An Introduction to Physical Geography and the Environment, 4th Edition PDF by Joseph Holden

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An Introduction to Physical Geography and the Environment, Fourth Edition

By Joseph Holden

An Introduction to Physical Geography and the Environment, 4th Edition

Contents:

Preface to the fourth edition xv

Contributors xvii

Editor’s acknowledgements xviii

Acknowledgements xix

Part I: The role of physical geography 1

1 Approaching physical geography 3

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Historical development of physical geography 5

1.2.1 Physical geography before 1800 5

1.2.2 Physical geography between 1800 and 1950 6

1.2.3 Physical geography since 1950 8

1.3 Scientific methods 10

1.3.1 The positivist method 10

1.3.2 Critique of the positivist method 11

1.3.3 Realism as an alternative positivist approach 12

1.3.4 Benefits of multiple scientific methods in physical geography 13

1.4 The field, the laboratory and the model 14

1.4.1 Approaching data collection from the environment 14

1.4.2 Approaching laboratory work 16

1.4.3 Approaching numerical modelling 16

1.5 Using physical geography for managing the environment 20

1.6 Summary 25

Further reading 26

Part II: Continents and oceans 27

2 Earth geology and tectonics 29

2.1 Introduction 29

2.2 The Earth’s structure 30

2.2.1 The interior of the Earth 30

2.2.2 The outer layers of the Earth 30

2.3 Rock type and formation 31

2.3.1 Igneous rock 31

2.3.2 Sedimentary rock 31

2.3.3 Metamorphic rock 33

2.3.4 The rock cycle 33

2.4 History of plate tectonics 33

2.4.1 Early ideas of global tectonics 33

2.4.2 Evidence that led directly to plate tectonic theory 34

2.5 The theory of plate tectonics 37

2.5.1 Lithospheric plates 37

2.5.2 Rates of plate movement 38

2.6 Structural features related directly to motion of the plates 39

2.6.1 Divergent plate boundaries 39

2.6.2 Transform faults 41

2.6.3 Convergent plate boundaries 42

2.6.4 Hot spots 50

2.7 The history of the continents 51

2.8 Summary 52

Further reading 52

3 Oceans 53

3.1 Introduction 53

3.2 The ocean basins 54

3.2.1 The scale of the oceans 54

3.2.2 Geological structure of the ocean basins 54

3.2.3 The depth and shape of the ocean basins 55

3.3 Physical properties of the ocean 55

3.3.1 Salinity 55

3.3.2 Temperature structure of the oceans 59

3.4 Ocean circulation 60

3.4.1 Surface currents 60

3.4.2 The deep currents of the oceans 62

3.4.3 The weather of the ocean 64

3.5 Sediments in the ocean 65

3.6 Biological productivity 67

3.6.1 Photosynthesis in the ocean 67

3.6.2 Importance of nutrient supply to primary productivity 68

3.6.3 Animals of the sea 69

3.6.4 Pollution 73

3.7 Effect of global climate change on the oceans 74

3.8 Summary 75

Further reading 76

Part III: Past, present and future climate and weather 77

4 The Pleistocene 79

4.1 Introduction 79

4.2 Long-term cycles, astronomical forcing and feedback mechanisms 81

4.2.1 Orbital forcing theory 81

4.2.2 Evidence that orbital forcing causes climate change 82

4.2.3 Problems with orbital forcing theory 85

4.2.4 Internal feedback mechanisms 85

4.3 Short-term cycles 89

4.3.1 Glacial instability 89

4.3.2 The Younger Dryas 90

4.4 Further evidence for environmental change 91

4.4.1 Landforms 92

4.4.2 Plants 97

4.4.3 Insects 98

4.4.4 Other animal remains 99

4.5 Dating methods 100

