Texas Politics: Ideal and Reality, 13th Edition PDF by Charldean Newell, David F. Prindle and James W. Riddlesperger, Jr.

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Texas Politics: Ideal and Reality, Enhanced Thirteenth Edition

By Charldean Newell, David F. Prindle and James W. Riddlesperger, Jr.

Texas Politics Ideal and Reality, Enhanced Thirteenth Edition

Contents

The Context of Texas Politics 3

Texas History: A Chronology 4

The Earliest Days 4

Anglo-American Colonization 5

Revolution 5

Early Statehood 6

Post–Civil War Texas 8

The Late Nineteenth Century 8

The Early Twentieth Century 10

Wars and Depression 11

Post-World-War II Texas 13

Gradual Political Change 14

Late Twentieth-Century Texas 14

Modern Times 15

Texas as a Democracy 17

Texas and American Federalism 18

Texas in the International Arena 18

The Texas Political Culture 20

Economy, Taxes, and Services 24

The People of Texas 26

The Census 26

The Political Relevance of Population 27

Chapter 2

The Constitutional Setting 31

American Federalism 32

Division of Power 32

Federalism at Work 33

Purposes of Constitutions 34

Legitimacy 35

Organizing Government 35

Providing Power 35

Limiting Governmental Power 37

Texas Constitutional Development 37

The Present Texas Constitution 39

General Features 39

Specific Features 40

Bill of Rights 41

Separation of Powers 41

Legislative Branch 43

Executive Branch 44

Judicial Branch 44

Local Government 45

Suffrage 46

Amendments 46

Constitutional Change 46

Overview of the Need for Reform 47

Constitutional Politics 48

Something for Everyone 48

The Political Process 49

Chapter 3

Interest Groups 55

Interest Groups 56

Definition 56

Classification 56

Functions 57

Interest Groups in the Political Process 58

Who Is Organized? 58

Activities 58

Information 59

Electioneering 60

Lobbying 61

Who Are the Lobbyists? 61

What Lobbyists Do and How They Do It 62

Money 62

Persuading the Public 62

Influencing Administrators and Co-Opting Agencies 64

Interest Groups and the Courts 65

Regulation of Interest-Group Activity 66

Major Interest Groups in Texas 67

Texans for Lawsuit Reform 67

Doctors 68

The Christian Right 69

Organized Labor 72

League of United Latin American Citizens 74

Teachers 75

Chapter 4

Political Parties 81

Functions of Political Parties 82

Ideology 82

Conservatism 82

Liberalism 83

Ideology in Texas 84

Political Socialization 85

Family 85

Schools and Churches 86

Media 86

Evaluation 87

Interests 87

Texas Political Parties:

A Brief History 89

Party Organization 93

The Temporary Party Organization 94

Precinct and County Conventions 94

The State Convention 94

Permanent Party Organization 96

Precinct Chairpersons 96

County Executive Committee 96

District Executive Committee 96

State Executive Committee 96

The (Un)Importance of Party Organization 97

Two Parties, Three Factions (or Perhaps Four) 100

Republicans 100

Geographic Distribution 101

Socioeconomic and Ethnic Distribution 101

Conservative Democrats 101

Geographic Distribution 102

Socioeconomic and Ethnic Distribution 102

Liberal Democrats 103

Geographic Distribution 103

Socioeconomic and Ethnic Distribution 103

The Future of the Three-Faction System 103

Third Parties in Texas 104

Chapter 5

Voting, Campaigns, and Elections 109

Voting 110

Why Vote? 110

Suffrage 111

Registration 111

Texas Turnout 113

Government by the People? 113

Why Don’t Texans Vote? 114

The Consequences of Nonvoting 114

Election Campaigns 117

Campaign Resources 117

People 118

Money 118

Where Does the Money Come From? 119

Control of Money in Campaigns 119

The Revenue Act of 1971 121

The Federal Election Campaign Act of 1972 121

The Texas Campaign Reporting and Disclosure Act of 1973 121

1991 Ethics Law 121

Hard v. Soft 122

Negative Campaigning 123

Public Elections 124

Primary Elections 124

Texas’s “Open” Primary 124

When Held 125

Administration and Finance 125

General Elections 125

Special Elections 127

Absentee or Early Voting 127

Recent Elections in Texas 127

Elections of 1994 through 2016 128

Election of 2018 129

Chapter 6

The Texas Legislature 133

Functions of Legislative Bodies 134

Basic Facts About the Legislature 135

Size, Elections, and Terms 135

Sessions 136

Regular Session 136

Special Sessions 136

Legislative Districts 136

Mechanics 136

History 137

Compensation 139

Membership Characteristics 139

Formal Qualifications 139

Personal Characteristics 140

Race, Ethnicity, and Sex 140

Occupation 140

Age 141

Other Factors 141

Power and Influence in the Texas Legislature 142

Legislative Officers, Committees, and Staff 142

Presiding Officers 142

Lieutenant Governor 143

Speaker of the House 144

Centralized Power? 145

Legislative Committees 146

Legislative Staff 147

Legislative Budget Board 148

Texas Legislative Council 148

Legislative Audit Committee 148

How a Bill Becomes a Law in Texas 149

Step One: Introduction and Referral 149

Step Two: Committee Action 151

Step Three: Floor Action 151

In the House: Steps One Through Three Repeated 152

Step Four: Conference Committee 153

Step Five: The Governor 154

Legislative Dynamics 155

Handicaps 155

Changing Alignments 156

Nonlegislative Lawmaking 156

Governor 156

Administration 157

Courts 157

Evaluation and Suggested Reforms 157

Criticisms 157

Suggested Reforms 159

Sessions 159

Size 159

Salaries 160

Terms 160

Committees 160

Uncontrolled Lobbying 160

Assessing a Legislative Session 161

THE 86TH LEGISLATIVE SESSION, 2019 161

Chapter 7

The Governor 165

Basic Structure of the Governor’s Office 166

Election 166

Term of Office 166

Tenure 167

Impeachment and Succession 168

Compensation 170

Staff and Organization 170

Qualifications for Governor 171

Formal Qualifications 171

Personal Characteristics 171

Conservative 172

Wasp, Middle-Aged Male 173

Attorney/Businessperson, Community Pillar 174

Roles of the Governor and Limits on Those

Roles 174

Formal Roles and Limitations 177

Chief Executive 177

Budgeting 178

Planning 179

Supervising 179

Clemency 180

Chief Legislator 180

Message Power 180

Session Power 180

Veto Power 181

Commander in Chief/Top Cop 182

Chief of State 183

Chief Intergovernmental Diplomat 184

Informal Roles and Limitations 184

Chief of Party 184

Leader of the People 185

Chapter 8

The Administrative State 189

State Administrative Agencies 190

Agencies with Elected Executives 192

Attorney General 192

Comptroller of Public Accounts 192

Commissioner of the General Land Office 193

Commissioner of Agriculture 193

Agencies with Appointed Executives 194

Boards and Commissions 194

Elected Boards and Commissions 194

Ex Officio Boards and Commissions 195

Appointed Boards and Commissions 195

Appointed Boards and Citizens 196

The Case of the Public Utility Commission 196

The Case of the College Governing Board 196

The Case of the Parks and Wildlife Commission 196

Big Government: How Did It Happen? 197

Postwar Growth 197

Devolution Politics Since 1980 198

Characteristics of Bureaucracy 200

Traditional Characteristics 200

Modern Characteristics 201

Bureaucratic Survival Techniques 202

Sources of Bureaucratic Power 203

Clientele Groups 203

The Legislature 203

The Chief Executive 203

The Public 204

Expertise and Information 204

Leadership 204

Internal Organization 204

Bureaucratic Involvement in the Policymaking Process 205

Implementation of the Laws 205

Influencing Legislation 205

