Essentials of Marketing Research 4th Edition PDF by Joseph F. Hair, Jr., Mary Celsi, David J. Ortinau Robert P. Bush

By

Essentials of Marketing Research, Fourth Edition

Joseph F. Hair, Jr., Mary Celsi, David J. Ortinau Robert P. Bush

Essentials of Marketing Research

Contents

Part 1 The Role and Value of Marketing

Research Information 1

1 Marketing Research for Managerial

Decision Making 2

Geofencing 3

The Growing Complexity of Marketing

Research 4

MARKETING RESEARCH DASHBOARD:

CONDUCTING INTERNATIONAL

MARKETING RESEARCH 4

The Role and Value of Marketing Research 6

Marketing Research and

Marketing Mix Variables 6

Marketing Theory 9

MARKETING RESEARCH DASHBOARD:

THE PERFECT PRICING EXPERIMENT? 10

The Marketing Research Industry 10

Types of Marketing Research Firms 10

Changing Skills for a Changing Industry 11

Ethics in Marketing Research Practices 12

Ethical Questions in General

Business Practices 12

Conducting Research Not Meeting

Professional Standards 13

Abuse of Respondents 14

Unethical Activities of the

Client/Research User 15

MARKETING RESEARCH DASHBOARD 15

Unethical Activities by the Respondent 16

Marketing Research Codes of Ethics 16

CONTINUING CASE STUDY: THE SANTA

FE GRILL MEXICAN RESTAURANT 17

Emerging Trends 17

Marketing Research in Action 18

Continuing Case: The Santa Fe Grill 18

Summary 20

Key Terms and Concepts 20

Review Questions 21

Discussion Questions 21

Appendix A 22

2 The Marketing Research Process

and Proposals 24

Solving Marketing Problems

Using a Systematic Process 25

Value of the Research Process 26

Changing View of the Marketing

Research Process 26

Determining the Need for

Information Research 27

MARKETING RESEARCH

DASHBOARD: DECISION

MAKERS AND RESEARCHERS 28

Overview of the Research Process 29

Transforming Data into Knowledge 30

Interrelatedness of the Steps and the

Research Process 31

Phase I: Determine the Research Problem 31

Step 1: Identify and Clarify

Information Needs 32

Step 2: Define the Research Questions 34

Step 3: Specify Research Objectives

and Confirm the Information Value 36

Phase II: Select the Research Design 36

Step 4: Determine the Research

Design and Data Sources 36

MARKETING RESEARCH DASHBOARD:

MEASURING EFFECTIVENESS

OF ONLINE ADVERTISING FORMATS 37

Step 5: Develop the Sampling

Design and Sample Size 38

Step 6: Examine Measurement

Issues and Scales 38

Step 7: Design and Pretest

the Questionnaire 39

Phase III: Execute the Research Design 39

Step 8: Collect and Prepare Data 39

Step 9: Analyze Data 39

Step 10: Interpret Data to

Create Knowledge 40

Phase IV: Communicate the Results 40

Step 11: Prepare and Present

the Final Report 41

Develop a Research Proposal 41

Marketing Research in Action 42

What Does a Research Proposal Look Like? 42

Summary 44

Key Terms and Concepts 45

Review Questions 45

Discussion Questions 46

Part 2 Designing the Marketing

Research Project 47

3 Secondary Data, Literature Reviews,

and Hypotheses 48

Will Brick-and-Mortar Stores

Eventually Turn into Product Showrooms? 49

Value of Secondary Data and

Literature Reviews 50

Nature, Scope, and Role of

Secondary Data 50

Conducting a Literature Review 51

Evaluating Secondary Data Sources 51

Secondary Data and the Marketing

Research Process 53

Internal and External Sources

of Secondary Data 54

Internal Sources of Secondary Data 54

External Sources of Secondary Data 54

CONTINUING CASE STUDY:

