Your Income Tax 2022: For Preparing Your 2021 Tax Return PDF by J K Lasser

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Your Income Tax 2022: For Preparing Your 2021 Tax Return

By J. K. Lasser

Your Income Tax 2022: For Preparing Your 2021 Tax Return

Contents:

What’s New for 2021 xxvii

Tax News for 2021 xxvii

Key Tax Numbers for 2021 xxx

Tax-Saving Opportunities for 2021 and Beyond xxxiii

Pending Tax Rule Changes xxxiv

Expiring Provisions xxxvi

FILING BASICS 1

Do You Have to File a 2021 Tax Return? 2

Filing Tests for Dependents: 2021 Returns 4

Where to File Your 2021 Form 1040 or 1040-SR 5

Filing Deadlines (on or before) 6

What Forms Do You Need to File? 8

Filing Status 9

1.1 Which Filing Status Should You Use? 10

1.2 Tax Rates Based on Filing Status 11

1.3 Filing Separately Instead of Jointly 13

1.4 Filing a Joint Return 14

1.5 Nonresident Alien Spouse 16

1.6 Community Property Rules 16

1.7 Innocent Spouse Rules 18

1.8 Separate Liability Relief for Former Spouses 19

1.9 Equitable Relief 22

1.10 Death of Your Spouse in 2021 23

1.11 Qualifying Widow/Widower Status for 2021

If Your Spouse Died in 2020 or 2019 24

1.12 Qualifying as Head of Household 25

1.13 Filing for Your Child 27

1.14 Return for Deceased 27

1.15 Return for an Incompetent Person 29

1.16 How a Nonresident Alien Is Taxed 29

1.17 How a Resident Alien Is Taxed 30

1.18 Who Is a Resident Alien? 30

1.19 Certificate of Tax Compliance for Alien

Leaving the United States 33

1.20 Expatriation Tax 33

REPORTING YOUR INCOME 35

Wages, Salary, and Other Compensation 37

2.1 Salary and Wage Income 40

2.2 Constructive Receipt of Year-End Paychecks 41

2.3 Pay Received in Property Is Taxed 42

2.4 Commissions Taxable When Credited 42

2.5 Unemployment Benefits 43

2.6 Strike Pay Benefits and Penalties 43

2.7 Nonqualified Deferred Compensation 44

2.8 Did You Return Wages Received in a Prior Year? 45

2.9 Waiver of Executor’s and Trustee’s Commissions 46

2.10 Life Insurance Benefits 46

2.11 Educational Benefits for Employees’ Children 47

2.12 Sick Pay Is Taxable 48

2.13 Workers’ Compensation Is Tax Free 48

2.14 Disability Pay and Pensions 49

2.15 Stock Appreciation Rights (SARs) 51

2.16 Stock Options 51

2.17 Election to Defer Income on Qualified Equity Grants from Private Companies (Section 83(i) election) 54

2.18 Restricted Stock 54

Fringe Benefits 56

3.1 Tax-Free Health and Accident Coverage Under Employer Plans 58

3.2 Health Savings Accounts (HSAs) and Archer MSAs 58

3.3 Reimbursements and Other Tax-Free Payments

From Employer Health and Accident Plans 61

3.4 Group-Term Life Insurance Premiums 65

3.5 Dependent Care Assistance 67

3.6 Adoption Benefits 67

3.7 Education Assistance Plans 68

3.8 Company Cars, Parking, and Transit Passes 69

3.9 Working Condition Fringe Benefits 71

3.10 De Minimis Fringe Benefits 72

3.11 Employer-Provided Retirement Advice 72

3.12 Employee Achievement Awards 73

3.13 Employer-Furnished Meals or Lodging 73

3.14 Minister’s Housing or Housing Allowance 76

3.15 Cafeteria Plans Provide Choice of Benefits 77

3.16 Flexible Spending Arrangements 78

3.17 Company Services Provided at No Additional Cost 83

3.18 Discounts on Company Products or Services 83

Dividend and Interest Income 84

4.1 Reporting Dividends and Mutual Fund Distributions 85

4.2 Qualified Corporate Dividends Taxed at Favorable

Capital Gain Rates 86

4.3 Dividends From a Partnership, S Corporation,

Estate, or Trust 87

4.4 Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT) Dividends 87

4.5 Taxable Dividends of Earnings and Profits 88