4.5.1 Age estimation techniques 100

4.5.2 Age equivalent labels 101

4.5.3 Relative chronology 101

4.6 Pleistocene stratigraphy and correlation 101

4.7 Palaeoclimate modelling 105

4.8 Summary 106

Further reading 107

5 The Holocene 108

5.1 Introduction 108

5.2 Holocene climatic change 109

5.2.1 How the Holocene began 109

5.2.2 Drivers of climate change during the

Holocene 110

5.2.3 The Little Ice Age 116

5.3 Holocene geomorphological change 117

5.3.1 Retreating ice sheets 117

5.3.2 Rising seas 118

5.4 Holocene ecosystem change 120

5.4.1 Responses of ecosystems to the end of the last

glacial 120

5.4.2 Tropical Africa and the Sahara 122

5.4.3 European ecosystems 123

5.4.4 Island ecosystems 124

5.5 The rise of civilizations 125

5.5.1 Humans at the end of the last glacial 125

5.5.2 The beginnings of agriculture 126

5.5.3 Social and environmental consequences of

agriculture 127

5.6 Human interaction with physical geography 128

5.6.1 Out of Eden? 128

5.6.2 Deforestation 128

5.6.3 Soil erosion and impoverishment 132

5.6.4 Irrigation and drainage 133

5.7 Summary 135

Further reading 136

6 Atmospheric processes 137

6.1 Introduction 137

6.2 The basics of climate 139

6.3 The global atmospheric circulation 141

6.4 Radiative and energy systems 142

6.4.1 The nature of energy 142

6.4.2 Distinguishing between temperature and

heat 144

6.4.3 Radiation 144

6.4.4 Thermal inertia 149

6.4.5 The atmospheric energy balance 150

6.5 Moisture circulation systems 150

6.5.1 Moisture in the atmosphere and the hydrological

cycle 150

6.5.2 Global distribution of precipitation and

evaporation 151

6.5.3 The influence of vegetation on evaporation 153

6.5.4 Drought 153

6.6 Motion in the atmosphere 154

6.6.1 Convective overturning 154

6.6.2 The Earth’s rotation and the winds 155

6.6.3 Long waves, Planetary Waves and Rossby

Waves 156

6.6.4 Jet streams 159

6.7 The influence of oceans and ice on atmospheric

processes 161

6.8 The Walker circulation 163

6.8.1 El Nino Southern Oscillation 164

6.8.2 North Atlantic Oscillation 166

6.9 Interactions between radiation, atmospheric trace

gases and clouds 167

6.9.1 The greenhouse effect 167

6.9.2 A simple climate model of the enhanced

greenhouse effect 167

6.9.3 Radiative interactions with clouds and sulfate

aerosols 170

6.10 Geoengineering 173

6.11 Summary 174

Further reading 174

7 Contemporary climate change 175

7.1 Introduction 175

7.2 Climate change 176

7.2.1 Long-term change 176

7.2.2 Recent climate change and its causes 177

7.2.3 Predictions from global climate models (GCMs) 180

7.2.4 Critical evaluation of the state-of-the-art in

GCMs 182

7.3 The carbon cycle: interaction with the climate

system 184

7.4 Mitigation 186

7.5 Destruction of the ozone layer by chlorofluorocarbons

(CFCs) 187

7.6 The future 189

7.7 Summary 193

Further reading 194

8 Global climate and weather 195

8.1 Introduction 195

8.2 General controls of global climates 196

8.3 The tropics and subtropics 201

8.3.1 Equatorial regions 201

8.3.2 The Sahel and desert margins 209

8.3.3 Subtropical deserts 210

8.3.4 Humid subtropics 211

8.4 Mid and high-latitude climates 215

8.4.1 Depressions, fronts and anticyclones 215

8.4.2 Mid-latitude western continental margins 219

8.4.3 Mid-latitude east continental margins and

continental interiors 220

8.5 Polar climates 221

