 Biological Activities ofA . officinarum (Lesser Galangal) .... .. .. " .............." .. " .... 378
5.3 Conclusions .... ......" . ........... ..." . ...... ...." "......... .................... ... .. ..... 384
References ... ..... . ..... . " ....... ,." ... "., .. " .... " .... " .... " ............................ " .... ", .. " .... ", ... ,,' 385
Chapter 12: Coffee Beverages and Their Aroma Compounds ................................ 397
Aline T. Tod, Maria v.z. Boldrin
I Introduction .. , .. ", .... " .. ,', ... ," "',., """ ", .. ,,, .. ,''',., .. ,.,,.,''',.,.,'', .. ,, .... ,, ..... , ... ,,., .. ,,. " .. 397
2 Perception of Odors .................... " ......... " ........ " ................................................. 398
3 Identification of Coffee Aroma "", .. ", .. "" .. " ... " ......................................... " .... ,,' 399
4 Impact Aromatic Compounds in Coffee and Influence of Drink
Preparation Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............. . ................... ...... . . . . . . . . . .403
4 . 1 Coffee Beans and Formulation of the OrinL . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . ............... .403
4.2 The Aroma of Coffee Drinks . . . ..... . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405
5 Final Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422
References . .. . . . ... . . . ... . . . ... . . . .. . . . . .. . . . ... . . . ... . . . .. . . . . .. . . . ... . . . .... . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . 424
Chapter 13: Lycopene: A Natural Red Pigment . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427
Rahul C. Ranveer
Introduction ... . . . ... . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .... . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . 427
l . 1 Classification of Pigments .... . . . .... . . . . ..... . . . . . .... . . . .. .. . . . . ..... . . . ...... . . . .. .. . . . . .... .. . . ...... .. 42 8
2 Lycopene . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ......... . . . .. . . ........... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429
3 Extraction of Natural Pigments . .. . . . ... . . ... . . . ... . . .... . . .... . . ... . . . ... . . .... . . .... . . .... . . . ..... .... . . 432
3 . 1 Solvent Extraction . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . ......... ..... . . . . ........ ... . . . . .. . . . . .433
3 . 2 Hydrostatic Pressure Processing . . . . . ....... . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....... .... . . . . .. . . . . . 433
3 . 3 Enzyme-Assisted Extraction . . . . . . ... . . . ..... . . . . . ... . . . . . . .. . .. .. ..... . . ..... . . . . ... . . . . . . .. . . . . .... . . . 434
3.4 Supercritical Fluid Extraction With CO, . . . . ...... ....................... . . . . ...................... .434
3.5 Ul trasoni c Extraction .... . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . . ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435
4 Determination of Lycopene . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .......... . . . .. . . . .......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435
5 Purification Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436
5 . 1 Reverse Phase Chromatography . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........ ..... . . . 436
5 . 2 Thin Layer Chromatography Method .... . . . . . ... . . . . . ... . . ..... . . . ...... . ..... . . .... . . . . .... . . . 437
5 . 3 Saponification Method . . . . . . . .. . . . . . ........ ...... . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . ...... ....... . . . . ................ ...... . . 437
5.4 Crystallization Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . ... . . . . .... . . ...... . . . . ... . . . . . . ........... . . . . . .... . . .437
6 Stability of Lycopene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . ... . . ... . . . ... . . ... . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437
6 . 1 Effect of Processing on Stabil ity of Lycopene . . .... . . . . . . . . . .... . . 437
6.2 Thermal Processing . ...... . ...... . . . . ..... ............... . . . . .............. ....... . . . . ........ ...... .438
6.3 Ultrasonication... . . . .. ..... . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . 440
6.4 Light. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440
6.5 Oxygen . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . . ....... . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . . . ..... . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . .... . . . . . .. . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . 441
6.6 Dehydration ................. . . . . . . ................... . . . . . . ... . . . . . ..................... . . . . .................... . . . 441
7 Health Benefits of Lycopene . . . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .......... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443
7 . 1 Colorectal Cancer . . . .... . . . . . . .................... . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . . ..... . . . ............ . . . ...... . . 444
7.2 Prostate Cancer .. . . . . ....... . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . ....... . . ...... . . . ........ .... . . . . .. . . . . . 445
7.3 Pancreatic Cancer . . . . ..... ......................... .............. . .................... . . . ....... . 447