4.6 Stock Dividends on Common Stock 88

4.7 Dividends Paid in Property 89

4.8 Taxable Stock Dividends 89

4.9 Who Reports the Dividends 89

4.10 Year Dividends Are Reported 90

4.11 Distribution Not Out of Earnings: Return of Capital 91

4.12 Reporting Interest on Your Tax Return 91

4.13 Interest on Frozen Accounts Not Taxed 92

4.14 Interest Income on Debts Owed to You 93

4.15 Reporting Interest on Bonds Bought or Sold 93

4.16 Forfeiture of Interest on Premature Withdrawals 94

4.17 Amortization of Bond Premium 94

4.18 Discount on Bonds 96

4.19 Reporting Original Issue Discount on Your Return 97

4.20 Reporting Income on Market Discount Bonds 98

4.21 Discount on Short-Term Obligations 100

4.22 Stripped Coupon Bonds and Stock 100

4.23 Sale or Retirement of Bonds and Notes 101

4.24 State and City Interest Generally Tax Exempt 102

4.25 Taxable State and City Interest 102

4.26 Tax-Exempt Bonds Bought at a Discount 103

4.27 Treasury Bills, Notes, and Bonds 103

4.28 Interest on United States Savings Bonds 104

4.29 Deferring United States Savings Bond Interest 105

4.30 Minimum Interest Rules 107

4.31 Interest-Free or Below-Market-Interest Loans 107

4.32 Minimum Interest on Seller-Financed Sales 110

Reporting Property Sales 112

5.1 General Tax Rules for Property Sales 113

5.2 How Property Sales Are Classified and Taxed 113

5.3 Capital Gains Rates and Holding Periods 115

5.4 Capital Losses and Carryovers 119

5.5 Capital Losses of Married Couples 119

5.6 Losses May Be Disallowed on Sales to Related Persons 120

5.7 Special Treatment of Gain on Sale of Small Business Stock

or Qualified Opportunity Zone Investment 121

5.8 Reporting Capital Asset Sales on Form 8949

and on Schedule D 123

5.9 Counting the Months in Your Holding Period 131

5.10 Holding Period for Securities 131

5.11 Holding Period for Real Estate 132

5.12 Holding Period: Gifts, Inheritances, and Other Property 132

5.13 Calculating Gain or Loss 133

5.14 Amount Realized Is the Total Selling Price 134

5.15 Finding Your Cost 134

5.16 Unadjusted Basis of Your Property 134

5.17 Basis of Property You Inherited or Received as a Gift 136

5.18 Joint Tenancy Basis Rules for Surviving Tenants 140

5.19 Allocating Cost Among Several Assets 143

5.20 How To Find Adjusted Basis 143

5.21 Tax Advantage of Installment Sales 144

5.22 Figuring the Taxable Part of Installment Payments 145

5.23 Electing Not To Report on the Installment Method 148

5.24 Restriction on Installment Sales to Relatives 149

5.25 Contingent Payment Sales 150

5.26 Using Escrow and Other Security Arrangements 151

5.27 Minimum Interest on Deferred Payment Sales 152

5.28 Dispositions of Installment Notes 152

5.29 Repossession of Personal Property Sold on Installment 154

5.30 Boot in Like-Kind Exchange Payable in Installments 154

5.31 “Interest” Taxed if Sales Price Exceeds $150,000

With Over $5 Million Debt 155

5.32 Worthless Securities 155

5.33 Tax Consequences of Bad Debts 157

5.34 Four Rules To Prove a Bad Debt Deduction 158

5.35 Family Bad Debts 159

Tax-Free Exchanges of Property 160

6.1 Like-Kind Exchanges of Real Property Used

for Investment or Business 161

6.2 Receipt of Cash and Other Property—“Boot” 162

6.3 Time Limits and Security Arrangements

for Deferred Exchanges 165

6.4 Qualified Exchange Accommodation Arrangements (QEAAs)

for Reverse Exchanges 167

6.5 Exchanges Between Related Parties 168

6.6 Property Transfers Between Spouses and Ex-Spouses 169

6.7 Tax-Free Exchanges of Stock in Same Corporation 171

6.8 Joint Ownership Interests 172

6.9 Setting up Closely Held Corporations 172

