Polymer Electrolytes: Characterization Techniques and Energy Applications PDF by TanWinie, Abdul K. Arof, and Sabu Thomas

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Polymer Electrolytes: Characterization Techniques and Energy Applications
Edited by TanWinie, Abdul K. Arof, and Sabu Thomas
Polymer Electrolytes: Characterization Techniques and Energy Applications

Contents

Preface xiii
1 Polymer Electrolytes: State of the Art 1
Masashi Kotobuki
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Solid Polymer Electrolyte 4
1.3 Gel Polymer Electrolyte 8
1.4 Composite Polymer Electrolyte 12
1.5 Summary 17
References 17
2 Impedance Spectroscopy in Polymer Electrolyte
Characterization 23
Mohamed Abdul Careem, Ikhwan Syafiq Mohd Noor, and Abdul K. Arof
2.1 Introduction 23
2.2 IS: Principal Operation and Experimental Setup 23
2.2.1 Basic Principles of Impedance Spectroscopy 23
2.2.2 Impedance Spectroscopy (IS) Technique 25
2.2.3 Electrical Conductivity of a Sample 26
2.2.4 Conditions Necessary for IS Measurements 26
2.2.5 Impedance Plots of Simple Circuits 28
2.2.5.1 A Pure Resistance,R 28
2.2.5.2 A Pure Capacitance,C 28
2.2.5.3 R and C Connected in Series 29
2.2.5.4 R and C Connected in Parallel 30
2.2.5.5 Combined Series and Parallel Circuits 31
2.2.5.6 Impedance Spectra of Model Electrolyte Systems 32
2.2.6 Possible Conduction Processes in a Solid Electrolyte 35
2.2.7 Impedance Spectra of Real Systems 36
2.2.7.1 The Constant Phase Element (CPE) 37
2.2.7.2 Equivalent Circuits for Real Systems 37
2.2.7.3 Electrolyte/Electrode (E/E) Interface 39
2.2.7.4 Diffusion Impedance or Mass Transport Impedance 39
2.2.7.5 Warburg Impedance 40
2.2.7.6 Equivalent Circuit Representation of an E/E System 41
2.2.8 Impedance-Related Functions 42
2.2.8.1 Immittance Functions 43
2.2.8.2 Relationships Between Immittance Functions 43
2.2.8.3 Immittance Plots 43
2.2.8.4 Choice Between Immittance Functions 46
2.2.9 Experimental Setup 46
2.2.9.1 Sample and Cell Arrangement 47
2.2.9.2 Other Practical Details and Precautions 48
2.3 IS: Experimental Data Interpretation and Analysis 49
2.3.1 Determination of Bulk Resistance from the Impedance Plots 49
2.3.2 Impedance Data Interpretation and Analysis 50
2.3.2.1 Interpretation of Impedance Data 51
2.3.2.2 Choice of Equivalent Circuits 51
2.3.3 Determination of Transport Parameters from Impedance Data 53
2.3.3.1 Bandara–Mellander (B–M) Method 53
2.3.3.2 Nyquist Plot FittingMethod 57
2.3.4 Some Experimental Results and Analysis 59
2.3.4.1 Conductivity Calculation of Impedance Plots 59
2.3.4.2 Conductivity Determination from Fitting Equivalent Circuit 60
2.3.4.3 Evaluation of Transport Properties using Nyquist Plot Fitting
Method 60
2.4 Conclusions 63
References 64
3 Thermal Characterization of Polymer Electrolytes 65
Aparna Thankappan, Manuel Stephan, and Sabu Thomas
3.1 Introduction 65
3.2 TGA: Experimental Data Interpretation and Analysis 67
3.3 DSC: Experimental Data Interpretation and Analysis 75
3.4 DSC: Experimental Errors and Suggestion for Improvement 82
3.4.1 Transition(s) at 0 ∘C 83
3.4.2 Apparent Melting at Tg 83
3.4.3 Exothermic Peaks Below Decomposition TemperatureWhile
Heating 84
3.4.4 Baseline Shift after Endothermic or Exothermic Peaks 86
3.4.5 Sharp Endothermic Peaks During Exothermic Reactions 86
3.5 DMA: Experimental Data Interpretation and Analysis 87
References 91
4 Energy in a PortableWorld 93
Noor Syuhada Zakuan,Woo Haw Jiunn, and TanWinie
4.1 Introduction 93
4.2 History Development of Mobile Power 94
4.3 Caring for Mobile Power from Birth to Retirement 102
4.3.1 Getting the Most Out of the Primary Batteries 103
4.3.2 Getting the Most Out of the Lead-Acid Batteries 103
