Sustaining Workforce Engagement: How to Ensure Your Employees Are Healthy, Happy, and Productive PDF by Lonnie Wilson

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Sustaining Workforce Engagement: How to Ensure Your Employees Are Healthy, Happy, and Productive

By Lonnie Wilson

Sustaining Workforce Engagement How to Ensure Your Employees Are Healthy, Happy, and Productive

Contents:

Acknowledgments………………………………………………………………………..xxi

Author…………………………………………………………………………………………xxv

Preface……………………………………………………………………………………….xxvii

PART I ENGAGEMENT BACKGROUND AND THEORY

1 Background Information……………………………………………………..3

Some history of human resource improvement programs…………………….3

Why did these efforts die??…………………………………………………………….4

The bottom line to the failures……………………………………………………4

A word about “culture”……………………………………………………………………..8

Cultural design……………………………………………………………………………..9

What it the key cultural change leading indicator??…………………………..9

Cultural characteristics……………………………………………………………..10

Culture and engagement…………………………………………………………..11

Engagement and the connection to lean manufacturing and “respect for people”………………………………………………………………….11

It’s not an initiative, it’s not a project – It is cultural change……………….12

Change, it’s more like evolution than revolution…………………………….13

But don’t treat it lightly…………………………………………………………….13

Russell Ackoff would say we are attacking “A Mess”……………………13

The irony, and the power, of improving employee engagement

through cultural change……………………………………………………………14

Employee engagement, its impact on business performance……………… 15

The Gallup data………………………………………………………………………….16

The business opportunities of improved engagement…………………16

Business behaviors that are engagement “killers”………………………………17

Is this conscious behavior or not??………………………………………………..18

How does the dysfunctional culture play out at the

behavioral level?………………………………………………………………………….18

The science and the data used in this book……………………………………..21

2 History and Current State…………………………………………………..25

Engagement, are you aware of it?…………………………………………………….25

The concept of engagement…………………………………………………………25

Just what is this common (mis)understanding??……………………………..26

However, there are some metaphors we can explore to show

“a passionate commitment”………………………………………………………26

The danger of “too many details”……………………………………………..27

History of engagement……………………………………………………………………28

It has been a valued trait forever – even if we did not know

what to call it……………………………………………………………………………..28

What’s different…………………………………………………………………………..28

Before the Industrial Revolution … craft production…………………..28

Taylorism becomes an industrial norm – Worker thinking is

discouraged…………………………………………………………………………….30

Engagement – Current levels……………………………………………………………31

The Gallup data………………………………………………………………………….31

Engagement by company size…………………………………………………..33

Engagement levels in manufacturing………………………………………………..34

Data from the scientists and scholars…………………………………………….34

Data from others, most notably Gallup………………………………………….34

The Gallup results on engagement in manufacturing –

Summarizing their hard data………………………………………………………..36

3 Engagement Theory – A Top-Down Perspective…………………….39

This engagement stuff … Where did it all start?………………………………..39

An effort to make psychology more balanced … was initiated……….40

Kahn’ s work catalyzed the “ top-down” interest in engagement………….41

Kahn’ s Work ……………………………………………………………………………….41

Kahn’ s conclusions in simple terms…………………………………………..42

Schaufeli, Salanova, Gonzalez-Roma and Bakker’ s work… ……………..43

My opinions on these two theories as “ helpful tools” to drive to a

fully engaged workforce………………………………………………………………….44

Schaufeli on “ positive, fulfilling, work-related state of mind” ……….45

Engagement – Worker and workplace health…………………………………….45

Prior work on positive effects experienced by engaged workers……..46

Issues amongst the scholars…………………………………………………………….47

They can’ t reach a common understanding on the definition of

engagement………………………………………………………………………………..47

A word about constructs…………………………………………………………..47

Trait or state or ???……………………………………………………………………48

Other engagement stratifications……………………………………………….49

The theories seem to take some intellectual “ detours” ………………..49

Why the “ detours” to the basic theory are just that, detours………..54

4 Issues with The Theory……………………………………………………..57

The scholars and the practitioners … Two different perspectives………..57

Scholars and their “top-down” look………………………………………………57

The business practitioners and their “bottom-up” look…………………..58

The businessmen want “it”… regardless of what “it” is, as long

as “it” helps……………………………………………………………………………..58

The disconnect……………………………………………………………………………58

Once again Dr. Deming hit the nail on the head …

(see sidebar)…………………………………………………………………………….60

