1 Introduction 1
Gianpaolo Vignali, Louise F. Reid, Daniella Ryding, and Claudia E. Henninger
2 Closing the Loop: Intentional Fashion Design Defined by Recycling Technologies 7
Kirsi Niinimäki and Essi Karell
3 A Designer Contribution to the Use of CNC Machines
Within the Supply Chain in Order to Extend Clothing Life Span 27
4 The Emergence of New Business Models to Foster
Sustainability: Applying Technology to Revise the Fashion
Nina Bürklin and Kathrin Risom
5 Removing the Dye Kitchen from the Textile Supply Chain 81
Celina Jones and Claudia E. Henninger
6 Designing Products for the Circular Economy 93
David J. Tyler and Sara L.-C. Han
7 Digital Technology for Global Supply Chain in Fashion:
A Contribution for Sustainability Development 117
Madalena Pereira, Liliana Pina, Benilde Reis, Rui Miguel,
Manuel Silva, and Paulo Rafael
8 3D-Printing in the Fashion Industry: A Fad or the Future? 137
Helen McCormick, Ran Zhang, Rosy Boardman, Celina Jones,
and Claudia E. Henninger
9 Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality: New Drivers for
Fashion Retail? 155
Rosy Boardman, Claudia E. Henninger, and Ailing Zhu
10 Three-Dimensional Body Scanning in Sustainable
Product Development: An Exploration of the Use of Body
Scanning in the Production and Consumption of Female
Louise F. Reid, Gianpaolo Vignali, Katharine Barker, Courtney
Chrimes, and Rachel Vieira
11 Does Technology Affect Customer-Brand Relationships?
A Study of Premium Fashion Consumers 195
Vedika Dugar, Marta Blazquez, and Claudia E. Henninger
12 Opening New Opportunities to Close the Loop:
How Technology Influences the Circular Economy 219
Nina Bürklin and Jasmien Wynants
List of Figures
Leonardo Amico, Natasa Musevic, Thibault Brevet, Jesse
Howard, Jure Martinec and Tilen Sepic, presented at the
Design Biennal BIO5O, Llubljana, Slovenia, 2014 32
Fig. 3.2 Diagram of the 4M concept proposed in enrichment of the
3R’s sustainable development strategy 33
Fig. 3.3 (a) Comparative table of conception and manufacture experiments
developed between 2014 and 2018; (b) comparative
table of supply chain steps of the experiments developed
between 2014 and 2018 36
Fig. 3.4 Fixing the Under Construction blazer 37
Fig. 3.5 (a and b) Examples of seamless clothes made of one sole piece
of fabric, shown flat, in volume, and worn on 38
Fig. 3.6 Technical design of Under Construction collection, shown
according to the number of constitutive pieces 39
Fig. 3.7 Technical design of self-locking assembly systems; from top to
bottom and from left to right 41
Fig. 3.8 (a) The Under Construction blazer (three pieces, six seams, four
staples); (b) its Blank Page version (one piece, no seams) 42
Fig. 3.9 Technical design of Tribute to Mondrian collection with
related spare parts, shown in gray the ten-piece basic pattern 43
Fig. 3.10 (a) Two parts being assembled; below left, two parts fully flat
intertwined; (b) inside of garment made of parts of two contrasted
Fig. 3.11 Top, technical design of 2 intertwined fasteners, cut side by
side; bottom, technical design of 2 intertwined fasteners,
Fig. 3.12 (a) A perfecto (polyester and neoprene); (b) a coat (two-sided
grated wool and neoprene) 46
Fig. 3.13 Comparison of Fast Fashion supply chain and FashionTechAway
Fig. 3.14 Life cycle of FashionTechAway products 50
Fig. 5.1 (a) and (b) Scanning electron microscope images of Morphotex®
fibre cross section 85
Fig. 5.2 Photograph of the beetle Chrysina gloriosa. (a) The bright
green colour, with silver stripes, seen with a left circular polarizer.
(b) The green colour is mostly lost when seen with a right
circular polarizer 87
Fig. 8.1 Red kinematics dress pattern (authors’ own) 139
Fig. 10.1 Three-dimensional body scanner 176
Fig. 10.2 Sample body scan. (a) Body model. (b) Body model with
measurements extracted 177
Fig. 11.1 Conceptual framework (authors’ own) 201
Fig. 12.1 The Close The Loop framework 225
List of Tables
Table 2.1 Intentional fashion design for recycling (authors’ own) 19
Table 7.1 Challenges and purposes of the platform U.MAKE.ID 125
Table 8.1 Summary of the data set (authors’ own) 143
Table 10.1 Comparison of selected methods 182
Table 11.1 In-store technologies in premium fashion retailers (authors’ own) 198
Table 11.2 Sub-themes linked to different dimensions (authors’ own) 203
Table 11.3 In-store technologies in premium fashion retailers (authors’ own) 210
The following collection of chapters is a collaboration of academics from across Europe investigating technology within the fashion industry and its impact on creating a more sustainable way of production and manufacturing. All of the scholars are renowned independent scientists who share the same drive in creating a sustainable supply chain.