4.3.3 Getting the Most Out of the Nickel-Based Batteries 104
4.3.4 Getting the Most Out of the Lithium Ion Batteries 105
4.4 Mobile Power Recycling 106
4.4.1 Recycling Primary Batteries 106
4.4.2 Recycling Rechargeable Batteries 109
Acknowledgments 111
References 111
5 Insight on Polymer Electrolytes for Electrochemical Devices
Applications 113
MariaManuela Silva, Verónica de Zea Bermudez, and Agnieszka Pawlicka
5.1 Introduction 113
5.2 Theory: Ionic Conductivity 117
5.3 Applications 120
5.3.1 Conventional Batteries and Transient Batteries 120
5.3.2 Fuel Cells 123
5.3.3 Supercapacitors 124
5.3.4 Electrochromic Devices 125
5.3.5 Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells 127
5.3.6 Sensors 128
5.3.7 Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cells 128
References 129
6 Polymer Electrolyte Application in Electrochemical
Devices 137
Siti Nor Farhana Yusuf and Abdul K. Arof
6.1 Introduction 137
6.2 Properties of Polymer Electrolytes (PEs) 137
6.3 Review of Polymer Electrolytes 138
6.3.1 Dry Solid Polymer Electrolytes (SPEs) 138
6.3.2 Gel Polymer Electrolytes (GPEs) 141
6.3.2.1 Ionic Liquid Gel Polymer Electrolytes (ILGPEs) 144
6.3.2.2 Gel Polymer Electrolytes with Nanomaterials 146
6.4 Application of PEs in Electrochemical Devices 148
6.4.1 Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) 148
6.4.2 Lithium Ion Batteries 150
6.4.3 Electrical Double Layer Capacitors (EDLCs) 152
6.4.4 Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells 156
6.4.5 ElectrochromicWindows 163
6.4.6 Electrochromic Materials 164
6.4.6.1 Transition Metal Oxides 164
6.5 Challenges and Improvements 167
6.5.1 In Electrolytes 167
6.5.2 In Devices 169
6.5.2.1 DSSCs 169
6.5.2.2 Fuel Cell 170
6.5.2.3 Batteries 171
6.5.2.4 EDLCs 172
6.5.2.5 ElectrochromicWindows (ECWs) 172
6.6 Future Aspects 173
6.6.1 ElectrochromicWindows 173
6.6.2 Batteries 173
6.6.3 DSSCs 173
6.6.4 Fuel Cells 174
References 175
7 Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries and Challenges:
Part I 187
Shishuo Liang,Wenqi Yan,Minxia Li, Yusong Zhu, Lijun Fu, and YupingWu
7.1 Introduction 187
7.2 Classification of Polymer Electrolytes 188
7.2.1 Solid Polymer Electrolytes (SPEs) 188
7.2.2 Gel Polymer Electrolytes (GPEs) 190
7.3 Performance and Improvements 190
7.4 Application and Performance of Polymer Lithium Ion Batteries 194
7.5 Future Trends 195
Acknowledgments 196
References 197
8 Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries and Challenges:
Part II 201
Siti Nor Farhana Yusuf and Abdul K. Arof
8.1 Introduction 201
8.2 Structure and Operation of Lithium Ion Batteries 202
8.2.1 Anode Materials 204
8.2.2 Cathode Materials 205
8.2.3 Electrolytes 206
8.2.4 Li+ Ion Transport in Polymer Electrolytes 206
8.3 Polymer Electrolyte for Lithium Ion Batteries 207
8.4 Performance Characteristics of Lithium Ion Batteries 216
8.5 Challenges and Improvement 218
8.6 Future Trends 219
References 221
9 Polymer Electrolytes for Supercapacitor and Challenges 231
Safir Ahmad Hashmi, Nitish Yadav, andManoj Kumar Singh
9.1 Introduction 231
9.2 Principle andWorking Process of Supercapacitors 232
9.2.1 Charge Storage Mechanisms in EDLCs 233
9.2.2 Charge Storage Mechanisms in Pseudocapacitors 236
9.2.2.1 Underpotential Deposition 237
9.2.2.2 Redox Pseudocapacitance 237
9.2.2.3 Intercalation Pseudocapacitance 238
9.3 Electrolytes for Supercapacitors 239
9.3.1 Liquid Electrolytes 239
9.3.2 Polymer-Based Electrolytes 241
9.3.2.1 Solvent-Free Solid Polymer Electrolytes (SPEs) 242
9.3.2.2 Gel Polymer Electrolytes (GPEs) 242
9.3.2.3 Porous Polymer Electrolytes 252
9.4 Performance Characteristics 255
9.4.1 Electrode Characterization 255
9.4.2 Characterization of Supercapacitors 258
9.4.2.1 Electrochemical Characterization Techniques and Important
