Principles of Engineering Thermodynamics, Second Edition, SI Edition by John R. Reisel

By

Principles of Engineering Thermodynamics,Second Edition, SI Edition

by John R. Reisel

Principles of Engineering Thermodynamics

Contents

Preface to the SI Edition viii

Preface ix

About the Author xiii

Digital Resources xiv

Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO THERMODYNAMICS AND ENERGY 1

1.1 Basic Concepts: Systems, Processes, and Properties 6

1.2 An Introduction to Some Common Properties 16

1.3 Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics 24

1.4 Phases of Matter 25

Summary 27

Problems 28

Chapter 2 THE NATURE OF ENERGY 35

2.1 What Is Energy? 35

2.2 Types of Energy 36

2.3 Transport of Energy 40

2.4 Heat Transfer 41

2.5 Work Transfer 48

2.6 Energy Transfer via Mass Transfer 57

2.7 Analyzing Thermodynamics Systems and Processes 59

2.8 Platform for Performing Thermodynamics Analysis 60

Summary 61

Problems 62

Chapter 3 THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES

AND EQUATIONS OF STATE 69

3.1 Introduction 69

3.2 Phase Diagrams 69

3.3 The State Postulate 78

3.4 Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and Specific Heats 78

3.5 Equations of State for Ideal Gases 80

3.6 Incompressible Substances 91

3.7 Property Determination for Water and Refrigerants 92

Summary 97

Problems 98

Chapter 4 THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 107

4.1 Introduction 107

4.2 Conservation of Mass 108

4.3 First Law of Thermodynamics in Open Systems 112

4.4 First Law of Thermodynamics in Closed Systems 144

4.5 Thermal Efficiency of Heat Engines, Refrigerators,

and Heat Pumps 150

Summary 155

Problems 156

Chapter 5 INTRODUCTION TO THE SECOND LAW

OF THERMODYNAMICS 173

5.1 The Nature of the Second Law of Thermodynamics 173

5.2 Summary of Some Uses of the Second Law 175

5.3 Classical Statements of the Second Law 176

5.4 Reversible and Irreversible Processes 179

5.5 A Thermodynamic Temperature Scale 181

5.6 Carnot Efficiencies 182

5.7 Perpetual Motion Machines 185

Summary 186

Problems 187

Chapter 6 ENTROPY 195

6.1 Entropy and the Clausius Inequality 195

6.2 Entropy Generation 198

6.3 Evaluating Changes in the Entropy of a System 201

6.4 The Entropy Balance 205

6.5 Isentropic Efficiencies 218

6.6 Consistency of Entropy Analyses 228

6.7 Entropy Generation and Irreversibility 230

Summary 234

Problems 236

Chapter 7 POWER CYCLES 251

7.1 Introduction 251

7.2 The Ideal Carnot Power Cycle 253

7.3 The Rankine Cycle 255

7.4 Gas (Air) Power Cycles and Air Standard Cycle Analysis 287

7.5 Brayton Cycle 288

7.6 Otto Cycle 297

7.7 Diesel Cycle 303

7.8 Dual Cycle 307

7.9 Atkinson/Miller Cycle 310

Summary 310

Problems 310

Chapter 8 REFRIGERATION CYCLES 327

8.1 Introduction 327

8.2 The Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Cycle 330

8.3 Absorption Refrigeration 337

8.4 Reversed Brayton Refrigeration Cycle 338

Summary 342

Problems 342

Chapter 9 IDEAL GAS MIXTURES 351

9.1 Introduction 351

9.2 Defining the Composition of a Gas Mixture 352

9.3 Ideal Gas Mixtures 357

9.4 Solutions of Thermodynamic Problems Incorporating Ideal

Gas Mixtures 364

9.5 Introduction to Real Gas Mixture Behavior 370

Summary 372

Problems 372

Chapter 10 PSYCHROMETRICS: THE STUDY OF “ATMOSPHERIC AIR” 383

10.1 Introduction 383

10.2 Basic Concepts and Terminology of Psychrometrics 385

10.3 Methods of Determining Humidity 389

10.4 Comfort Conditions 397

10.5 Cooling and Dehumidifying of Moist Air 399

10.6 Combining the Cooling and Dehumidifying Process with

Refrigeration Cycles 404

10.7 Heating and Humidifying Air 406

10.8 Mixing of Moist Air Streams 410

10.9 Cooling Tower Applications 413

Summary 416

Problems 417

Chapter 11 COMBUSTION ANALYSIS 427

11.1 Introduction 427

11.2 The Components of the Combustion Process 429

11.3 A Brief Description of the Combustion Process 431

11.4 Balancing Combustion Reactions 432

11.5 Methods of Characterizing the Reactant Mixture 437

11.6 Determining Reactants from Known Products 440

11.7 Enthalpy of a Compound and the Enthalpy

of Formation 443

11.8 Further Description of the Combustion Process 445

11.9 Heat of Reaction 446

11.10 Adiabatic Flame Temperature 458

11.11 Entropy Balance for Combustion Processes 462

11.12 The Gibbs Function 465

11.13 Fuel Cells 465

11.14 Introduction to Chemical Equilibrium 468

11.15 The Water–Gas Shift Reaction and Rich Combustion 472

Summary 474

Problems 476

Appendices

A.1 Properties of Some Ideal Gases 489

A.2 Values of the Specific Heats at Different Temperatures

for Common Ideal Gases (kJ/kg ? K) 490

A.3 Ideal Gas Properties of Air 491

A.4 Ideal Gas Properties of Nitrogen, Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide, Carbon

Monoxide, Hydrogen, and Water Vapor 492

A.5 Thermodynamic Properties of Select Solids and Liquids 498

A.6 Properties of Saturated Water (Liquid-Vapor)—Temperature 499

A.7 Properties of Saturated Water (Liquid-Vapor)—Pressure 501

A.8 Properties of Superheated Water Vapor 503

A.9 Properties of Compressed Liquid Water 508

A.10 Enthalpy of Formation, Gibbs Function of Formation, Entropy,

Molecular Mass, and Specific Heat of Common Substances at 258C and 1 atm 509

A.11 Values of the Natural Logarithm of the Equilibrium Constant,

ln Kp, for Various Chemical Equilibrium Reactions 510

Index 511

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