8.6 A global overview 222

8.7 Summary 228

Further reading 228

9 Regional and local climates 229

9.1 Introduction 229

9.2 Altitude and topography 230

9.2.1 Pressure 233

9.2.2 Temperature 233

9.2.3 Wind 234

9.2.4 Precipitation 235

9.2.5 Frost hollows 240

9.3 Influence of water bodies 240

9.4 Human influences 242

9.4.1 Shelter belts 242

9.4.2 Urban climates 243

9.4.3 Atmospheric pollution and haze 246

9.5 Summary 248

Further reading 249

Part IV: Biogeography and ecology 251

10 The biosphere 253

10.1 Introduction 253

10.2 Biological concepts 254

10.2.1 What is a species? 254

10.2.2 The naming of species 254

10.2.3 Levels of organization 255

10.2.4 Biodiversity 255

10.3 Patterns of distribution 258

10.3.1 Potential species distributions 258

10.3.2 Actual species distributions 259

10.3.3 Spatial patterns in biodiversity 260

10.4 Terrestrial biomes 261

10.4.1 Equatorial and tropical forests 262

10.4.2 Savanna 265

10.4.3 Hot Desert 266

10.4.4 Mediterranean-type biome 266

10.4.5 Temperate grassland 268

10.4.6 Temperate broadleaf forest 268

10.4.7 Taiga 269

10.4.8 Tundra 270

10.5 Aquatic biomes 272

10.5.1 Marine regions 272

10.5.2 Freshwater regions 274

10.6 Summary 275

Further reading 276

11 Ecosystem processes 277

11.1 Introduction 277

11.2 The flow of energy and resources 278

11.2.1 Energy entering an ecosystem 278

11.2.2 Ecological thermodynamics 278

11.2.3 Trophic levels and food webs 279

11.2.4 Biogeochemical cycles 280

11.3 Biotic interactions 281

11.3.1 Mutualism 282

11.3.2 Herbivory, predation and parasitism 282

11.3.3 Commensalism 283

11.3.4 Amensalism 284

11.3.5 Competition 284

11.4 Temporal change in ecosystems 285

11.4.1 Short-term changes 285

11.4.2 Disturbance and resilience 286

11.4.3 Succession 286

11.5 Human impact 289

11.5.1 Degrading ecosystems 289

11.5.2 Urban ecology 294

11.5.3 Conservation 294

11.6 Summary 297

Further reading 297

12 Freshwater ecosystems 298

12.1 Introduction 298

12.2 Running waters: rivers and streams 300

12.2.1 River ecosystem geomorphological units 300

12.2.2 Spatial variability of river ecosystems 302

12.2.3 Temporal variability of river ecosystems 308

12.2.4 Human alterations to river ecosystems 308

12.3 Still waters: lakes and ponds 312

12.3.1 Classification of lake ecosystems 312

12.3.2 Spatial variability of lake ecosystems 315

12.3.3 Human influences on lake ecosystems 319

12.4 Summary 321

Further reading 322

13 Vegetation and environmental change 323

13.1 Introduction 323

13.2 Fundamentals of how plants respond to climatic

variations 324

13.2.1 Light 324

13.2.2 Water 326

13.2.3 Temperature 326

13.2.4 Carbon dioxide concentration 327

13.2.5 Other climatic variables 327

13.3 Observational studies: how we know for sure that

vegetation responds to a changing climate 327

13.3.1 The forest/savanna boundary in southern

Amazonia 327

13.3.2 The northern tree line 329

13.3.3 Upward march of vegetation in mountains 329

13.3.4 Changes in the timing of flowering 330

13.4 Models for prediction 332

13.5 The complex interaction between human activities and

climate change 336

13.5.1 Does atmospheric pollution sometimes benefit

plants? 336

13.5.2 How does fire interact with climate change? 336

13.6 Loss of biodiversity 340

13.7 Agriculture and food security 341

13.8 Summary 343

Further reading 343

Part V: Geomorphology and hydrology 345

