Introduction TO Professional Engineering in Canada, 5th Edition PDF by Gordon C. Andrews, J. Dwight Aplevich, Roydon A. Fraser and Carolyn G. MacGregor

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Introduction TO Professional Engineering in Canada, Fifth Edition

By Gordon C. Andrews, J. Dwight Aplevich, Roydon A. Fraser and Carolyn G. MacGregor

Introduction TO Professional Engineering in Canada Fifth Edition

Contents

Preface to the fifth edition, iii

Part I The Engineering Profession 1

Chapter 1 An Introduction to Engineering 3

1.1 What is an engineer? 3

1.2 The role of the engineer, 5

1.3 Engineering disciplines, 6

1.3.1 Choosing your program, 7

1.4 Engineers across Canada, 10

1.5 Canadian engineering achievements, 11

1.5.1 Sources related to Canadian engineering history, 13

1.6 Challenges and opportunities for engineering, 14

1.7 Further study, 15

1.8 References, 17

Chapter 2 The Licensed Professional Engineer 19

2.1 Engineering is a profession, 20

2.2 Regulation of the engineering profession, 20

2.2.1 Government regulation, 21

2.2.2 A critical event: the Qu´ebec Bridge tragedy, 22

2.2.3 The laws regulating engineering, 25

2.2.4 Legal definitions of engineering, 27

2.3 Admission to the engineering profession, 28

2.3.1 Academic requirements, 29

2.3.2 Experience requirements, 31

2.3.3 Language competency, 32

2.3.4 The professional practice examination, 32

2.3.5 Offering engineering services to the public, 32

2.4 The purpose of provincial Associations, 33

2.5 Further study, 33

2.6 References, 36

Chapter 3 Professional Engineering Ethics 37

3.1 Association codes of ethics, 38

3.1.1 The national code of ethics, 38

3.2 Enforcement activities of the Associations, 39

3.2.1 Common professional complaints, 40

3.3 Ethics in the workplace, 41

3.4 Analyzing ethical problems, 42

3.4.1 Ethical theories, 43

3.4.2 Case studies in ethics, 46

3.5 The professional use of computer programs, 48

3.6 Proper use of the engineer’s seal, 50

3.7 The iron ring, 51

3.8 Further study, 52

3.9 References, 56

Chapter 4 Engineering Societies 57

4.1 The purpose of engineering societies, 57

4.2 The history of engineering societies, 58

4.3 The importance of engineering societies, 59

4.4 The relationship of the engineer to laws and organizations, 60

4.5 Choosing your engineering society, 62

4.5.1 Canadian engineering societies, 62

4.5.2 American and international engineering societies, 64

4.6 Further study, 65

4.7 References, 68

Chapter 5 Learning Strategies 69

5.1 The good and bad news about engineering studies, 69

5.2 Managing your time, 70

5.3 Preparing for the start of classes, 71

5.4 Developing a note-taking strategy, 72

5.5 A checklist of good study skills, 72

5.6 Assignments and projects, 73

5.7 Preparing for examinations, 74

5.8 Writing examinations, 75

5.9 When things go wrong, 76

5.10 Your professional career and lifelong learning, 76

5.11 Further study, 77

5.12 References, 79

Part II Engineering Communications 81

Chapter 6 Technical Documents 83

6.1 Types of technical documents, 83

6.1.1 Letters, 84

6.1.2 Memos, 84

6.1.3 Internet postings, 86

6.1.4 Electronic messages, 87

6.1.5 Specification documents, 88

6.1.6 Bids and proposals, 88

6.1.7 Reports, 89

6.2 Finding information, 92

6.3 Technical presentations, 94

6.3.1 Visual aids, 96

6.4 Further study, 98

6.5 References, 100

Chapter 7 Technical Writing Basics 101

7.1 The importance of clarity, 101

7.2 Hints for improving your writing style, 102

7.3 Punctuation: a basic summary, 105

7.4 The parts of speech: a basic summary, 106

7.5 Avoid these writing errors, 107

7.6 The Greek alphabet in technical writing, 108

7.7 Further study, 109

7.8 References, 112

Chapter 8 Formal Technical Reports 113

8.1 Components of a formal report, 114

8.1.1 The front matter, 114

8.1.2 The report body, 119

8.1.3 The back matter, 123

8.2 Steps in writing a technical report, 125

8.3 A checklist for engineering reports, 127

8.4 Further study, 129

8.5 References, 132

Chapter 9 Report Graphics 133

9.1 Graphics in engineering documents, 134

9.2 Standard formats for graphs, 134

9.2.1 Bar charts and others, 136

9.2.2 Straight-line graphs, 137

9.2.3 Logarithmic scales, 138

9.3 Engineering calculations, 141

9.4 Sketches, 143

9.5 Further study, 146

9.6 References, 148

Part III Engineering Measurements 149

Chapter 10 Measurements and Units 151

10.1 Measurements, 151

10.2 SI and other unit systems for engineering, 152

10.3 Writing quantities with units, 156

10.4 Basic and common units, 158

10.5 Unit algebra, 161

10.6 Further study, 162

10.7 References, 164

Chapter 11 Measurement Error 165

11.1 Measurements, uncertainty, and calibration, 165

11.2 Systematic and random errors, 167

11.2.1 Systematic errors, 167

11.2.2 Random errors, 167

11.3 Precision, accuracy, and bias, 168

11.4 Estimating measurement error, 169

11.5 How to write inexact quantities, 169

11.5.1 Explicit uncertainty notation, 169

11.5.2 Implicit uncertainty notation, 170

11.6 Significant digits, 170

11.6.1 Rounding numbers, 171

11.6.2 The effect of algebraic operations, 172

11.7 Further study, 174