What the scholars know that the practitioners should know –

Engagement is the natural state…………………………………………………….61

Just why has management forgotten that??…………………………………61

Regardless … they share some commonalities…………………………………..63

What is everyone missing??……………………………………………………………..64

The special case of the Gallup survey and data………………………………..67

There is a concern that the Gallup data is not even

engagement data ……………………………………………………………………….67

The Gallup Q12 does not directly measure the engagement

construct…………………………………………………………………………………68

Some more background on the Gallup Q12………………………………..70

Another possible explanation to the engagement connection………71

The “bottom line” to the Q12 survey and its data……………………………….72

General data … Its value to me as a consultant……………………………..72

Overall value judgments from bulk data……………………………………….72

More stratified data are helpful…………………………………………………72

Using the Gallup Q12 to make meaningful business

comparisons in a plant……………………………………………………………..73

The bottom line………………………………………………………………………….75

Two big problems – The data and crazymaking………………………………..75

Data quality … No standards, variation gone wild…………………………75

Strangely enough, it might still be “good enough”………………………….76

Now for the real crazymaking … Comparisons……………………………..76

Your way out of the crazymaking … Managers beware!!………………..77

Gallup supports this position……………………………………………………78

The conundrum……………………………………………………………………………..78

So how do we break the conundrum?…………………………………………..80

A simple choice ……………………………………………………………………. 81

5 Toward a Practical Definition……………………………………………..83

A simple working definition…………………………………………………………….83

An example of “engagement in action”………………………………………….84

Policies, rules, procedures and approvals galore tend to reduce

engagement; unnecessary ones, kill engagement………………………..84

Engaged people do the right things, in the right way, at the right

time and for the right reasons………………………………………………………….87

So what’s wrong with that definition? … Sounds pretty good to me…….88

A better metaphor for engagement…………………………………………………..88

First, the refinery manager and my discussion with a colleague………88

Second, leading with intent………………………………………………………….89

The metaphor … An engaged worker will act like she owns the

business……………………………………………………………………………………..90

Regarding the accuracy of this metaphor……………………………………90

What data do we have to support this metaphor??………………………91

Just how useful is this metaphor??……………………………………………..92

The simplicity of the metaphor; the complexity of achieving it…………..92

PART II MANAGEMENT BASICS

6 Management 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0………………………………………………97

The importance of the manager………………………………………………………97

Strong, effective management; where does it start?…………………………….99

Management evolution…………………………………………………………………..100

There were harbingers, wise ones………………………………………………100

The most direct harbingers…………………………………………………….. 101

My position on these harbingers……………………………………………..102

Then there was management lethargy, indifference and

resistance to change until …………………………………………………………103

What is Management 1.0?…………………………………………………………..104

What is Management 2.0?…………………………………………………………..106

What is Management 3.0?…………………………………………………………..108

Problems with Management 2.0………………………………………………108

Management 3.0…………………………………………………………………….109

A transformational management system and the “The Critical

List of Six”…………………………………………………………………………….. 112

Management 3.0, Japanese management and the List of Six……… 114

The story of the Theta cell……………………………………………………………. 116

From Management 1.0 to Management 3.0 and the results……………. 117

What else happened in the plant, in addition to the huge

productivity improvements?……………………………………………………. 119

Theta cell – Summary…………………………………………………………….120

7 Management and Leadership – The Basics………………………….123

Managers, in the worst way, want engagement………………………………..123

What is the common denominator to supplying all these needs

and doing it well?………………………………………………………………………124

So just what is the problem??…………………………………………………..124

I think they are wrong … very wrong……………………………………..125

The reality…………………………………………………………………………….125

Just why does management work to discourage engagement??…………126

Misunderstanding of the concept of engagement………………………….126

Misunderstanding of “the need for the engagement of managers”…..127

Misunderstanding of the concepts of motivation………………………….128

Management’s role: What are we talking about?………………………………128

There is an increasing need for leadership skills………………………….129

The past decades have emphasized management over

leadership as the key skill set………………………………………………….129

Times are changing rather dramatically……………………………………130

Is more leadership all we need?………………………………………………130

The Six Skills of Lean Leadership…………………………………………………..132

