Handbook of Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset PDF Edited by David R. Jones

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Handbook of Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset

Edited by David R. Jones

Handbook of diseases of banana, abacá and enset

Contents

Contributors xi

The Editor: David Jones xiii

Preface xv

1 INTRODUCTION TO BANANA, ABACÁ AND ENSET 1

D.R. Jones and J.W. Daniells

The Genera Musa and Ensete 1

Banana 2

Abacá 32

Enset 34

2 FUNGAL DISEASES OF THE FOLIAGE 41

Sigatoka Leaf Spots 41

Overview – D.R. Jones 41

Black Leaf Streak – M. Guzmán, L. Pérez-Vicente, J. Carlier,

Abadie, L. de Lapeyre de Bellaire, F. Carreel, D.H. Marín,

R.A. Romero, F. Gauhl, C. Pasberg-Gauhl and D.R. Jones 41

Sigatoka Leaf Spot – D.R. Jones 115

Eumusae Leaf Spot – D.R. Jones, J. Carlier and X. Mourichon 127

Other Leaf Spots 132

Black Cross Leaf Spot – D.R. Jones 132

Cordana Leaf Spot – D.R. Jones 135

Deightoniella Leaf Spot – D.R. Jones, E.O. Lomerio, M. Tessera and A.J. Quimio 138