7.4 Coronary Heart Diseases . . . ... . . . ... . . .. . ... . . . ... .. . . .... . .. . .... . . . 44 8
References ... . . . ... . . .... . . ... . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . ... . . . ... . . ... . . . ... . . .... . . .... . . ... . . . ... . . ... . . .... . . ... . ........... . . . 449
Chapter 14: Microencapsulation orColor and Flavor in Confectionery
Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 457
Roungdao Klinjapo, Wunwisa Krasaekoopt
I Introduction ... ... ... ... ... .. . . . ... . .. .. . . . . . . . . ... ... . . . .... . . .. . . . ... .. . ..... ..... . ... . .. .... .. ... . . ...... ... . .. . . . 457
2 Sugar Confectionery Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ......... . . . .. . . . .... . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458
2 . 1 Types of Sugar Confectionery . ..... . . . . ..... .. . .. .. . . . . .. . .. . . . . .. ... . .. . ..... . . . . . .. .. ........ ... ... . . . .458
3 Compositio n of Sugar Confectionery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 1
3.1 Coloring Agent s . .. ...... ....... .. . .. ... .. .. ...... . .... ... . . .. ..... .. . .. . .. .. ..... .. . . . ....... . ..... .. ........ . . . . 462
3.2 F lavoring Agents . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . .. . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . 465
4 Microencapsu lati on Tech niques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467
4.1 C ore Materi a ls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . 468
4.2 C oating Materi als. .. . . .... 469
4.3 Microencapsulation Process . .. ... . ... .. ....... . ....... . . . 473
5 Application of M icroencapsulati on in C o nfecti onery Products . ..... . .... . ... .. . .. . .... 479
5.1 M icroencapsulated Natural Colorants . .... . . . ...... . . . .... .. ....... . . . ........ .... . . . . ... .479
5 .2 M icroencapsulated Natural Flavors . .... . . ...  ... .. .. . . .. 483
6 Future Trends . .. . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . 488
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 488
Ch apter 15: Advanced Natural Food Colorant Encapsulation Methods:
Anthocyanin Plant Pigment.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49S
Ida I. Muhamad, Yanti MMJusoh, Norazlina M Nawi,
Azni A Aziz, Alyani M Padzil, Hong L. Lian
I Col orants . ... . .. ...... ..... ...... ..... . .... ....... .... . ..... 495
1 . 1 Natural and Synthetic Colorants.... .. . .. ... .... . . . .. . .. ....... . . . . . . . . . . . ..... ...... .495
'1.2 Difference Between Synthetic Colorants and atural Col orants .. . .. ... .. . . .. . .. . .... 496
L .3 Applica tion of N atura lC olor ants. .... ..... .. .. . . .. 497
1.4 Types of Natural Food Colorants . . .. .. . .. .. .. . .... 499
2 Anthocyanin and Its Chemical Structure . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 0 1
2 . 1 Sources and Functions o f Anthocyani ns in Plants . .... . .... 501
2.2 Anthocyanins as Food Colorant . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503
2.3 Bioactivity and Potential Health Benefits of A nthocyanins . . .. .. . . . .. . .. . .. .. .. . . ... . .. .. 503
3 Extraction and Encapsulation Methods of Anthocyanins . . . . . . . . . . . . 505
3.1 Extraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505
3.2 Encapsulati o n . .. . . . .  . . . . . . .. . . . . .. .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . . 506
3. 3 Encaps ulating Agen!........ . . ......... ........ ...... . . . .... . . ....................... . . . .... . . . ..... 507
3.4 Dryi ng and E ncapsu lation Methods ....... . ...... . . .. .. ............. . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... ....... 509
4 Stability of Anthocyanin s .. .. ...... ...... .. .... .. . ......... ........ . . . .... ..... ... ..... 5 1 3
4.1 Factors Influenc i ng Anthocyanins St ability. . .. . .. .. .... . . . . ............. . . . . ... . . . . ..... 5 I 4
5 Anthocya nin s Application in Food Sy stems ....... ........... ...... ... ... ...... ................... 5 1 6
6 Summary ...... .. . ..... ... . . .... . . .. .. .. .. . .. .. . ... 520
References . .. . .. . . . . .. ..520
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 527




You can also take following volumes. Every book is $10.
Volume 1: Food Biosynthesis
Volume 2: Food Bioconversion
Volume 3: Soft Chemistry and Food Fermentation
Volume 4: Ingredient Extraction by Physicochemical Methods in Food
Volume 5: Microbial Production of Food Ingredients and Additives
Volume 6: Genetically Engineered Foods
Volume 7: Natural and Artificial Flavoring Agents and Food Dyes
Volume 8: Therapeutic Foods
Volume 9: Food Packaging and Preservation
Volume 10: Microbial Contamination and Food Degradation
Volume 11: Diet, Microbiome, and Health
Volume 12: Impacts of Nanoscience on the Food Industry
Volume 13: Food Quality: Balancing Health and Disease
Volume 14: Advances in Biotechnology in the Food Industry
Volume 15: Foodborne Diseases
Volume 16: Food Control and Biosecurity
Volume 17: Alternative and Replacement Foods
Volume 18: Food Processing for Increased Quality and Consumption
Volume 19: Role of Material Science in Food Bioengineering
Volume 20: Biopolymers for Food Design
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