14 Weathering 347

14.1 Introduction 347

14.2 Environmental and material controls on weathering 348

14.3 Weathering and the role of water 350

14.4 Chemical weathering 352

14.4.1 Hydrolysis 352

14.4.2 Carbonation 352

14.4.3 Solution 353

14.4.4 Oxidation and reduction 353

14.4.5 Biologically related chemical weathering 353

14.4.6 Products of chemical weathering 354

14.5 Physical weathering 356

14.5.1 Dilatation – pressure release 356

14.5.2 Thermoclasty 358

14.5.3 Freeze–thaw (frost weathering) 359

14.5.4 Salt weathering 359

14.5.5 Biologically related physical weathering 363

14.6 Climatic controls on weathering 364

14.7 Geological controls on weathering 367

14.8 Urban stone decay and lessons for rock

weathering 371

14.8.1 Stone decay is multifactorial 373

14.8.2 Rates of stone decay are unpredictable 373

14.8.3 Decay is spatially variable 374

14.8.4 Stress history is important 375

14.9 Summary 375

Further reading 376

15 Slope processes and landform evolution 377

15.1 Introduction 377

15.2 Slope profiles 378

15.2.1 Slope length 378

15.2.2 Slope steepness 378

15.2.3 Slope convexity 380

15.3 Hillslope transport processes 380

15.3.1 Chemical transport processes (solution) 381

15.3.2 Physical transport processes 382

15.3.3 Biological mixing 390

15.3.4 Particle movements 390

15.3.5 The balance between erosion processes 396

15.4 Evolution of hillslope profiles 398

15.4.1 Concepts 398

15.4.2 Models 401

15.4.3 Interpreting landscape form 405

15.5 Summary 406

Further reading 406

16 Sediments and sedimentation 407

16.1 Introduction 407

16.2 Clastic sediments 408

16.2.1 Classification of clastic sediments 408

16.2.2 Clastic sediment grain shape and texture 409

16.2.3 Sediment transport and sedimentation 409

16.2.4 Products of sedimentation – bedforms 412

16.3 Biological sediments 415

16.4 Chemical sediments 417

16.5 Sedimentation in Earth surface environments 418

16.5.1 Continental environments 418

16.5.2 Coastal and marine environments 420

16.6 Response of sedimentation to environmental

change 422

16.6.1 Dams and reservoirs 424

16.6.2 Mining 424

16.6.3 Urbanization 425

16.6.4 Sediment management 426

16.7 Summary 427

Further reading 428

17 Soils 429

17.1 Introduction 429

17.2 The components of soil 430

17.2.1 Mineral particles 430

17.2.2 Soil organic matter 430

17.2.3 Soil water 431

17.2.4 Soil air 432

17.3 Soil profile 433

17.4 Soil formation processes 434

17.4.1 Pedogenesis 434

17.4.2 Factors affecting soil formation 437

17.5 Physical properties of soil 441

17.5.1 Soil colour 441

17.5.2 Soil texture 441

17.5.3 Soil structure 444

17.6 Chemical properties of soil 445

17.6.1 Clay minerals and cation exchange 445

17.6.2 Soil acidity 447

17.7 Soil biology 449

17.7.1 The soil biota 449

17.7.2 Factors influencing soil biodiversity 451

17.8 Impact of human activities on soils and soil

processes 452

17.8.1 Soil erosion 452

17.8.2 Soil acidification 453

17.8.3 Soil pollution 454

17.8.4 Soil organic matter and carbon 456

17.8.5 Other threats 458

17.8.6 Policy and legislation 462

17.9 Summary 463

Further reading 464

18 Catchment hydrology 465

18.1 Introduction 465

18.2 Measuring the main components of catchment

hydrology 466

18.2.1 Precipitation 466

18.2.2 River flow 468

18.2.3 Evapotranspiration 472

18.2.4 Soil water 473

18.2.5 Groundwater 475

18.3 Flow paths to water bodies 476