Eyespot – D.R. Jones, M. Tessera and A.J. Quimio 141

Malayan Leaf Spot – D.R. Jones 142

Pestalotiopsis Leaf Spot – D.R. Jones 144

Phaeoseptoria Leaf Spot – D.R. Jones 145

Pyricularia Leaf Spot – M. Tessera, A.J. Quimio and D.R. Jones 148

Speckles, Freckle and Rust – D.R. Jones 150

Cladosporiun Leaf Speckle 150

Mycosphaerella Leaf Speckle 156

Taiwan Leaf Speckle 159

Tropical Leaf Speckle 161

Freckle 166

Rust 171

3 FUNGAL DISEASES OF THE ROOT, CORM AND PSEUDOSTEM 207

Fusarium Wilt – R.C. Ploetz 207

Armillaria Corm Rot – D.R. Jones 228

Cylindrocladium Root Rot – D.R. Jones 229

Rosellinia Root and Corm Rot – D.R. Jones 232

Damping-off of Musa seedlings – D.R. Jones 233

Deightoniella Pseudostem Rot of Abacá – E.O. Lomerio 233

Fungal Root Rot – D.R. Jones and R.H. Stover 234

Marasmiellus Pseudostem and Root Rot – D.R. Jones and E.O. Lomerio 235

Pseudostem Heart Rot – D.R. Jones and E.O. Lomerio 238

Ceratocystis Corm Rot – D.R. Jones 239

Sclerotium Corm and Pseudostem Rot – D.R. Jones 240

Cephalosporium Infloresence Spot of Enset – M. Tessera and A.J. Quimio 241

4 FUNGAL DISEASES OF BANANA FRUIT 255

Preharvest Diseases – D.R. Jones and R.H. Stover 255

Overview 255

Anthracnose Fruit Rot 255

Brown Spot 256

Cigar-end Rot 257

Tip-end Rot 261

Deightoniella Fruit Speckle 264

Diamond Fruit Spot 266

Freckle 267

Peduncle Rot 268

Pitting 269

Sooty Mould and Sooty Blotch 270

Postharvest Diseases – D.R. Jones and I.F. Muirhead 271

Overview 271

Crown Rot 272

Anthracnose 280

Fungal Scald 285

Stem-end Rot 285

Main-stalk Rot 286

Botryodiplodia Finger Rot 286

Squirter 286

Other Diseases 287

5 DISEASES CAUSED BY BACTERIA AND PHYTOPLASMAS 296

Bacterial Wilt Diseases 296

Xanthomonas Bacterial Wilt – G. Blomme and W. Ocimati 296

Moko Bacterial Wilt and Bugtok – S.J. Eden-Green 314

Blood Bacterial Wilt – S.J. Eden-Green 323

Abacá Bacterial Wilt – D.R. Jones and S.J. Eden-Green 328

Javanese Vascular Disease – D.R. Jones 329

Rhizome and Pseudostem Bacterial Rots – D.R. Jones 329

Overview 329

Bacterial Rhizome Rot and Tip-Over 330

Bacterial Soft Rot of Rhizome and Pseudostem 334

Pseudostem Wet Rot 336

Heart Rot of Abacá 339

Bacterial Leaf Blight and Leaf Spot – D.R. Jones 339

Leaf Blight 339

Black Leaf Spot 339

Bacterial Diseases of Fruit – D.R. Jones 339

Bacterial Finger-tip Rot 339

Phytoplasma Diseases – D.R. Jones 342

6 DISEASES CAUSED BY VIRUSES 362

Banana Bunchy Top – J.E. Thomas 362

Abacá Bunchy Top – J.E. Thomas 376

Bract Mosaic – J.E. Thomas, R. Selvarajan, M.-L. Iskra-Caruana,

L.V. Magnaye and D.R. Jones 378

Banana Mosaic – B.E.L. Lockhart, D.R. Jones and J.E. Thomas 384

Abacá Mosaic – J.E. Thomas and L.V. Magnaye 391

Banana Streak – M.L. Iskra-Caruana, J.E. Thomas and M. Chabannes 393

Enset Streak – M. Tessera, A.J. Quimio and D.R. Jones, 409

Banana Mild Mosaic – J.E. Thomas, B.E.L. Lockhart,

M.L. Iskra-Caruana, K.S. Crew and M. Sharman 410

Banana Virus X – K.S. Crew and J.E. Thomas 412

Ampeloviruses – K.S. Crew, S. Massart and J.E. Thomas 413

7 NEMATODE PATHOGENS 429

D.L. Coyne and S. Kidane

Introduction 429

Burrowing Nematode 429

Root-lesion Nematodes 438

Spiral Nematodes 442

Root-knot Nematodes 443

Other Nematodes 448

8 NON-INFECTIOUS DISORDERS OF BANANA 462

Lahav, Y. Israeli, D.R. Jones and R.H. Stover

Overview 462

Plant Disorders 462

Heart Leaf Unfurling Disorder of Plantain 462

High Mat 462

Leaf-edge Chlorosis 463

Roxana Disease 463

Yellow Mat 464

Fruit Disorders 465

Alligator Skin 465

Dark Centre of Ripe Fruit 466

Break Neck 466

Hard Lump 466

Malformed Fingers and Hands 467

Maturity Stain 468

Mixed Ripe Fruit 469

Neer Vazhai 469

Physiological Finger Drop 469

Premature Field Ripening 470

Sinkers 470

Split Peel 471

Uneven De-greening 471

Withered Pedicels 472

Yellow Pulp 472

9 MINERAL DEFICIENCIES OF BANANA 475

Lahav and Y. Israeli

Introduction 475

Nitrogen Deficiency 475

Phosphorus Deficiency 477

Potassium Deficiency 478

Calcium Deficiency 478

Magnesium Deficiency 479

Sulfur Deficiency 481

Manganese Deficiency 481

Iron Deficiency 482

Zinc Deficiency 482

Boron Deficiency 484

Copper Deficiency 484

10 INJURIES TO BANANA CAUSED BY ADVERSE CLIMATE

AND EXTREME WEATHER 487

Israeli and E. Lahav

Introduction 487

Seasonal Winds and Windstorms 488

Low-Temperature 492

Chilling and Frost 498

Hail 502

Heat 503

Solar Radiation 506

Drought 507

Excess Water 512

Lightning Strike 514

Under-peel Discoloration 515

Global Climate Change 516

11 CHEMICAL INJURY TO BANANA 527

Lahav and Y. Israeli

Introduction 527

Injury Caused by Agricultural Chemicals 527

Fertilizers 527

Pest and Disease Control Chemicals 527

Herbicides 530

Disinfectants 535

De-suckering Agents 535

Injury Caused by Elements in Toxic Concentration 536

Sodium and Chlorine 536

Calcium 539

Manganese 539

Iron 539

Boron 540

Copper 541

Aluminium 541

Arsenic 541

Fluorine 541

12 GENETIC ABNORMALITIES OF BANANA 546

Israeli and E. Lahav

Introduction 546

Variations in Stature 547

Abnormal Foliage 551

Variations in Pseudostem Pigmentation 556

Chimeras 558

Inflorescence and Fruit Variations 559

Concluding Remarks 561

13 QUARANTINE AND THE SAFE MOVEMENT OF MUSA GERMPLASM 567

D.R. Jones

Introduction 567

Movement of Pathogens 569

Aspects of Spread of some Major Health Problems 571

Principles of the Safe Movement of Musa Germplasm 577

Development of a System for the Safe Movement of Musa Germplasm 578

Current Recommendations for the Safe Movement of Musa Germplasm 582

Virus Detection and Therapy 583

Results of Virus Indexing at the Virus Indexing Centres 586

Index of Musa and Ensete Species, Banana Subgroups and

Clone Sets, and Banana, Abacá and Enset Cultivars 593

General Index 599

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