Criminological Theory: The Essentials, 3rd Edition PDF by Stephen G Tibbetts

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Criminological Theory: The Essentials, Third Edition

By Stephen G. Tibbetts

Criminological Theory: The Essentials, Third Edition

Detailed Contents

Preface

Chapter 1. Introduction to the Book: An Overview of Issues in

Criminological Theory

What Is Criminology, and How Does It Differ from Other

Examinations of Crime?

What Is Theory?

What Is Crime?

How Are Criminological Theories Classified? The Major

Theoretical Paradigms

Additional Ways to Classify Criminological Theories

Characteristics of Good Theories

Criteria for Determining Causality

Measures of Crime

The Uniform Crime Report

The National Crime Victimization Survey

Self-Report Studies of Crime

What Do the Measures of Crime Show regarding the

Distribution of Crime?

Rates of Crime

Regional and City Differences

Rates of Crime according to Time of Day and Time of Year

Rates of Crime according to Age and Gender

Rates of Crime according to Population Density

Rates of Crime according to Race or Ethnicity

Policy Implications

Conclusion

Chapter Summary

Key Terms

Discussion Questions

Web Resources

Chapter 2. Preclassical and Classical Theories of Crime

Preclassical Perspectives of Crime and Punishment

The Age of Enlightenment

The Classical School of Criminology

Influences on Beccaria and His Writings

Beccaria’s Proposed Reforms and Ideas of Justice

Beccaria’s Ideas regarding the Death Penalty

Beccaria’s Concept of Deterrence and the Three Key

Elements of Punishment

Beccaria’s Conceptualization of Specific and General

Deterrence

A Summary of Beccaria’s Ideas and His Influence on Policy

The Impact of Beccaria’s Work on Other Theorists

The Neoclassical School of Criminology

Loss of Dominance of Classical and Neoclassical Theory

Policy Implications

Conclusion

Chapter Summary

Key Terms

Discussion Questions

Web Resources

Chapter 3. Modern Applications of the Classical Perspective:

Deterrence, Rational Choice, and Routine Activities or Lifestyle

Theories of Crime

The Rebirth of Deterrence Theory and Contemporary Research

Rational Choice Theory

Routine Activities Theory

Policy Implications

Conclusion

Chapter Summary

Key Terms

Discussion Questions

Web Resources

Chapter 4. Early Positive School Perspectives of Criminality

Lombroso’s Theory of Atavism and Born Criminals

Lombroso’s Theory of Crime

Lombroso’s List of Stigmata

Lombroso as the Father of Criminology and the Father of the

Positive School

Lombroso’s Policy Implications

The IQ Testing Era

Body Type Theory: Sheldon’s Model of Somatotyping

Policy Implications

Conclusion

Chapter Summary

Key Terms

Discussion Questions

Web Resources

Chapter 5. Modern Biosocial Perspectives of Criminal Behavior

Nature versus Nurture: Studies Examining the Influence of

Genetics and Environment

Family Studies

Twin Studies

Adoption Studies

Twins Separated at Birth

Cytogenetic Studies: The XYY Factor

Hormones and Neurotransmitters: Chemicals That Determine

Criminal Behavior

Brain Injuries

Central and Autonomic Nervous System Activity

Biosocial Approaches to Explaining Criminal Behavior

Policy Implications

Conclusion

Chapter Summary

Key Terms

Discussion Questions

Web Resources

Chapter 6. Early Social Structure and Strain Theories of Crime

Early Theories of Social Structure: Early to Mid-1800s

Auguste Comte

André-Michel Guerry and Adolphe Quetelet

Durkheim and the Concept of Anomie

Strain Theories

Merton’s Strain Theory

Cultural Context and Assumptions of Strain Theory

Variations of Merton’s Strain Theory: Cohen’s Model and

Cloward and Ohlin’s Theory

General Strain Theory

Summary of Strain Theories

Policy Implications

Conclusion

Chapter Summary

Key Terms

Discussion Questions

Web Resources

Chapter 7. The Chicago School and Cultural and Subcultural

Theories of Crime

The Ecological School and the Chicago School of Criminology

Cultural Context: Chicago in the 1800s and Early 1900s

Ecological Principles in City Growth and Concentric Circles

Shaw and McKay’s Theory of Social Disorganization

Reaction and Research on Social Disorganization Theory

Cultural and Subcultural Theories of Crime

Early Theoretical Developments and Research in Cultural and

Subcultural Theory

Criticisms of Cultural Theories of Crime

Policy Implications

Conclusion

Chapter Summary

Key Terms

Discussion Questions

Web Resources

Chapter 8. Social Process and Learning Theories of Crime

Learning Theories

Differential Association Theory

Differential Identification Theory

Differential Reinforcement Theory

Neutralization Theory

Summary of Learning Theories

Control Theories

Early Control Theories of Human Behavior

Early Control Theories of Crime

Modern Social Control Theories

Integrated Social Control Theories

A General Theory of Crime: Low Self-Control

Summary of Control Theories

Policy Implications

Conclusion

Chapter Summary

Key Terms

Discussion Questions

Web Resources

Chapter 9. Social Reaction and Critical Models of Crime

Labeling and Social Reaction Theory

Marxist Theories of Crime

Evidence regarding Marxist Theories of Crime

Conflict Theories of Crime

Evidence regarding Conflict Theories of Crime

Policy Implications

Conclusion

Chapter Summary

Key Terms

Discussion Questions

Web Resources

Chapter 10. Feminist Models of Crime

Feminist Theories of Crime

Key Terms in the Feminist Perspective

Key Issues in Research on Gender Differences in Offending

Types of Feminism

Evidence regarding Feminist Theories of Crime

Critiques of Feminist Theories

Policy Implications

Conclusion

Chapter Summary

Key Terms

Discussion Questions

Web Resources

Chapter 11. Life-Course Perspectives of Criminality

Developmental Theories

Antidevelopmental Theory: Low Self-Control Theory

Sampson and Laub’s Developmental Model

Moffitt’s Developmental Taxonomy

Policy Implications

Conclusion

Chapter Summary

Key Terms

Discussion Questions

Web Resources

Chapter 12. Integrated Theoretical Models and New Perspectives

of Crime

Integrated Theories

The Need for Integrated Theories in Criminology

Different Forms of Integrated Theories

Levels of Analysis of Integrated Theories

Additional Considerations regarding Types of Integration

Criticisms and Weaknesses of Integrated Theories

Examples of Integrated Criminological Theory

Policy Implications

Conclusion

Chapter Summary

Key Terms

Discussion Questions

Web Resources

Glossary

Index

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