18.3.1 Infiltration 476

18.3.2 Infiltration-excess overland flow 476

18.3.3 Saturation-excess overland flow 477

18.3.4 Throughflow 478

18.4 River discharge 483

18.4.1 Stormflow 483

18.4.2 Flow frequency 485

18.4.3 River regime 488

18.5 Flooding 489

18.6 Summary 491

Further reading 491

19 Fluvial geomorphology and river

management 493

19.1 Introduction 493

19.2 Catchment processes: energy and materials for

rivers 494

19.2.1 Runoff, river regimes and floods 494

19.2.2 Sediment sources and delivery 495

19.3 River channel morphology: measuring rivers 496

19.3.1 Channel networks and slope 496

19.3.2 Channel cross-section: width, depth 497

19.3.3 Channel planform 497

19.3.4 Channel boundary materials 498

19.4 River channel processes: understanding water and

sediment movement 499

19.4.1 Water flow and flow hydraulics 499

19.4.2 Sediment movement 500

19.5 River channels: linking channel processes and

morphology 502

19.5.1 Long profile 504

19.5.2 River channel cross-sections 505

19.5.3 Channel planform 505

19.5.4 Channel bed morphology 507

19.6 River channel changes: rates and types of channel

adjustment 509

19.6.1 Cross-sectional change 511

19.6.2 Planform change 511

19.6.3 Human-induced change 513

19.7 Fluvial geomorphology and environmentally sound river

management: living and working with nature 515

19.7.1 River management and the engineering

tradition 515

19.7.2 Living with rivers 516

19.7.3 River maintenance 517

19.7.4 Building new river channels 519

19.7.5 River restoration 520

19.8 Summary 523

Further reading 524

20 Solutes and water quality 525

20.1 Introduction 525

20.2 Solutes: some key controls 526

20.2.1 Solute form 526

20.2.2 pH and redox potential 526

20.2.3 Temperature and pressure 528

20.2.4 The role of particulates 529

20.2.5 Solute fluxes 529

20.3 Solutes within the catchment hydrological system 530

20.3.1 Precipitation 530

20.3.2 Evapotranspiration and evaporation 532

20.3.3 Interception 533

20.3.4 Soil 533

20.3.5 Groundwater 535

20.3.6 Rivers 536

20.3.7 Lakes and reservoirs 536

20.4 The role of hydrological pathways in solute

processes 538

20.5 Temporal patterns of solutes 540

20.5.1 Patterns of solutes in storm events: short-term

changes 541

20.5.2 Annual patterns of solute concentrations 542

20.5.3 Long-term patterns of solute

concentrations 544

20.6 Spatial patterns of solutes 548

20.6.1 Global patterns of solutes 549

20.6.2 Regional patterns of solutes 549

20.7 Modelling solutes and water quality 553

20.7.1 Modelling solutes in catchments 553

20.7.2 Modelling solutes in watercourses 553

20.8 Summary 555

Further reading 556

21 Drylands 557

21.1 Introduction 557

21.2 Aridity 560

21.2.1 Drylands 560

21.2.2 Causes of aridity 561

21.3 Dryland soil and vegetation systems 563

21.3.1 Dryland soils 563

21.3.2 Dryland vegetation 563

21.4 Geomorphological processes in drylands 566

21.4.1 Dryland landscapes 566

21.4.2 Rock weathering in drylands 567

21.4.3 Hillslope and channel processes 568

21.4.4 Aeolian processes and forms 571

21.5 Environmental change in drylands 578

21.6 Summary 582

Further reading 583

22 Coasts 584

22.1 Introduction 584

22.2 Coastal morphodynamics 588

22.3 Coastal processes: waves 590

22.3.1 Linear wave theory 591

22.3.2 Wave processes in intermediate water 592

22.3.3 Wave processes in shallow water 593

