Advances in Cotton Science: Botany, Production, and Crop Improvement PDF by Ratikanta Maiti, Ch. Aruna Kumari, Abul Kalam Samsul Huda, Debashis Mandal and Sameena Begum

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Advances in Cotton Science: Botany, Production, and Crop Improvement
By Ratikanta Maiti, Ch. Aruna Kumari, Abul Kalam Samsul Huda, Debashis Mandal and Sameena Begum
Advances in Cotton Science-Botany, Production, and Crop Improvement


Contents

About the Authors …………………………………………………………….v
Abbreviations ………………………………………………………………………………. xi
Preface ……………………………………………………………………………………… xiii
Acknowledgment …………………………………………………………………………xvii
1. Background and Importance ……………………………………………………………
1 2. World Cotton Production and Factors Affecting Production …………… 15
3. Origin, Evolution, and Domestication …………………………………………….. 27
4. Cotton Ideotype …………………………………………………………………………….. 39
5. Cotton Botany and Characterization ……………………………………………… 47
6. Physiological Basis of Cotton Growth and Productivity ………………….. 65
7. Research Advances in Abiotic Stress Resistance in Cotton …………….. 171
8. Cotton Biotic Stress ……………………………………………………………………… 209
9. Methods of Cultivation ………………………………………………………………… 233
10. Harvest and Postharvest Technology and Factors Affecting Fiber Quality ………. 261
11. Research Advances in Breeding and Biotechnology ………………………. 305
Index …………………………………………………………………………………… 337

Preface 
Cotton (Gossypium sp. L.) is one of the most important fiber and cash crops across the world and plays a dominant role in the industrial and agricultural economy of most countries. It provides the basic raw material (cotton fiber) to the cotton textile industry, but also plays a role in the feed and oil industries with its seed, rich in oil (18–24%) and protein (20–40%). Worldwide cotton provides a direct livelihood to several million farmers, and an estimated 350 million people are employed in cotton production either on-farm or in transportation, ginning, baling, and storage. In terms of global production, cotton is the foremost fiber crop. Present world production is some 25.5 million tons of seed cotton from 34.8 million ha. China, the United States, and India are the world’s major cotton- producing countries, accounting for nearly 60% of the world production. Cotton is grown in more than 100 countries, accounting for 40% of the world fiber market. Cotton is a major export revenue source for several developing and some developed countries. The cotton is grown in diverse climates such as tropical, sub-tropical, and temperate climates. Australia and Egypt generate the best quality cotton in the world. The world’s lowest cost cotton producers are Australia, China, Brazil, and Pakistan. The history of the domestication of cotton is very complicated and is not known accurately. Several isolated civilizations in both the Old and New World independently domesticated and converted cotton into fabric.
 
 Gossypium barbadense, known as “Pima” or “Egyptian” cotton, was domesticated in the Peruvian Andes between 4000 and 5000 years ago. “Upland” cotton, Gossypium hirsutum, makes up the bulk of the world’s cotton crop and was domesticated at approximately the same time in the Yucatan Peninsula. During last two decades, tremendous progress and innovations have been attained in all fields of cotton science, including “development of high-yielding varieties and hybrids, lodging resistant, big boll size, excellent boll opening, easy picking, improved fiber quality, hybrids suit for high-density planting, Bt genes for worm control commonly known as boll guard technology, mechanical harvesting (synchronous flowering), herbicide resistance commonly known as Round-up Ready®, multiple disease resistance including Lygus, or plant bug resistance, Reniform nematode resistance and drought tolerance gene for arid regions, and all these attempting to create desirable traits and increase production of cotton to meet the world’s demands. Based on the importance of the crop, farmers, students, and the scientific community (like researchers, scientists) need to understand about the role, nature of the crop and advancements in research for best cultivation methods, effective utilization of resource, and operations for getting higher yields, thus achieving higher productivity. From the above point of view, the authors decided to provide a resource of complete information and research literature of several disciplines on cotton in the form of book as a guide for students, teachers, researchers, as well as scientists. The authors have provided information on all aspects of several disci-plines of cotton and recent literature together under one umbrella, namely Advances in Cotton Science: Botany, Production, and Crop Improvement. This book attempts to bring together recent advances in different disci-plines of cotton science. This book covers almost the aspects of cotton starting from background, production, origin to domestication, ideotype, botany, physiology of crop growth and productivity, abiotic and biotic factors affecting crop productivity, methods of cultivation, postharvest management, fiber quality analysis, improvement of cotton crop, research advancements in breeding and biotechnology till 2018. Researchers need to be concerned that the productivity of cotton is affected by several biotic and abiotic stresses, which require a concerted interdisciplinary research. Every aspect of each chapter is described extensively and enriched with recent research literature. 
 
This book was written in a lucid style and in a mode of presentation will help students graduates, academicians, and teaching faculty to gain knowledge and understanding about the crop. Especially this book guides researchers working on cotton and cotton scientists to understand the rela-tion between several disciplines and implementation of new methods and technology covered in recent literature in cotton crop for crop improve-ment in order to get higher productivity. A multi-pronged approach needs to be used to increase cotton productivity to meet the world’s demands. The authors strongly believe that libraries of schools or colleges of undergraduate, graduate, postgraduate, research institutes of public and private sectors must have this book. It also should occupy a distinctive place in libraries for its versatile contents, extensive descriptions, and enriched research literature of recent advancements. This book effectively is helpful in the aspect of gaining knowledge and explaining subject matter. It will also be a quick reference for teaching staff, professors, the research community, and cotton scientists. It fulfills most of their requirements. Some problems were faced during the course of writing this book. But the authors’ dedication and determination played major driving force in overcoming the problems and successfully completing the book.
 

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