The importance of the management team’s behavior……………………….133

Just what must the management team do??……………………………………..134

Getting work done through others……………………………………………..134

Two realities managers need to deal with……………………………………134

It’s all about being successful……………………………………………………..135

Supervision … The most basic task of management…………………….135

The umbrella task of all supervisors … to create an

environment where it is conducive to produce…………………………136

Situational leadership…………………………………………………………………….138

The underlying premise of situational leadership…………………………138

Task behavior – The X-axis…………………………………………………….139

Relationship behavior – The Y-axis………………………………………….140

Situational leadership styles…………………………………………………….140

The issue of supervisory responsibility – to Hersey…………………..140

Toshi on supervision……………………………………………………………… 141

The essence of situational leadership………………………………………….. 141

Knowing the people……………………………………………………………… 142

Knowing the work………………………………………………………………… 142

PART III THE SIX ECLECTIC MANAGEMENT SKILLS

8 Management and Leadership – The Two Lost Skills…………….. 147

The first lost skill – Technical competency among management………. 147

The case of the MBA gone awry………………………………………………… 147

Where can we find managerial teams with high levels of

technical competency?………………………………………………………………. 149

Who, in my database, has high levels of technical competence

in the management ranks?……………………………………………………… 150

What are the issues?………………………………………………………………….. 150

Toshi’s perspective on the importance of managerial

competency – The needs of the people……………………………………… 151

The typical “shift” a manager makes as he becomes gemba

focused………………………………………………………………………………… 151

The effect of distance management……………………………………………. 152

Distance management, Toyota and Genchi Genbutsu………………. 154

Distance management and false economies…………………………….. 155

Wrapping up managerial technical competence…………………………… 156

The second lost skill – Delegation…………………………………………………. 157

What is delegation???…………………………………………………………………. 158

The power of delegation……………………………………………………………. 158

When to delegate??……………………………………………………………………. 158

The typical management errors in delegation……………………………… 159

Work assignment versus work delegation………………………………… 159

The elements of delegating work…………………………………………….160

Hoshin Kanri as a form of delegation………………………………………163

An example of poor delegation……………………………………………….163

A lesson in good delegation … A much-needed trait,

but in short supply…………………………………………………………………164

Why is this type of delegation not the norm??…………………………. 167

Technical competence, delegation, autonomy and employee

engagement……………………………………………………………………………… 167

The “kryptonite” to creating a fully engaged workforce –

Micromanagement…………………………………………………………………………168

What’s at the root of micromanaging…………………………………………..168

Organizational issues fostering micromanagement……………………….169

How to create micromanagement – on steroids………………………..169

Supervisory issues fostering micromanagement……………………….. 170

Micromanagement and trust…………………………………………………… 171

Micromanagement and the persona – The pretenders………………. 171

Situational leadership, micromanagement, intrinsic motivation

and leader standard work………………………………………………………….. 172

9 Management and Leadership – The Two New Skills……………. 175

The first new skill – Creating a learning, teaching and

experimenting culture…………………………………………………………………… 175

What does a learning, teaching, experimenting culture

look like??………………………………………………………………………………… 176

Just where is the teaching, learning and experimenting

occurring?……………………………………………………………………………..177

What are the key technical topics to train on first?………………………. 178

Kaizen activity………………………………………………………………………….. 178

Management kaizens……………………………………………………………… 179

Deeper problem solving is needed to learn………………………………… 179

Single-loop learning……………………………………………………………….180

The need for introspection……………………………………………………..180

Double-loop learning……………………………………………………………..180

Practicing PDCA………………………………………………………………………..181

Acting on the results and the means………………………………………..182

PDCA and it imposters ………………………………………………………….182

PDCA and prediction……………………………………………………………..183

The hazards of experimenting…………………………………………………185

Kaizens and PDCA and risk……………………………………………………….186

JIT Training………………………………………………………………………………186

JIT training and questioning …………………………………………………..187

Growth and failure…………………………………………………………………188

The second new skill – Behavioral modeling………………………………….189

Why is modeling so important?…………………………………………………..190

The anatomy of modeling – Social learning theory…………………..190

Too much imitation……………………………………………………………….. 191

The key factor in modeling…………………………………………………….. 191

10 Management and Leadership – The Two Key Skills……………..193