22.3.4 Nearshore currents 595

22.4 Coastal processes: storm surge, tides and tsunami 597

22.4.1 Storm surge 597

22.4.2 Tides 598

22.4.3 Tsunami 600

22.5 Coastal classification 600

22.6 Wave-dominated coastal environments 601

22.6.1 Barriers 601

22.6.2 Beaches 602

22.6.3 Coastal dunes 605

22.7 Tide-dominated coastal environments 608

22.7.1 Wave- and tide-dominated estuaries 608

22.7.2 Estuarine mixing 611

22.7.3 Ebb- and flood-dominance 613

22.7.4 Salt marsh and mangroves 613

22.8 Fluvial-dominated coastal environments 614

22.9 Erosive coasts 617

22.9.1 Rocky coast processes 617

22.9.2 Coastal cliffs 619

22.9.3 Shore platforms 619

22.10 Coastal zone management 620

22.11 Summary 623

Further reading 624

23 Glaciers and ice sheets 625

23.1 Introduction 625

23.2 Glaciology 626

23.2.1 Types of ice mass 626

23.2.2 Where do glaciers occur? 627

23.2.3 Glacier mass balance 628

23.2.4 Transformation of snow into ice 631

23.2.5 Glacier thermal regime 631

23.2.6 Glacier water systems 632

23.2.7 Glacier dynamics 636

23.3 Glacial geological processes and

glacial sediments 644

23.3.1 Processes of glacial erosion 644

23.3.2 Entrainment and transport 645

23.3.3 Deposition 647

23.4 The record of glacial change 650

23.4.1 Ice sheet reconstruction 650

23.5 Summary 654

Further reading 655

24 Permafrost and periglaciation 656

24.1 Introduction 656

24.2 Permafrost processes 657

24.2.1 The distribution of permafrost 657

24.2.2 Ground temperatures and permafrost thickness 659

24.2.3 Reconstructing climate change from permafrost temperatures 659

24.2.4 Gas hydrates 661

24.2.5 Hydrology in permafrost regions 663

24.3 Geomorphology of permafrost and periglacial environments 665

24.3.1 Ground ice features 665

24.3.2 Slope processes 670

24.3.3 Loess and aeolian activity 673

24.4 Summary 673

Further reading 674

Part VI: Monitoring and management 675

25 Monitoring environmental change 677

25.1 Introduction 677

25.2 In situ data 678

25.2.1 Satellite positioning systems 678

25.2.2 Telemetry 679

25.2.3 Environmental sensor networks 679

25.3 Remote sensing date 680

25.3.1 Platforms 682

25.3.2 Electromagnetic radiation 682

25.3.3 Image data 684

25.4 Camera sensors 689

25.4.1 Photogrammetry 691

25.5 Multispectral, thermal and hyperspectral sensors 693

25.5.1 Landsat 695

25.5.2 Spot 698

25.5.3 NASA’s Earth Observing System

Program 699

25.5.4 High-resolution sensors 701

25.6 Microwave and ranging sensors 701

25.6.1 Microwave sensors 701

25.6.2 Ranging sensors 705

25.7 Digital image processing 710

25.7.1 Digital images 710

25.7.2 Image rectification 711

25.7.3 Image enhancement 712

25.8 Summary 718

Further reading 718

26 Dealing with hazards and environmental change 719

26.1 Introduction 719

26.2 Types of environmental hazard 720

26.3 Characteristics of environmental change 722

26.3.1 The nature of change 722

26.3.2 Rate of change 724

26.3.3 Environmental tolerance 725

26.4 Prediction 725

26.4.1 Monitoring 725

26.4.2 Modelling 726

26.4.3 Uncertainty 727

26.5 Risk and vulnerability 727

26.6 Management tools 727

26.6.1 Mitigation 729

26.6.2 Adaptation 729

26.6.3 Impact assessment 729

26.6.4 Life costing 730

26.6.5 Ecosystem services 732

26.6.6 Engagement 732

26.7 Summary 734

Further reading 735

Glossary 736

Bibliography 763

Index 795

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