1 Advances in Flame Retardant of Different Types of Nanocomposites. . . . . . . 1
2 Flame Retardancy of Polymer Nanocomposite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3 Recent Developments in Different Techniques Used
for the Flame Retardancy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
4 Recent Development of Phosphorus Flame Retardants in Thermoplastic Blends and Nanocomposites. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
5 A Review of Non-halogen Flame Retardants in Epoxy-Based
Composites and Nanocomposites: Flame Retardancy
and Rheological Properties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
6 Flame Retardant/Resistant Based Nanocomposites in Textile . . . . . . 131
F. Rault, S. Giraud and F. Salaün
7 Flame Retardants in Bitumens and Nanocomposites . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
Henglong L. Zhang, Jianying Y. Yu and Chongzheng Z. Zhu
8 Fire Retardant for Phase Change Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
Pongphat Sittisart and Mohammed M. Farid
9 Flame Retardant Finishing for Textiles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
G. Rosace, V. Migani, E. Guido and C. Colleoni
10 Flame Retardant of Cellulosic Materials and Their Composites. . . . 247
Amina L. Mohamed and Ahmed G. Hassabo
The book on “Flame Retardants: Polymer Blends, Composites and Nanocomposites” summarizes many of the recent research accomplishments in the area of flame retardant such as state-of-art polyoxymethylene, flame retardancy of polymer nanocomposite, recent developments in different techniques used for the flame retardancy, recent development of phosphorus flame retardants in thermoplastic blends and nanocomposites, non-halogen flame retardants in epoxy-based composites and nanocomposites, flame retardant/resistant-based nanocomposites in textile, flame retardants in bitumens and nanocomposites, fire retardant for phase change material, flame retardant finishing for textiles, flame retardant of cellulosic materials and their composites. As the title indicates, the book emphasizes the various aspects of flame retardants and their nanocomposites. This book is intended to serve as a “one stop” reference resource for important research accomplishments in the area of flame retardant-based nanocomposites book. This book will be a very valuable reference source for university and college faculties, professionals, postdoctoral research fellows, senior graduate students, researchers from R&D laboratories working in the area of flame retardant-based nanocomposites. The various chapters in this book are contributed by prominent researchers from industry, academia and government/ private research laboratories across the globe. It covers an up-to-date record on the major findings and observations in the field of flame retardant-based nanocomposites.
The first chapter on flame retardant-based nanocomposites gives an overview of the area of state of art, new challenges and opportunities of flame retardantbased studies and research. The following chapter provides good structure of flame retardancy of polymer nanocomposite. This chapter explained with many sub topics such as nanocomposite-based fire retardants, fire-retardancy mechanism of carbon-based nanocomposites, fire-retardant mechanism for clay-based nanocomposites, polymer nanocomposites combined with conventional fire retardants, nanocomposites combined with halogenated flame retardants, nanocomposites combined with phosphorus and intumescents, nanocomposites combined with metal hydroxides, other combinations, fire-protective coatings, intumescent coating, nanocoating. The next chapter mainly concentrates on developments in different techniques used for flame retardancy. The authors of this chapter discuss different types of instruments used for flame retardant nanocomposites; in the first half of this chapter the authors explained the main instruments such as cone calorimetry, UL94 and condensed phase pyrolysis and their usage, test principle, test specimens, test procedure, test report, etc. In the second half of this chapter is discussed polymer combustion smoke formation. Finally, the chapter discusses the future trends of nanotechnology of flame retardant catalysis technique, ceramic/glass shield, vapour phase flame retardant, flame retardant synergy. The fourth chapter discusses the development of phosphorus flame retardants in thermoplastic blends and nanocomposites.
This chapter discusses many interesting topics such as phosphorus flame retardants, commercial products, degradation of phosphorus flame retardants, applications of phosphorus flame retardants, properties of phosphorus flame retardants, effects of phosphorus flame retardants in environment, phosphorus flame retardants in thermoplastic blends and nanocomposites and future trends.
Another chapter deals with the review of non-halogen flame retardants in epoxybased composites and nanocomposites: flame retardancy and rheological properties. The authors of this chapter explain using different subjects such as mechanism of flame retardant materials in epoxy-based composites, review of reactive phosphorus- based flame retardant epoxy resins system, DOPO-derivatives flame retardants system, phosphors containing flame retardants system, review of rheological and mechanical properties of advanced epoxy resins containing DOPO-derivatives and review of inorganic and metallic-based flame retardants in epoxy resins. Another chapter on flame retardant/resistant-based nanocomposites in textile, explained with different subjects such as flame retardant for plastic, flame retardancy of textile, strategies with nanocomposite principle and their fire properties for textiles.
Authors of this chapter also explained with many sub topics such as mode of actions, halogen-containing flame retardants inorganic compounds, charring and intumescent systems, burning behaviour and fire hazards of textile, flammability testing of textiles, and flame retarding systems for textile. The seventh chapter discusses flame retardants in bitumens and nanocomposites; from this chapter we can see different topics related to bitumens and their uses in flame retardant studies such as conventional flame retardant modified bitumen, new types of environmental friendly flame retardants using bitumen, bitumen/flame retardant nanocomposites, and future trends. The authors discuss in the eighth chapter fire retardants for phase change material, type of fire retardant, experimental work conducted by other researchers, experimental work performed at the University of Auckland and materials for fire testing. The subsequent chapter on flame retardant finishing for textiles gives explanations with many sub-topics such as fabrication, mechanism of combustion, mechanism of flame retardancy, chemistry of flame retardant additives, flame retardants (FR) for textiles, flame retardant testing methods, environmentally sustainable flame retardants: novel approaches.
The final chapter on flame retardant cellulosic materials and their composites explains the physical and chemical structure of cellulosic materials, fire and flame retardancy finishing of cellulosic materials, fire and flame retardancy finishing of cellulosic materials, and their composites.
Finally, the editors would like to express their sincere gratitude to all the contributors of this book, who gave excellent support for the successful completion of this venture. We are grateful to them for the commitment and the sincerity they have shown towards their contribution to the book. Without their enthusiasm and support, compilation of the book would not have been possible. We would like to thank all the reviewers who have taken their valuable time to make critical comments on each chapter. We also thank the publisher Springer for recognizing the demand for such a book, and for realizing the increasing importance of the area of “Flame Retardants: Polymer Blends, Composites and Nanocomposites” and for starting such a new project, in which not many other publishers have put their hands.