The third new skill – Promoting and participating in mentoring………. 193

What supervisory work are you doing to maximize the

development of your people?…………………………………………………….. 193

Five-year business growth and staffing plan…………………………….. 194

Job succession planning…………………………………………………………. 194

Individual performance planning (IPP)……………………………………. 194

Individual five-year growth and development planning……………. 195

Leader standard work (LSW)………………………………………………….. 195

Why is that not enough??…………………………………………………………… 195

We need mentoring…………………………………………………………………… 195

Mentoring misunderstood?………………………………………………………196

What is mentoring??……………………………………………………………….. 197

What should the management team do

to promote mentoring?……………………………………………………………200

The fourth new management skill – Inquisitiveness

and Integration……………………………………………………………………………..200

You first must cover the “ givens” ………………………………………………..201

Toshi helped me out – I found this trait several years ago,

by pure luck. It is inquisitiveness and integration instead of

advocacy and admiration……………………………………………………………201

What do I hear from other senior managers??…………………………..202

What is the typical reality?………………………………………………………203

Strategic planning – A contrast in management techniques, a

cultural example………………………………………………………………………..203

Company A – HK planning done right…………………………………….203

Company AJ – Pseudo-HK planning………………………………………..204

The contrast…………………………………………………………………………..206

Inquisitiveness and integrity manifest on the plant floor, at the

work cell…………………………………………………………………………………..207

Background on this plant……………………………………………………….207

Background on the Theta cell…………………………………………………207

The kaizen event……………………………………………………………………208

Kaizens galore……………………………………………………………………….209

We reflect on the all the kaizens…………………………………………….. 210

The cell productivity continues to improve……………………………… 210

The Theta cell … Summarizing………………………………………………. 211

Inquisitiveness and integration at three different levels:

individual; at the cell; across the entire plant……………………………….212

Why is inquisitiveness and integration so powerful?……………………..213

Why is this trait not “ just how we do things around here” ?………….. 214

Japanese on inquisitiveness and integration………………………………… 215

Hansei………………………………………………………………………………….. 215

Nemawashi…………………………………………………………………………… 215

The relevance of hansei and nemawashi…………………………………. 216

Inquisitiveness and integration – Wrapping up……………………………. 216

PART IV THE ROLE OF MOTIVATION IN ENGAGEMENT

11 On Motivation…………………………………………………………………221

Motivation…………………………………………………………………………………….221

So why don’t managers have a better grasp on

motivational concepts?……………………………………………………………….222

Why study motivation??………………………………………………………………223

Applicability of motivational theory…………………………………………….224

Types of motivation…………………………………………………………………..225

Maslow on motivation – His hierarchy of needs………………………………226

The theory………………………………………………………………………………..226

Additional thoughts on Maslow’s hierarchy………………………………….227

Preconditions…………………………………………………………………………227

Level five – The need for self-actualization………………………………227

The appropriate management response to Maslow’s theory……….229

Herzberg on motivation – His two-factor theory……………………………..230

The theory………………………………………………………………………………..230

The “motivators”…………………………………………………………………….231

The “hygiene factors”……………………………………………………………..231

“Not a lawyer but a teacher I should be …”……………………………..232

More on Herzberg……………………………………………………………………..235

The appropriate management response to Herzberg’s theory………..236

Proper uses of “hygiene factors”…………………………………………………237

McGregor’s Theory X and X…………………………………………………………..237

The irony uncovered by McGregor……………………………………………..238

The appropriate management response to McGregor’s theory……….240

Motivation, and the role of management…………………………………………240

Three management rules on motivating the workforce…………………241

Rule number one – Don’t try to motivate people………………………241

Rule number two – Don’t demotivate the workforce…………………242

Rule number three – Manage to sustain this motivation…………….247

12 Intrinsic Motivation…………………………………………………………249

Intrinsic motivation – The basics……………………………………………………249

Intrinsically motivated behaviors we have in common………………….250

The concept of “flow”……………………………………………………………….. 251

What is the relevance of “flow” psychology to engagement in

the workplace?………………………………………………………………………. 252

Self-determination theory…………………………………………………………..257

The key role of autonomy………………………………………………………258

An example of the autonomy spectrum……………………………………259

Is SDT compatible with, and reinforcing of, other theories??………261

One more thing … Meaningfulness…………………………………………261

Motivation, creativity and a fully engaged workforce……………………….264

Intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and creativity………………..264