What Happens to the Public Interest? 206

Bureaucratic Orientation 206

Overstepping the Law 207

Harnessing the Administrative State 207

How Much Accountability to the Chief Executive? 207

How Much Accountability to the Legislature? 208

Legislative Oversight 208

Texas Sunset Act 209

How much Accountability to the Public? 210

Elective Accountability 210

Open Records and Meetings 210

Whistle-Blower Protection 211

Is There Accountability? 211

Chapter 9

The Judiciary 215

The Myth of the Nonpolitical

Judiciary 216

The Players in the System

of Justice 218

The Attorney General (AG) 218

Lawyers 219

The State Bar of Texas 219

The Court System 219

Municipal Courts 221

Justice Courts 221

County Courts 221

State Trial Courts: The District Courts 222

Intermediate State Appellate Courts: The Courts

of Appeals 222

Highest State Appellate Courts 223

Juries 224

Police 225

Removal and Reprimand of

Lawyers and Judges 225

Issues Facing the Texas Judiciary 225

Too Much Crime, Too Many Criminals 225

Judicial Selection 227

Partisan Elections? 227

Is Justice for Sale? 228

Equal Justice? 230

Chapter 10

The Substance of Justice 239

Civil Liberties 240

Freedom of Expression 240

Freedom of Religion 242

A Right to Keep and Bear Arms? 245

Abortion 246

Civil Rights 248

School Segregation 248

Education: A Basic Right? 249

Civil Rights in Modern Texas:

Jasper and Tulia 250

Civil Rights for Convicted Criminals 253

Capital Punishment 254

Torts and Tort Reform 257

Chapter 11

Local Government 263

Counties: One Size Fits All? 264

Historical and Legal Background 264

Organization and Operation of County Government 265

Structure 265

Apportionment 266

Commissioners Court 266

County Officials 267

County Politics 269

An Evaluation of County Government 269

Structure and Partisanship 269

Management Practices 270

Lack of Ordinance Power 272

Recommendations 272

Prospects for Reform 272

Cities: Managed Environments 273

Organization of City Government 274

The Council-Manager Form 275

The Mayor-Council Form 276

The Mayor-Manager Form 277

The Commission Form 278

Forms Used in General-Law Cities 279

What Form Is Preferable? 279

City Politics 281

Special Districts: Our Hidden Governments 283

What is a Special District? 283

Why Special Districts? 284

Inadequacy of Established Governments 284

Ease of Organization and Operation 284

Private Gain 284

Flexibility 285

Apolitical Approach 285

Assessment of Special Districts 285

School Districts 286

Local Government: Prospects for the Future 286

Finance 286

Revenue 286

Spending 287

Fiscal Woes 287

Other Issues 287

Leadership in Local Government 289

Chapter 12

The State Economy and the

Financing of State Government 293

The Texas Economy 295

Heart of the Economy 295

Boom and Bust 295

Creating a Favorable Business Climate 297

Where Does the Money

Come From? 297

Collection and Administration 298

Nontax Sources of Revenue 299

Federal Grants 299

Borrowing 300

Other Nontax Sources 300

Taxation 301

Fairness and Equity in the

Revenue System 302

Who Pays? 303

Taxes Paid by Individuals 303

Taxes Levied on Businesses 304

Who Benefits? 305

Contemporary Issues 305

Perspectives from the Past 305

What’s Next? 306

How Are Budget Decisions Made? 308

Planning and Preparation 308

Authorization and Appropriation 311

Execution/Spending 311

Where Does the Money Go? 312

Education 312

Health and Human Services 313

Business and Economic Development 314

Other Major Expenditures 315

Chapter 13

Public Policy—People 317

The Public Policy Process 318

The Policy Agenda 318

Mandates 319

Poverty, Welfare, and Health Care 320

Poverty in Texas 320

The Players and the Major Programs 321

Recent Policy Developments 325

Analysis 327

Public Education Policy 328

Education Reform 330

Nontraditional Education Proposals 330

Texas Textbooks and Curricula 331

Analysis 332

Texas Higher Education 332

Issues 333

Analysis 333

Immigration Policy 334

Chapter 14

Public Policy—Resources 339

Climate Change 340

Water Supply 341

Urban Dwellers versus Farmers 342

Private Property Rights versus State Regulation 343

Economic Development versus Environment 344

Energy Supply 346

Sources of Energy 346

Oil 347

Natural Gas 348

Coal 349

Nuclear Power 350

Renewables 354

Efficiency 355

The Politics of Energy in Texas 356

Protecting the Environment 358

NIMBY and YBNIIMP 359

Texas and Environmental Protection 360

Public Policy and Private Interests 360

The Problems Continue 362

Transportation 363

The Costs of the Internal Combustion Engine 364

Which Way Transportation Policy? 365

Strategy Number One: Build More Roads 365

Strategy Number Two: Make Cars Cleaner and Safer 366

Strategy Number Three: Create Alternatives to

Transportation by Automobile, and Persuade

People to Use Them 368

Notes 371

Glossary 389

Index 395

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