6.10 Tax-Free Exchanges of Insurance Policies 173

Retirement and Annuity Income 174

7.1 Retirement Distributions on Form 1099-R 176

7.2 Lump-Sum Distributions 178

7.3 Lump-Sum Options If You Were Born Before

January 2, 1936 178

7.4 Lump-Sum Payments Received by Beneficiary 179

7.5 Tax-Free Rollovers From Qualified Plans 180

7.6 Direct Rollover or Personal Rollover 181

7.7 Rollover of Proceeds From Sale of Property 184

7.8 Distribution of Employer Stock or Other Securities 185

7.9 Survivor Annuity for Spouse 186

7.10 Court Distributions to Former Spouse Under a QDRO 187

7.11 When You Must Begin Receiving Required

Minimum Distributions (RMDs) 188

7.12 Payouts to Beneficiaries 189

7.13 Penalty for Distributions Before Age 59½ 190

7.14 Restrictions on Loans From Company Plans 192

7.15 Tax Benefits of 401(k) Plans 194

7.16 Limit on Salary-Reduction Deferrals 195

7.17 Withdrawals From 401(k) Plans Restricted 196

7.18 Designated Roth Account Within 401(k), 403(b),

or Governmental 457 Plans 197

7.19 403(b) Plans (Tax-Sheltered Annuity Plans) for Employees

of Tax-Exempts and Schools and Ministers 198

7.20 Government and Exempt Organization Deferred Pay Plans 200

7.21 Figuring the Taxable Part of Commercial Annuities 201

7.22 Life Expectancy Tables 206

7.23 When You Convert Your Endowment Policy 208

7.24 Reporting Employee Annuities 208

7.25 Simplified Method for Calculating Taxable Employee Annuity 209

7.26 Employee’s Cost in Annuity 211

7.27 Withdrawals From Employer’s Qualified Retirement Plan

Before Annuity Starting Date 211

7.28 Coronavirus-Related Distributions 212

7.29 Qualified Disaster Distributions 213

IRAs 214

8.1 Starting a Traditional IRA 215

8.2 Contribution Limit for Traditional IRAs 216

8.3 Contributions to a Traditional IRA If You Are Married 218

8.4 Restrictions on Traditional IRA Deduction for Active

Participants in Employer Plans 219

8.5 Active Participation in an Employer Plan 224

8.6 Nondeductible Contributions to Traditional IRAs 225

8.7 Penalty for Excess Contributions to Traditional IRAs 226

8.8 Distributions From Traditional IRAs 227

8.9 Partially Tax-Free Traditional IRA Distributions

Allocable to Nondeductible Contributions 229

8.10 Tax-Free Direct Transfer or Rollover From

One Traditional IRA to Another 231

8.11 Transfer of Traditional IRA to Spouse at Divorce 235

8.12 Penalty for Traditional IRA Withdrawals Before Age 59½ 235

8.13 Required Minimum Distributions (RMDs)

From a Traditional IRA 240

8.14 Beneficiaries of Traditional IRA Owners

Who Died Before 2020 245

8.15 Beneficiaries of Traditional IRA Owners

Who Die After 2019 247

8.16 SEP Basics 251

8.17 Salary-Reduction SEP Set Up Before 1997 251

8.18 Who Is Eligible for a SIMPLE IRA? 252

8.19 SIMPLE IRA Contributions and Distributions 253

8.20 Roth IRA Advantages 254

8.21 Annual Contributions to a Roth IRA 254

8.22 Recharacterizing a Traditional IRA Contribution

to a Roth IRA and Vice Versa 259

8.23 Converting a Traditional IRA to a Roth IRA 260

8.24 Conversions Made After 2017 to a Roth IRA

Cannot Be Recharacterized 261

8.25 Distributions From a Roth IRA 261

8.26 Distributions to Roth IRA Beneficiaries 263

8.27 Coronavirus-Related IRA Distributions

and Qualified Disaster Distributions 265

Income From Real Estate Rentals and Royalties 267

9.1 Reporting Rental Real Estate Income and Expenses 268

9.2 Checklist of Rental Deductions 269

9.3 Distinguishing Between a Repair and an Improvement 270

9.4 Reporting Rents From a Multi-Unit Residence 272

9.5 Depreciation on Converting a Home to Rental Property 273