Intrinsic motivation and engagement……………………………………….265

Motivation and the “big question”…………………………………………………..266

The correct question………………………………………………………………….266

PART V CREATING A FULLY ENGAGED WORKFORCE

13 Systems and Systems Thinking…………………………………………271

Systems………………………………………………………………………………………..271

What is a system??……………………………………………………………………..271

Systems have some very distinctive properties………………………….272

System elements…………………………………………………………………….273

What is “not a system”?……………………………………………………………… 274

Systems thinking………………………………………………………………………. 274

Linear thinking………………………………………………………………………275

Uniqueness of systems thinking?……………………………………………..276

The “key” paradigm shift in systems thinking…………………………..277

Other issues to consider in systems thinking……………………………278

Our system – the simplified view……………………………………………….279

Systems are described and studied using systems diagrams………….280

14 System Dynamics and Engagement……………………………………281

Our system of engagement…………………………………………………………….281

Returning to our definition of a system……………………………………….281

The simplified view…………………………………………………………………..282

Engagement system elements…………………………………………………………282

Stocks……………………………………………………………………………………….282

Flows………………………………………………………………………………………..282

Actions……………………………………………………………………………………..283

Interconnections………………………………………………………………………..283

Delays………………………………………………………………………………………284

Feedback………………………………………………………………………………….284

The dynamics of creating a fully engaged workforce – The players

and the purpose……………………………………………………………………………285

Who are the players?………………………………………………………………….285

The stocks………………………………………………………………………………..286

Who’s engaged and by how much??…………………………………………286

What’s our purpose and how large is our challenge?……………………287

The disengagement loop……………………………………………………………287

The default nature of the disengagement loop………………………….289

The inherent power of negativity………………………………………………..290

The presence of negativity………………………………………………………291

What are the limits on negativity and positivity??………………………292

The “imbalance” that grossly favors the negative………………………293

The needed shift……………………………………………………………………293

How to manage the negativity and the positivity…………………………….294

The linear approach…………………………………………………………………..294

Problems with the linear approach………………………………………….295

Systems thinking and counterintuitive behavior of systems and

people………………………………………………………………………………………295

First, most systems respond counterintuitively………………………….296

Second, since system response is often counterintuitive,

more often than not, to improve the system, most

managers work on the wrong parts of the system…………………….297

Third, since system response is often counterintuitive, to

improve the system, even after they have found the correct

spot, more often than not, managers push in the wrong

direction………………………………………………………………………………..297

The proper way to deal with this issue of negativity…………………….299

And what are those actions??…………………………………………………..300

The engagement loop……………………………………………………………………300

The elements to the engagement loop…………………………………………301

Closing the loop … The cultural network……………………………………302

The communications issue … Pay very close attention!!…………….302

The reality management must accept……………………………………….304

A huge communications paradigm shift is needed…………………………..305

Now we are on our way to a fully engaged workforce…………………305

15 Activating the Engagement System…………………………………….307

Getting full engagement – We will need three large

cultural changes……………………………………………………………………………307

Precursor no. 1 – Addressing three operational modes and

making “normal” normal……………………………………………………………308

Normal Mode…………………………………………………………………………308

Normally not normal mode … (see sidebar)…………………………….309

Abnormal mode……………………………………………………………………. 310

The countermeasures that create “normal mode”……………………… 311

Precursor no. 2 – Creating the “new normal”, a culture of

continuous improvement…………………………………………………………… 312

The countermeasure to making “normal” normal…………………….. 313

Some kaizens are more impactful than others…………………………….. 313

Precursor no. 3 – They need to know the context of

the business……………………………………………………………………………… 315

Activating the engagement loop…………………………………………………….. 316

The Basics and Beyond…………………………………………………………….. 317

Activating the Five Basic Elements………………………………………….. 318

Going Beyond the Basics – Five other elements…………………………..322

Hoshin Kanri (HK) planning…………………………………………………..323

Don’t miss both the emotional and intellectual impact on

engagement when everyone plans…………………………………………..323

Information sharing on a continuing basis……………………………….324

Leader standard work (LSW)…………………………………………………..325

High-quality supervision…………………………………………………………327

Visual feedback systems – Transparency……………………………………..327

The concept of transparency…………………………………………………..327

The purpose of transparency………………………………………………….328

The “scoreboard” metaphor…………………………………………………….328

Motivational power of transparency…………………………………………329

Transparency and secrets………………………………………………………..330

The Intrinsic Motivational Loop – Its structure……………………………..332

The concept of meeting the intrinsic needs……………………………..332

The elements to the IML…………………………………………………………333

The Intrinsic Motivational Loop – Its inherent power……………………336

So how can management turn this powerful knob to

improve the motivation…………………………………………………………..337

Challenge………………………………………………………………………………….339