They share a communal goal in answering how can the contribution of technology interlink with sustainability and how can this be improved. These dialogues have been borne out of conference discussions, of networking in key forums and through lobbying policy makers.
Kofi Annan inspired a generation through “Freedom from want, freedom from fear, and the freedom of future generations to sustain their lives on this planet.” Each chapter in turn focuses on educating the next generation of sustainable thinkers on development practices and, in particular, the key challenges facing technology in supply chains today.
These chapters provide an insight into the different solution-driven priorities in industry and touch upon the concepts of co-production. Fundamental research into the growth of society by means of creating cleaner production allows for incremental change. However, innovation in turn increases rate of obsolescence, and the consistent move towards new technology creates a dearth of technology. Seeing through this mist is key if we want “freedom from want and freedom from fear.”
Chapter 2 provides an insight into the circular economy and how recycling technology transforms garment design, closing this loop from production to reuse. The managed use of land, with the growing demand of cotton not being able to meet demand, requires investigation into exploring textile recycling and waste sorting. Furthermore the processes of mechanical, chemical and thermal recycling are conveyed. Finally a clear message is the transparency within the industry and how this is implemented.
The next section commences with an overview of the garment industry being the second most polluting in the world and again an emphasis on circular economy. In this chapter, however, the author explores the consumer role in this arena and how designers can centre their concerns on the user. The discussion of computer numerical control (CNC) technologies and how they are leading to a trend of external assembly systems including fablabs is presented.
Researchers from Munich, Germany, discuss an exploration of the trends in digital technology and new consumption modes in Chap. 4. Particular emphasis is made on the models of exchange between customer– to-customer (C2C) and business-to-customer (B2C) interactions. C2C and B2C once established as access-based models are then contextualised in two case studies linked to short- and long-term loans. The chapter concludes with consumer preferences in the engagement and use of access-based and collaborative consumption models.
Chapter 5 addresses how to mimic certain colours that are around consumers in the natural environment. In particular, it focuses on the unique colours elicited by the Morpho butterfly and how the use of a dye kitchen and the technology within it allow for the reproduction of these colours.
In the next chapter, design processes are explored. From the legislative drivers associated with circular economy and the ambitions associated with it to the design for sustainable use and disassembly, this chapter provides an insight into the challenges facing the textile sector. The chapter concludes by defining a culture change for the circular economy shifting towards producer responsibility.
Researchers from Portugal seek to present an alternative approach of managing fashion business online in Chap. 7. Digital technology can assist supply chains in providing better sourcing solutions not only for existing retailers but also for start-ups. The chapter reviews and explores how designers commence the sourcing process to the satisfaction linked to this task. In particular the B2B (business-to-business) model, which was developed in Chap. 3, as well as the B2C and C2C models, are highlighted in a case study of U.MAKE.ID.
Chapter 8 explores 3D printing with a focus on the emerging Chinese market realising its potential. The origin and use of 3D printing is conveyed leading to the Chinese millennial consumption of luxury garments. The perceptions and purchase intentions of this segment cement their understanding that there are negative connotations of garments of this type. However, the model is novel and may be too early in the phase for these consumers.
Chapter 9 is conceptual in nature and focuses on more recent technological innovations that have been implemented in the fashion industry, namely augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR). The technology acceptance model (TAM) further evaluates the perceived usefulness and the ease of use of AR and VR from a consumer perspective by drawing on current fashion examples. The chapter concludes by highlighting future directions for research.
Chapter 10 considers three-dimensional (3D) body scanning and its applications in the fashion industry. The focus will lend itself to how this technology can help drive a more sustainable and cleaner production process, help reduce the rate of returns in online shopping and reduce the waste attributed to the construction of clothing. After initially defining 3D body scanning, the emphasis shifts towards cleaner production and interactions and the measurements of the data that is elicited will highlight the benefits and limitations to this method of data capture and the gaps attributed to the diverse range of retailers’ measurements of apparel. The chapter culminates with areas of strength but also areas of future research growth that will lead to a more sustainable fashion supply chain. The following chapter considers in-store technology and how the technology acceptance model (TAM) in this context relates to premium brand consumers. The conceptual framework develops the links between the traditional TAM dimensions and customer brand relationship dimensions. Researchers from the University of Manchester and the University of the Arts, London, provide practical recommendations and supported technologies for premium fashion retailers.
Chapter 12 culminates in the applications of the closing the loop (CTL) framework at the product level. Sustainability by use of toxic-free designs and zero waste encapsulates circular economy in the production and manufacturing approach.
Hopefully these insights will provide the reader with an opportunity to delve into the works of sustainability and product development within the fashion industry. These innovative ways of working will help pave the way for a more sustainable future for the next generation.