Parameters 258
9.4.2.2 Performance of Polymer Electrolyte-Based Supercapacitors: Some
Case Studies 262
9.5 Challenges to Solid-State Supercapacitors and Future Scope of
Improvement 284
References 285
10 Polymer Electrolytes for Quantum Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells
(QDSSCs) and Challenges 299
T.M.W.J. Bandara and J.L. Ratnasekera
10.1 Demand and Supply of Energy 299
10.2 The Sun as a Potential Energy Resource 300
10.3 Advantages of Solar Cells 301
10.4 Photo-Electrochemical Solar Cells 301
10.4.1 General Mechanism of a Photo-Electrochemical Solar Cell 303
10.4.2 Mechanism of a Photo-Electrochemical Solar Cell 304
10.4.3 Semiconductor/Polymer Electrolyte Junction 308
10.4.4 Photo-sensitization ofWide Bandgap Semiconductors 308
10.5 Quantum Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells (QDSSCs) 310
10.5.1 Quantum Dots 310
10.5.2 Mechanism of a QDSSC 313
10.5.3 Quantum Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells (QDSSCs) 314
10.5.4 Polymer Electrolytes for QDSSCs 317
10.6 Performances of Different QDSSCs Assemblies Based on Polymer
Electrolytes 318
10.6.1 Quasi-Solid-State QDSSCs Based on Polyacrylamide Hydrogel
Electrolytes 318
10.6.1.1 Hydrogel Electrolyte with Polyacrylamide 318
10.6.2 CdS-Sensitized Cell with PAN and PVDF Electrolytes 319
10.6.3 ZnO-Based Quasi-Solid QDSSCs Sensitized with CdS and CdSe 323
10.6.3.1 Quasi-Solid-State Electrolyte Preparation 324
10.6.4 Natural Polysaccharide Thin Film-Based Electrolyte for Quasi-Solid
State QDSSCs 324
10.6.5 Dextran-Based Hydrogel Polysulfide Electrolyte for Quasi-Solid-State
QDSSCs 325
10.6.6 Carbon Dots Enhance Light Harvesting in a Solid-State QDSSC 326
10.6.7 Quantum Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Oligomer Gel
Electrolytes 326
10.6.8 QDSSCs withThiolate/Disulfide Redox Couple and
Succinonitrile-Based Electrolyte 327
10.6.9 Graphene-Implanted Polyacrylamide Gel Electrolytes for
QDSSCs 328
10.6.10 PEO and PVDF-Based Electrolyte for Solid-State Electrolytes for
QDSSCs 329
10.6.11 Hydroxystearic Acid-Based Polysulfide Hydrogel Electrolyte for
CdS/CdSe QDSSCs 329
10.6.12 QDSSCs Based on a Sodium Polyacrylate Polyelectrolyte 330
10.7 Summary 331
References 334
11 Polymer Electrolytes for Perovskite Solar Cell and
Challenges 339
Rahul Singh, Hee-Woo Rhee, Bhaskar Bhattacharya, and Pramod K. Singh
11.1 Introduction 339
11.2 Principle andWorking Process of Perovskite Solar Cell 341
11.2.1 Perovskite Materials 342
11.2.2 Perovskite Structure 344
11.2.3 Synthesis of Perovskite 349
11.2.3.1 Solution-Processed Method 349
11.2.3.2 Hot Casting Technique 352
11.2.3.3 Vapor Deposition Method 352
11.2.3.4 Thermal Evaporation Technique 352
11.3 Polymer Electrolyte for Perovskite Solar Cell 354
11.3.1 Device Fabrication 354
11.3.2 Hole Transport Layer 355
11.4 Performance Characteristics 355
11.5 Challenges and Improvement 356
11.6 Future Trends 357
11.7 Conclusion 358
Competing Interests 358
Acknowledgments 358
References 358
12 Polymer Electrolytes for ElectrochromicWindows 365
Li Na Sim and Agnieszka Pawlicka
12.1 Introduction 365
12.2 Principles andWorking Process of ElectrochromicWindow 366
12.3 Types of Electrochromic Electrodes 367
12.4 Mechanism of ECW 368
12.5 Polymer Electrolytes for ElectrochromicWindows 369
12.5.1 Background 369
12.5.2 Criteria of Polymer Electrolytes and Electrochromic Device 369
12.5.3 Types of Polymer Electrolytes Used in ECWs 370
12.5.3.1 Solid Polymer Electrolytes (SPEs) 370
12.5.3.2 Gel Polymer Electrolytes (GPEs) 374
12.5.3.3 Composite Polymer Electrolyte 383
12.6 Present ECDs Uses/Applications 385
References 385
Index 391 
 
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