9.6 Renting a Residence to a Relative 275

9.7 Personal Use and Rental of a Residence During the Year 275

9.8 Counting Personal-Use Days and Rental Days for a Residence 277

9.9 Allocating Expenses of a Residence to Rental Days 278

9.10 IRS May Challenge Loss Claimed on Temporary

Rental of Residence Before Sale 280

9.11 Reporting Royalty Income 281

9.12 Production Costs of Books and Creative Properties 282

9.13 Deducting the Cost of Patents or Copyrights 282

9.14 Intangible Drilling Costs 282

9.15 Depletion Deduction 283

9.16 Oil and Gas Percentage Depletion 284

9.17 Qualified Business Income Deduction for

Real Estate Activities 285

Loss Restrictions: Passive Activities and At-Risk Limits 287

10.1 Rental Activities Generally Treated as Passive 288

10.2 Rental Real Estate Loss Allowance of up to $25,000 290

10.3 Real Estate Professionals 293

10.4 Business Participation May Avoid Passive Loss Restrictions 296

10.5 Classifying Business Activities as One or Several 296

10.6 Material Participation in a Business 297

10.7 Tax Credits of Passive Activities Limited 300

10.8 Determining Passive or Nonpassive Income and Loss 300

10.9 Passive Income Recharacterized as Nonpassive Income 302

10.10 Working Interests in Oil and Gas Wells 305

10.11 Partners and Members of LLCs and LLPs 305

10.12 Form 8582 and Other Tax Forms 306

10.13 Suspended Losses Allowed on Disposition of Your Interest 307

10.14 Suspended Tax Credits 309

10.15 Personal Service and Closely Held Corporations 310

10.16 Sales of Property and of Passive Activity Interests 311

10.17 At-Risk Limits 312

10.18 What Is At Risk? 313

10.19 Amounts Not At Risk 314

10.20 At-Risk Investment in Several Activities 315

10.21 Carryover of Disallowed Losses 316

10.22 Recapture of Losses Where At Risk Is Less Than Zero 316

Charitable Contribution Deductions 356

14.1 Deductible Contributions 357

14.2 Nondeductible Contributions 358

14.3 Contributions That Provide You With Benefits 359

14.4 Unreimbursed Expenses of Volunteer Workers 362

14.5 Support of a Student in Your Home 363

14.6 What Kind of Property Are You Donating? 363

14.7 Cars, Clothing, and Other Property Valued Below Cost 367

14.8 Bargain Sales of Appreciated Property 369

14.9 Art Objects 370

14.10 Interests in Real Estate 371

14.11 Life Insurance 373

14.12 Business Inventory 374

14.13 Donations Through Trusts 374

14.14 Records Needed To Substantiate Your Contributions 374

14.15 Form 8283 and Written Appraisal Requirements

for Property Donations 376

14.16 Penalty for Substantial Overvaluation of Property 378

14.17 Ceiling on Charitable Contributions 378

14.18 Carryover for Excess Donations 382

14.19 Election To Reduce Fair Market Value by Appreciation 383

Itemized Deduction for Interest Expenses 384

15.1 Deduction for Home Mortgage Interest 385

15.2 Home Acquisition Loans 386

15.3 Home Equity Loans 389

15.4 Home Construction Loans 391

15.5 Mortgage Insurance Premiums and

Other Payment Rules 392

15.6 Interest on Refinanced Loans 393

15.7 “Points” 394

15.8 Cooperative and Condominium Apartments 395

15.9 Investment Interest Limitations 396

15.10 Debts To Carry Tax-Exempt Obligations 397

15.11 Earmarking Use of Loan Proceeds

For Investment or Business 398

15.12 Year To Claim an Interest Deduction 400

15.13 Prepaid Interest 401

Deductions for Taxes 402

16.1 Overall Limit on Deduction for State and Local Taxes 403

16.2 Nondeductible Taxes 404

16.3 State and Local Income Taxes or General Sales Taxes 404

16.4 Deducting Real Estate Taxes 405

16.5 Assessments 408