THE SANTA FE GRILL MEXICAN

RESTAURANT USING

SECONDARY DATA 58

MARKETING RESEARCH

DASHBOARD: TRIANGULATING

SECONDARY DATA SOURCES 62

Synthesizing Secondary Research for the

Literature Review 62

Developing a Conceptual Model 63

Variables, Constructs, and

Relationships 63

Developing Hypotheses and Drawing

Conceptual Models 64

CONTINUING CASE STUDY: THE SANTA

FE GRILL MEXICAN RESTAURANT

DEVELOPING RESEARCH QUESTIONS

AND HYPOTHESES 67

Hypothesis Testing 67

Marketing Research in Action 69

The Santa Fe Grill Mexican Restaurant 69

Summary 70

Key Terms and Concepts 71

Review Questions 71

Discussion Questions 71

4 Exploratory and Observational

Research Designs and Data

Collection Approaches 74

Customer Territoriality in “Third Places” 75

Value of Qualitative Research 76

Overview of Research Designs 77

Overview of Qualitative and Quantitative

Research Methods 77

Quantitative Research Methods 77

Qualitative Research Methods 78

Qualitative Data Collection Methods 81

In-Depth Interviews 81

Focus Group Interviews 82

Phase 1: Planning the Focus

Group Study 85

Phase 2: Conducting the Focus

Group Discussions 87

Phase 3: Analyzing and Reporting

the Results 89

Advantages of Focus Group

Interviews 89

Purposed Communities/Private

Community 89

Other Qualitative Data Collection

Methods 91

Ethnography 91

Case Study 91

Projective Techniques 92

CONTINUING CASE:

THE SANTA FE GRILL 92

Observation Methods 93

Unique Characteristics of Observation

Methods 94

Types of Observation Methods 94

Selecting the Observation Method 96

Benefits and Limitations of

Observation Methods 97

Social Media Monitoring and the

Listening Platform 97

Netnography 99

Marketing Research in Action 100

Reaching Hispanics through Qualitative

Research 100

Summary 102

Key Terms and Concepts 103

Review Questions 104

Discussion Questions 104

5 Descriptive and Causal

Research Designs 106

Magnum Hotel’s Loyalty Program 107

Value of Descriptive and Causal Survey

Research Designs 108

Descriptive Research Designs

and Surveys 108

Types of Errors in Surveys 109

Sampling Errors 109

Nonsampling Errors 110

Types of Survey Methods 110

Person-Administered Surveys 111

Telephone-Administered Surveys 112

Self-Administered Surveys 115

Selecting the Appropriate Survey Method 118

Situational Characteristics 118

Task Characteristics 119

Respondent Characteristics 120

Causal Research Designs 122

The Nature of Experimentation 123

Validity Concerns with Experimental

Research 124

MARKETING RESEARCH DASHBOARD:

RETAILERS USE EXPERIMENTS

TO TEST DISCOUNT STRATEGY 125

Comparing Laboratory and Field

Experiments 126

Test Marketing 127

Marketing Research Dashboard 128

Riders Fits New Database into

Brand Launch 128

Summary 130

Key Terms and Concepts 131

Review Questions 131

Discussion Questions 132

Part 3 Gathering and Collecting

Accurate Data 133

6 Sampling: Theory

and Methods 134

Mobile Web Interactions Explode 135

Value of Sampling in Marketing

Research 136

Sampling as a Part of the

Research Process 136

The Basics of Sampling Theory 137

Population 137

Sampling Frame 138

Factors Underlying Sampling

Theory 138

Tools Used to Assess the Quality

of Samples 139

MARKETING RESEARCH IN ACTION

CONTINUING CASE STUDY: THE SANTA

FE GRILL 139

Probability and Nonprobability Sampling 140

Probability Sampling Designs 140

MARKETING RESEARCH DASHBOARD:

SELECTING A SYSTEMATIC RANDOM

SAMPLE FOR THE SANTA FE GRILL 142

MARKETING RESEARCH

DASHBOARD: WHICH IS

BETTER—PROPORTIONATELY OR

DISPROPORTIONATELY STRATIFIED

SAMPLES? 145

Nonprobability Sampling Designs 146

Determining the Appropriate

Sampling Design 148

Determining Sample Sizes 148

Probability Sample Sizes 148

CONTINUING CASE STUDY:

THE SANTA FE GRILL 149

Sampling from a Small Population 150

MARKETING RESEARCH

DASHBOARD: USING SPSS

TO SELECT A RANDOM SAMPLE 150

Nonprobability Sample Sizes 151

Other Sample Size Determination

Approaches 151

MARKETING RESEARCH DASHBOARD:

SAMPLING AND ONLINE SURVEYS 151

Steps in Developing a Sampling Plan 152

Marketing Research in Action 154

Developing a Sampling Plan for a

New Menu Initiative Survey 154

Summary 155

Key Terms and Concepts 156

Review Questions 156

Discussion Questions 156

7 Measurement and Scaling 158

Santa Fe Grill Mexican Restaurant:

Predicting Customer Loyalty 159

Value of Measurement in

Information Research 160

Overview of the Measurement Process 160

What Is a Construct? 161

Construct Development 161

Scale Measurement 163

MARKETING RESEARCH DASHBOARD:

UNDERSTANDING THE DIMENSIONS

OF BANK SERVICE QUALITY 163

Nominal Scales 164

Ordinal Scales 164

Interval Scales 165

Ratio Scales 166

Evaluating Measurement Scales 167

Scale Reliability 167

Validity 168

Developing Scale Measurements 169

Criteria for Scale Development 169

Adapting Established Scales 172

Scales to Measure Attitudes and Behaviors 173

Likert Scale 173

Semantic Differential Scale 174

Behavioral Intention Scale 176

Comparative and Noncomparative

Rating Scales 177

Other Scale Measurement Issues 180

Single-Item and Multiple-Item Scales 180

Clear Wording 180

Misleading Scaling Formats 181

Marketing Research in Action 184

What Can You Learn from a Customer

Loyalty Index? 184

Summary 186

Key Terms and Concepts 187

Review Questions 187

Discussion Questions 188

8 Designing the Questionnaire 190

Can Surveys Be Used to Develop

University Residence Life Plans? 191

Value of Questionnaires in

Marketing Research 192

Pilot Studies and Pretests 192

Questionnaire Design 193

Step 1: Confirm Research

Objectives 193

Step 2: Select Appropriate

Data Collection Method 194

Step 3: Develop Questions

and Scaling 194

MARKETING RESEARCH DASHBOARD:

“FRAMING” YOUR QUESTIONS CAN

INTRODUCE BIAS! 198

Step 4: Determine Layout and

Evaluate Questionnaire 203

MARKETING RESEARCH DASHBOARD:

SMART QUESTIONNAIRES

ARE REVOLUTIONIZING SURVEYS 204

Step 5: Obtain Initial

Client Approval 207

Step 6: Pretest, Revise, and

Finalize the Questionnaire 207

Step 7: Implement the Survey 207

The Role of a Cover Letter 208

MARKETING RESEARCH DASHBOARD:

COVER LETTER USED WITH THE

AMERICAN BANK SURVEY 209

Other Considerations in Collecting Data 210

Supervisor Instructions 210

Interviewer Instructions 211

Screening Questions 211

Quotas 211

Call or Contact Records 211

Marketing Research in Action 212

Designing a Questionnaire to

Survey Santa Fe Grill Customers 212

Summary 217

Key Terms and Concepts 218

Review Questions 218

Discussion Questions 218

Part 4 Data Preparation, Analysis,

and Reporting the Results 219

9 Qualitative Data Analysis 220

Why Women are “Claiming

the Throttle” 221

Nature of Qualitative Data Analysis 222

Qualitative versus Quantitative Analyses 222

The Process of Analyzing

Qualitative Data 223

Managing the Data

Collection Effort 223

Step 1: Data Reduction 223

Step 2: Data Display 230

Step 3: Conclusion Drawing/

Verification 231

Writing the Report 235

Analysis of the Data/Findings 236

Conclusions and Recommendations 237

CONTINUING CASE: SANTA FE GRILL:

USING QUALITATIVE RESEARCH 238

Marketing Research in Action 239

A Qualitative Approach to Understanding

Product Dissatisfaction 239

Summary 240

Key Terms and Concepts 241

Review Questions 242

Discussion Questions 242

Appendix A 243

Advertising’s Second Audience:

Employee Reactions to Organizational

Communications 243

10 Preparing Data for Quantitative

Analysis 246

Scanner Data Improves Understanding

of Purchase Behavior 247

Value of Preparing Data for Analysis 248

Validation 249

Editing and Coding 251

Asking the Proper Questions 251

Accurate Recording of Answers 251

Correct Screening Questions 252

Responses to Open-Ended Questions 255

The Coding Process 256

MARKETING RESEARCH DASHBOARD:

DEALING WITH DATA FROM DATA

WAREHOUSES 258

Data Entry 259

Error Detection 259

Missing Data 259

Organizing Data 261

Data Tabulation 261

One-Way Tabulation 261

Descriptive Statistics 264

Graphical Illustration of Data 264

Marketing Research in Action 267

Deli Depot 267

Summary 270

Key Terms and Concepts 271

Review Questions 271

Discussion Questions 271

11 Basic Data Analysis for Quantitative

Research 272

Data Analysis Facilitates Smarter Decisions 273

Value of Statistical Analysis 274

Measures of Central Tendency 274

MARKETING RESEARCH DASHBOARD:

SPLITTING THE DATABASE INTO SANTA

FE’S AND JOSE’S CUSTOMERS 276

SPSS Applications—Measures of

Central Tendency 276

Measures of Dispersion 277

SPSS Applications—Measures of

Dispersion 278

Preparation of Charts 281

How to Develop Hypotheses 281

MARKETING RESEARCH DASHBOARD:

STEPS IN HYPOTHESIS DEVELOPMENT

AND TESTING 282

Analyzing Relationships of

Sample Data 283

Sample Statistics and Population

Parameters 283

Choosing the Appropriate Statistical

Technique 283

Univariate Statistical Tests 286

SPSS Application—Univariate

Hypothesis Test 287

Bivariate Statistical Tests 287

Cross-Tabulation 288

MARKETING RESEARCH DASHBOARD:

SELECTING THE SANTA FE GRILL

CUSTOMERS FOR ANALYSIS 288

Chi-Square Analysis 290

Calculating the Chi-Square Value 291

SPSS Application—Chi-Square 292

Comparing Means: Independent

Versus Related Samples 293

Using the t-Test to Compare

Two Means 294

SPSS Application—Independent

Samples t-Test 295

SPSS Application—Paired

Samples t-Test 296

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) 297

SPSS Application—ANOVA 298

n-Way ANOVA 300

SPSS Application—n-Way

ANOVA 301

Perceptual Mapping 304

Perceptual Mapping Applications

in Marketing Research 305

CONTINUING CASE STUDY:

THE SANTA FE GRILL 305

Marketing Research in Action 306

Examining Restaurant Image Positions—

Remington’s Steak House 306

Summary 313

Key Terms and Concepts 313

Review Questions 314

Discussion Questions 314

12 Examining Relationships

in Quantitative Research 316

Data Mining Helps Rebuild Procter &

Gamble as a Global Powerhouse 317

Examining Relationships

between Variables 318

Covariation and Variable Relationships 319

Correlation Analysis 322

Pearson Correlation Coefficient 323

SPSS Application—Pearson

Correlation 323

Substantive Significance of the

Correlation Coefficient 325

Influence of Measurement Scales on

Correlation Analysis 326

SPSS Application—Spearman

Rank Order Correlation 326

What Is Regression Analysis? 327

Fundamentals of Regression Analysis 328

Developing and Estimating the

Regression Coefficients 330

SPSS Application—Bivariate

Regression 330

Significance 332

Multiple Regression Analysis 333

Statistical Significance 334

Substantive Significance 334

Multiple Regression Assumptions 335

SPSS Application—Multiple

Regression 335

What Is Structural Modeling? 339

An Example of Structural Modeling 341

Marketing Research in Action 345

The Role of Employees in Developing a

Customer Satisfaction Program 345

Summary 348

Key Terms and Concepts 349

Review Questions 349

Discussion Questions 349

13 Communicating Marketing

Research Findings 352

It Takes More than Numbers to

Communicate 353

Value of Communicating

Research Findings 354

Marketing Research Reports 354

MARKETING RESEARCH DASHBOARD:

CRITICAL THINKING AND MARKETING

RESEARCH 357

Format of the Marketing

Research Report 357

Title Page 358

Table of Contents 358

Executive Summary 358

Introduction 359

Research Methods and Procedures 360

Data Analysis and Findings 361

Conclusions and Recommendations 372

Limitations 374

Appendixes 374

Common Problems in Preparing

the Marketing Research Report 374

The Critical Nature of Presentations 375

Guidelines for Preparing Oral

Presentations 375

Guidelines for Preparing the Visual

Presentation 376

Marketing Research in Action 377

Who Are the Early Adopters of

Technology? 377

Summary 380

Key Terms and Concepts 381

Review Questions 381

Discussion Questions 381

Glossary 382

Endnotes 400

Name Index 404

Subject Index 406

This book is US$10. Order for this book:
(Request for free sample pages click on "Order Now" button)

Book Order
Or, Send email: [email protected]

Share this Book!

Leave a Comment

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.