Fiber Optic and Atmospheric Optical Communication PDF by Nathan Blaunstein, Shlomo Engelberg, Evgenii Krouk and Mikhail Sergeev

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Fiber Optic and Atmospheric Optical Communication
By Nathan Blaunstein, Shlomo Engelberg, Evgenii Krouk and Mikhail Sergeev
Fiber Optic and Atmospheric Optical Communication

Contents

Preface xi
Acknowledgments xv
Abbreviations xvii
Nomenclature xix
 
Part I Optical Communication Link Fundamentals 1
1 Basic Elements of Optical Communication 3
1.1 Spectrum of OpticalWaves 3
1.2 Optical Communication in Historical Perspective 4
1.3 Optical Communication Link Presentation 5
References 8
2 OpticalWave Propagation 11
2.1 Similarity of Optical and RadioWaves 11
2.2 Electromagnetic Aspects of OpticalWave Propagation 13
2.3 Propagation of OpticalWaves in Free Space 16
2.4 Propagation of OpticalWaves Through the Boundary of Two
Media 16
2.4.1 Boundary Conditions 16
2.4.2 Main Formulations of Reflection and Refraction Coefficients 17
2.5 Total Intrinsic Reflection in Optics 20
2.6 Propagation of OpticalWaves in MaterialMedia 23
2.6.1 Imperfect Dielectric Medium 25
2.6.2 Good Conductor Medium 25
Problems 25
References 28
 
Part II Fundamentals of Optical Communication 29
3 Types of Signals in Optical Communication Channels 31
3.1 Types of Optical Signals 31
3.1.1 Narrowband Optical Signals 31
3.1.2 Wideband Optical Signals 34
3.2 Mathematical Description of Narrowband Signals 35
3.3 Mathematical Description ofWideband Signals 39
References 41
4 An Introduction to the Principles of Coding and Decoding of
Discrete Signals 43
4.1 Basic Concepts of Coding and Decoding 43
4.1.1 General Communication Scheme 43
4.1.2 The Binary Symmetric Channel (BSC) 45
4.1.3 Channel Model with AWGN 46
4.2 Basic Aspects of Coding and Decoding 47
4.2.1 Criteria of Coding 47
4.2.2 Code Parameters for Error Correction 50
4.2.3 Linear Codes 51
4.2.4 Estimation of Error Probability of Decoding 54
4.3 Codes with Algebraic Decoding 56
4.3.1 Cyclic Codes 56
4.3.2 BCH Codes 57
4.3.3 Reed–Solomon Codes 59
4.4 Decoding of Cyclic Codes 60
References 63
5 Coding in Optical Communication Channels 67
5.1 Peculiarities of Cyclic Codes in Communication Systems 67
5.2 Codes with Low Density of Parity Checks 68
5.2.1 Basic Definitions 68
5.2.2 Decoding of LDPC Codes 72
5.2.3 Construction of Irregular LDPC Codes 73
5.2.4 Construction of Regular LDPC Codes 74
5.3 Methods of Combining Codes 76
5.4 Coding in Optical Channels 79
References 83
6 Fading in Optical Communication Channels 87
6.1 Parameters of Fading in Optical Communication Channel 87
6.1.1 Time Dispersion Parameters 88
6.1.2 Coherence Bandwidth 89
6.1.3 Doppler Spread and Coherence Time 89
6.2 Types of Small-Scale Fading 91
6.3 Mathematical Description of Fast Fading 93
6.3.1 Rayleigh PDF and CDF 94
6.3.2 Ricean PDF and CDF 96
6.3.2.1 Gamma-Gamma Distribution 99
6.4 Mathematical Description of Large-Scale Fading 100
6.4.1 Gaussian PDF and CDF 101
References 102
7 Modulation of Signals in Optical Communication Links 103
7.1 Analog Modulation 104
7.1.1 Analog Amplitude Modulation 104
7.1.2 Analog Angle Modulation – Frequency and Phase 106
7.1.2.1 Phase Modulation 107
7.1.3 Spectra and Bandwidth of FM or PM Signals 107
7.1.4 Relations Between SNR and Bandwidth in AM and FM Signals 108
7.2 Digital Signal Modulation 109
7.2.1 Main Characteristics of DigitalModulation 110
7.2.1.1 Power Efficiency and Bandwidth Efficiency 110
7.2.1.2 Bandwidth and Power Spectral Density of Digital Signals 111
7.2.2 Linear Digital Modulation 112
7.2.2.1 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) Modulation 112
7.2.2.2 Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) Modulation 113
7.2.2.3 Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) Modulation 114
7.2.3 Nonlinear DigitalModulation 114
7.2.3.1 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Modulation 114
Problems 115
References 115
8 Optical Sources and Detectors 117
8.1 Emission and Absorption of OpticalWaves 117
8.2 Operational Characteristics of Laser 119
8.3 Light-Emitting Sources and Detectors 122
8.3.1 Light-Emitting p–n Type Diode 122
8.3.2 Laser p–n Type Diode 124
8.3.3 Photodiode 125
8.3.4 PiN and p–n Photodiodes – Principle of Operation 126
8.4 Operational Characteristics of Light Diodes 129
References 130
 
Part III Wired Optical Communication Links 133
9 LightWaves in Fiber Optic Guiding Structures 135
9.1 Propagation of Light in Fiber Optic Structures 135
9.1.1 Types of Optical Fibers 135
9.1.2 Propagation of OpticalWave Inside the Fiber Optic Structure 137
References 139
10 Dispersion Properties of Fiber Optic Structures 141
10.1 Characteristic Parameters of Fiber Optic Structures 141
10.2 Dispersion of Optical Signal in Fiber Optic Structures 142
10.2.1 Material Dispersion 142
10.2.2 Modal Dispersion 143
Problems 145
References 146
 
Part IV Wireless Optical Channels 147
11 Atmospheric Communication Channels 149
11.1 Basic Characteristics of Atmospheric Channel 149
11.2 Effects of Aerosols on Atmospheric Communication Links 150
11.2.1 Aerosol Dimensions 150
11.2.2 Aerosol Altitudes Localization 151
11.2.3 Aerosol Concentration 152
11.2.4 Aerosol Size Distribution and Spectral Extinction 152
11.3 Effects of Hydrometeors 154
11.3.1 Effects of Fog 154
11.3.2 Effects of Rain 155
11.3.3 Effects of Clouds 157
11.3.3.1 Snow 158
11.4 Effects of Turbulent Gaseous Structures on OpticalWaves
Propagation 158
11.4.1 Turbulence Phenomenon 158
11.4.2 Scintillation Phenomenon of OpticalWave Passing the Turbulent
Atmosphere 161
11.4.3 Scintillation Index 162
11.4.4 Signal Intensity Scintillations in the Turbulent Atmosphere 162
11.4.5 Effects of Atmosphere Turbulences on Signal Fading 165
11.5 OpticalWaves Propagation Caused by Atmospheric Scattering 166
References 168
 
Part V Data Stream Parameters in Atmospheric and Fiber
Optic Communication Links with Fading 173
12 Transmission of Information Data in Optical Channels:
Atmospheric and Fiber Optics 175
12.1 Characteristics of Information Signal Data in Optical
Communication Links 176
12.2 Bit Error Rate in Optical Communication Channel 181
12.3 Relations Between Signal Data Parameters and Fading Parameters in
Atmospheric Links 183
12.4 Effects of Fading in Fiber Optic Communication Link 188
References 191
Index 195

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