16.6 Tenants’ Payment of Taxes 408

16.7 Allocating Taxes When You Sell or Buy Realty 408

16.8 Automobile License Fees 410

16.9 Taxes Deductible as Business Expenses 410

16.10 Foreign Taxes 410

Medical and Dental Expense Deductions 411

17.1 Medical and Dental Expenses Must Exceed AGI Threshold 412

17.2 Allowable Medical and Dental Care Costs 412

17.3 Nondeductible Medical Expenses 416

17.4 Reimbursements Reduce Deductible Expenses 417

17.5 Expenses of Your Spouse 419

17.6 Expenses of Your Dependents 419

17.7 Decedent’s Medical Expenses 421

17.8 Premiums for Health Insurance 421

17.9 Travel Costs May Be Medical Deductions 422

17.10 Schooling for the Mentally or Physically Disabled 424

17.11 Nursing Homes 425

17.12 Nurses’ Wages 425

17.13 Home Improvements as Medical Expenses 426

17.14 Costs Deductible as Business Expenses 428

17.15 Long-Term Care Premiums and Services 429

17.16 Life Insurance Used by Chronically ill

or Terminally ill Person 430

Casualty and Theft Losses and Involuntary Conversions 431

18.1 Casualty or Theft Losses for Personal-Use Property

Must Be Due to a Federally Declared Disaster 432

18.2 When To Deduct a Casualty or Theft Loss 434

18.3 Prior-Year Election for Disaster Losses 435

18.4 Gain Realized From Insurance Proceeds for Damaged

or Destroyed Principal Residence 436

18.5 Who May Deduct a Casualty or Theft Loss 438

18.6 Proving a Casualty Loss 438

18.7 Theft Losses 438

18.8 Floors for Personal-Use Property Losses 440

18.9 Figuring Your Loss on Form 4684 442

18.10 Personal and Business Use of Property 445

18.11 Repairs May Be a “Measure of Loss” 445

18.12 Excess Living Costs Paid by Insurance

Are Not Taxable 446

18.13 Do Your Casualty or Theft Losses

Exceed Your Income? 447

18.14 Defer Gain from Involuntary Conversion

by Replacing Property 447

18.15 Involuntary Conversions Qualifying for Tax Deferral 449

18.16 How to Elect to Defer Gain 450

18.17 Types of Qualifying Replacement Property 450

18.18 Time Period for Buying Replacement Property 452

18.19 Cost of Replacement Property Determines Postponed Gain 453

18.20 Special Assessments and Severance Damages from Condemnation 454

Other Itemized Deductions 455

19.1 Only a Few Expenses Are Allowed as

“Other” Itemized Deductions 456

19.2 Deductions for Job Costs and Other Miscellaneous

Expenses No Longer Allowed 457

Travel and Meal Expense Deductions 458

20.1 Who May Deduct Travel and Transportation Expenses 459

20.2 Commuting Expenses 459

20.3 Overnight-Sleep Test Limits Deduction of Meal Costs 460

20.4 IRS Meal Allowance 461

20.5 Business Trip Deductions 462

20.6 When Are You Away From Home? 464

20.7 Tax Home of Married Couple Working in Different Cities 465

20.8 Deducting Living Costs on Temporary Assignment 465

20.9 Business-Vacation Trips Within the United States 467

20.10 Business-Vacation Trips Outside the United States 467

20.11 Deducting Expenses of Business Conventions 468

20.12 Restrictions on Foreign Conventions and Cruises 469

20.13 Entertainment Expenses Generally Not Deductible 470

20.14 Business Meals Are Generally Deductible 470

20.15 Limitation on Some Deductible Meals 472

20.16 Substantiating Travel Expenses 473

20.17 Employee Reporting of Unreimbursed Expenses 474

20.18 Are You Reimbursed Under an Accountable Plan? 474

20.19 Per Diem Travel Allowance Under Accountable Plans 475

20.20 Automobile Mileage Allowance 477

20.21 Reimbursements Under Non-Accountable Plans 478

PERSONAL TAX COMPUTATIONS 479

Dependents 481

21.1 No Exemption Deductions Are Allowed 482

21.2 How Many Dependents Do You Have? 482