11.8 References, 176

Chapter 12 Error in Computed Quantities 177

12.1 Method 1: exact range of a calculated result, 177

12.2 Method 2: linear estimate of the error range, 179

12.2.1 Sensitivities, 180

12.2.2 Relative sensitivities, 182

12.2.3 Approximate error range, 183

12.2.4 Application of Method 2 to algebraic functions, 184

12.3 Method 3: estimated uncertainty, 186

12.3.1 Derivation of the estimated value, 188

12.4 Further study, 189

12.5 References, 192

Chapter 13 Basic Statistics 193

13.1 Definitions and examples, 193

13.2 Presentation of measured data: the histogram, 196

13.3 Measures of central value, 197

13.4 Measures of spread, 201

13.5 Measures of relative standing, 203

13.6 Further study, 205

13.7 References, 206

Chapter 14 Gaussian Law of Errors 207

14.1 Conditions for applying the Gaussian model, 208

14.2 Properties of the Gaussian distribution function, 211

14.2.1 Probability intervals, 212

14.3 Fitting a Gaussian curve to sample data, 214

14.4 Least squares, 215

14.4.1 Optimality of the sample mean, 215

14.4.2 The best straight line, 216

14.4.3 Correlation coefficient, 218

14.5 Rejection of an outlying point, 220

14.5.1 Standard deviation test, 220

14.6 Further study, 220

14.7 References, 222

Part IV Engineering Practice 223

Chapter 15 Fundamentals of Engineering Design 225

15.1 Defining engineering design, 226

15.1.1 Types of engineering design, 226

15.2 Characteristics of good design practice, 227

15.2.1 Design heuristics, guidelines, standards, and specifications, 231

15.3 The engineering design process, 233

15.4 Design skills, 235

15.4.1 Clearly defining the design project, 235

15.4.2 Generating solutions, 236

15.4.3 Models, simulations, and prototypes, 237

15.5 Systematic decision-making, 239

15.5.1 Pairwise comparisons, 239

15.5.2 Computational decision-making, 241

15.6 Design documentation, 242

15.7 System life cycle, 246

15.8 Designing with others, 247

15.9 Becoming a design engineer, 249

15.10 Further study, 250

15.11 References, 253

Chapter 16 Project Management and Scheduling 255

16.1 Project management, 255

16.1.1 The project life cycle, 256

16.1.2 Cost management, 258

16.2 Gantt charts, 259

16.3 The critical path method (CPM), 259

16.4 Scheduling with CPM, 262

16.5 Refinement of CPM, 264

16.6 Summary of steps in CPM, 265

16.7 Further study, 266

16.8 References, 268

Chapter 17 Safety in Engineering Design 269

17.1 Responsibility of the design engineer, 269

17.2 Principles of hazard recognition and control, 270

17.3 Eliminating workplace hazards, 274

17.4 Codes and standards, 276

17.4.1 Finding and using safety codes and standards, 278

17.5 Further study, 279

17.6 References, 282

Chapter 18 Safety, Risk, and the Engineer 283

18.1 Evaluating risk in design, 283

18.2 Risk management, 283

18.3 Analytical methods, 284

18.3.1 Checklists, 285

18.3.2 Hazard and operability studies, 285

18.3.3 Failure modes and effects analysis, 286

18.3.4 Fault-tree analysis, 287

18.4 Safety in large systems, 289

18.5 System risk, 290

18.6 Expressing the costs of a hazard, 291

18.7 Further study, 292

18.8 References, 294

Chapter 19 Environmental Sustainability 295

19.1 Defining sustainability, 295

19.2 An overview of sustainable thinking, 297

19.3 The process of global warming and climate change, 300

19.3.1 The solar balance, 302

19.4 Excessive consumption and the depletion of oil and gas, 304

19.4.1 Ethical implications of a peak in oil and gas production, 308

19.5 Guidelines for environmental practice, 309

19.6 What we can do: personal lifestyles, 310

19.7 What we can do: engineering for sustainability, 312

19.8 Conclusion, 314

19.9 Further study, 315

19.10 References, 317

Chapter 20 The Engineer in Business 321

20.1 Seeking a job: r ´esum´es and interviews, 322

20.2 Business organizations, 325

20.2.1 Legal business structures, 325

20.3 The individual in corporate culture, 327

20.4 Starting or joining a small company, 328

20.4.1 The business plan, 329

20.4.2 Getting advice, 330

20.5 Further study, 331

20.6 References, 332

Chapter 21 Intellectual Property 333

21.1 Introduction, 333

21.1.1 Proprietary intellectual property, 334

21.1.2 The public domain, 334

21.2 The importance of intellectual property, 336

21.2.1 Rights of employers and employees, 337

21.3 Copyright, 337

21.3.1 Copyright registration, 338

21.3.2 Fair dealing, 338

21.3.3 Copyright and computer programs, 338

21.4 Patents, 339

21.4.1 The patent application process, 341

21.5 Industrial designs, 342

21.6 Trademarks, 343

21.7 Integrated circuit topographies, 344

21.8 Trade secrets, 345

21.9 Further study, 345

21.10 References, 348

Appendix Answers to Quick Quiz and selected Further Study questions 349

Chapter 1, 349

Chapter 2, 349

Chapter 3, 349

Chapter 4, 349

Chapter 5, 349

Chapter 6, 349

Chapter 7, 349

Chapter 8, 349

Chapter 9, 349

Chapter 10, 350

Chapter 11, 351

Chapter 12, 351

Chapter 13, 352

Chapter 14, 352

Chapter 15, 352

Chapter 16, 352

Chapter 17, 352

Chapter 18, 352

Chapter 19, 352

Chapter 20, 353

Chapter 21, 353

Index, 355

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