Activating the engagement loop and the role of management—

Especially the supervisor……………………………………………………………….340

What kind of management is needed???………………………………………341

The special role of the first line supervisor………………………………….342

Just how important is the first line supervisor?…………………………342

But what is really happening in the workplace??………………………….344

How does Toyota develop supervisors?……………………………………344

The needed structure at the floor level………………………………………..345

Two large problems … created by the structure……………………….346

16 Completing the Engagement System………………………………….349

We have been making great progress …………………………………………..349

Why is this not enough??……………………………………………………………350

What’s the problem??………………………………………………………………350

At this point, it is up to the management team to respond………..350

Management feedback systems……………………………………………………… 351

The power of feedback……………………………………………………………… 352

Lack of feedback is harmful………………………………………………………. 353

Workers “not knowing”………………………………………………………….. 353

What is “typical” feedback?…………………………………………………………354

Why is this inadequate?………………………………………………………….354

Visual feedback techniques – Transparency………………………………… 355

The role of management…………………………………………………………356

Behavioral feedback techniques………………………………………………….356

Management “walking the talk”………………………………………………357

More on the need for supervisory skills-relatedness issues………..361

Trust in management……………………………………………………………..362

How management shoots itself in the foot, damaging trust…………..368

Creating bureaucracy………………………………………………………………368

Acquisitions, spin offs, reductions in force and restructuring……..369

Management bonuses……………………………………………………………..369

Management distrust of other managers…………………………………..370

Some unfortunate but real issues you’ll need to address

in creating trust……………………………………………………………………..371

Trust, as a major problem … Some uniqueness……………………………371

What should management do about trust issues in their

organizations…………………………………………………………………………372

The power of positivity and the essence of good management

feedback…………………………………………………………………………………..373

PART VI IMPROVING ENGAGEMENT

17 Engagement and Your RES……………………………………………….377

Improving engagement………………………………………………………………….377

“Turning the knobs” – Simple to discuss, but a little more

complicated to do……………………………………………………………………..378

The “key knob”…………………………………………………………………………379

What is the meaning of this correlation??…………………………………….380

The concept of the Residual Engagement Strength…………………………..381

Calculating the Residual Engagement Strength (RES)…………………….381

Getting the data for the HLP Grid……………………………………………….382

The kaizen factor……………………………………………………………………383

Calculating the transparency factor………………………………………….383

Information at the cell, in the worker’s line of sight………………….384

Information at the Information Center……………………………………..386

Getting the value for transparency…………………………………………..386

Calculating: Management walking the talk; supervisory

feedback strength; and trust……………………………………………………387

Plotting data on the High Leverage Point Grid……………………………..387

The RES calculation……………………………………………………………….387

Two case studies……………………………………………………………………….388

Case study no. 1 – Early gains and then loss of management

focus and support, Company AI……………………………………………..388

Case study no. 2 – Engagement improvement done well,

Company F……………………………………………………………………………392

18 The Action Plan………………………………………………………………403

Get prepared………………………………………………………………………………..403

What not to do………………………………………………………………………….405

Ok then, what do we need to do?………………………………………………405

But where do we start??……………………………………………………………..406

Often this is a tough pill for management to swallow……………….407

If acceptance is tough, executing the change is even more so……408

Better management preparation is required…………………………………408

Interactive teaching………………………………………………………………..408

Group discussions………………………………………………………………….409

Gemba walks………………………………………………………………………… 410

In-field coaching……………………………………………………………………. 410

Creating and executing the plan……………………………………………………. 410

Find a skilled change agent – an outsider for sure………………………. 410

Complete your first engagement survey………………………………………. 411

Analyze your engagement survey, create action items………………. 411

Taking action………………………………………………………………………… 416

Continuously improve……………………………………………………………. 417

19 Final Thoughts………………………………………………………………..419

The power of employee engagement…………………………………………….. 419

It’s a joy to see it evolve………………………………………………………………..420

It is never easy……………………………………………………………………………..420

It takes a high level of management courage and trust…………………421

And what if you are the advisor in this cultural change?………………421

Just how do you walk that tightrope??……………………………………..422

The role of management in summary format ………………………………..424

A final word…………………………………………………………………………………424

Appendix A: The Six Questions of Continuous Improvement……..427

Appendix B: Article on Engagement………………………………………..429

Appendix C: The Toyota Way, 2001: Toyota Motor Corporation,

April 2001……………………………………………………………………………435

Appendix D: Key Paradigms Discussed……………………………………439

Appendix E: The Five Tests of Management Commitment…………..443

Appendix F: HK planning simplified……………………………………….445

Bibliography…………………………………………………………………………447

Index…………………………………………………………………………………..451

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