21.3 Qualifying Children 483

21.4 Qualifying Relatives 485

21.5 Meeting the Support Test for a Qualifying Relative 487

21.6 Multiple Support Agreements 491

21.7 Special Rule for Divorced or Separated Parents 492

21.8 Reporting Social Security Numbers of Dependents 493

Figuring Your Regular Income Tax Liability 495

22.1 Taxable Income and Regular Income Tax Liability 496

22.2 Using the Tax Table 496

22.3 Tax Computation Worksheet 497

22.4 Tax Calculation If You Have Net Capital Gain

or Qualified Dividends 498

22.5 Foreign Earned Income Tax Worksheet 498

22.6 Income Averaging for Farmers and Fishermen 498

22.7 Tax Credits 499

22.8 Additional Medicare Tax and Net Investment Income Tax 499

Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT) 500

23.1 Computing Alternative Minimum Tax on Form 6251 502

23.2 Adjustments and Preferences for AMT 503

23.3 Tax Credits Allowed Against AMT 506

23.4 Regular Tax Credit for Prior-Year AMT 506

23.5 Avoiding AMT 507

Computing the “Kiddie Tax” on Your Child’s Unearned Income 508

24.1 Filing Your Child’s Return 509

24.2 Children Subject to “Kiddie Tax” for 2021 510

24.3 Computing “Kiddie Tax” on Child’s Return 511

24.4 Parent’s Election To Report Child’s Dividends and Interest 511

Personal Tax Credits Reduce Your Tax Liability 514

25.1 Overview of Personal Tax Credits 515

25.2 Child Tax Credit for Children Under Age 18 515

25.3 Figuring the Child Tax Credit and Additional Child Tax Credit 516

25.4 Credit for Other Dependents 518

25.5 Child and Dependent Care Credit 518

25.6 Figuring the Child and Dependent Care Credit 520

25.7 Earned Income Credit 523

25.8 Income Tests for Earned Income Credit 525

25.9 Qualifying for the Adoption Credit 526

25.10 Claiming the Adoption Credit on Form 8839 527

25.11 Eligibility for the Saver’s Credit 528

25.12 Figuring the Saver’s Credit 529

25.13 Premium Tax Credit 530

25.14 Health Coverage Credit 534

25.15 Mortgage Interest Credit 534

25.16 Residential Energy Credits 534

25.17 Credit for Qualified Plug-in Electric and

Fuel Cell Vehicles 535

25.18 Repayment of the First-Time Homebuyer Credit 536

25.19 Recovery Rebate Credit 537

Tax Withholdings 538

26.1 Withholdings Should Cover Estimated Tax 539

26.2 Income Taxes Withheld on Wages 539

26.3 Low Earners May Be Exempt From Withholding 540

26.4 Are You Withholding the Right Amount? 540

26.5 Voluntary Withholding on Government Payments 541

26.6 When Tips Are Subject to Withholding 541

26.7 Withholding on Gambling Winnings 542

26.8 FICA Withholdings 543

26.9 Withholding on Distributions from Retirement Plans

and Commercial Annuities 544

26.10 Backup Withholding 545

Estimated Tax Payments 546

27.1 Do You Owe an Estimated Tax Penalty for 2021? 547

27.2 Planning Estimated Tax Payments for 2022 549

27.3 Dates for Paying Estimated Tax Installments for 2022 550

27.4 Estimates by Married Taxpayers 550

27.5 Adjusting Your Payments During the Year 551

Additional Medicare Tax and Net Investment Income Tax 552

28.1 Higher-Income Taxpayers May be Subject to Additional Taxes 553

28.2 Additional 0.9% Medicare Tax on Earnings 553

28.3 Additional 3.8% Tax on Net Investment Income 555

TAX PLANNING 559

Tax Savings for Residence Sales 561

29.1 Avoiding Tax on Sale of Principal Residence 562

29.2 Meeting the Ownership and Use Tests for Exclusion 563

29.3 Home Sales by Married Persons 567

29.4 Reduced Maximum Exclusion 568

29.5 Figuring Gain or Loss 571

29.6 Figuring Adjusted Basis 572

29.7 Personal and Business Use of a Home 573

29.8 No Loss Allowed on Personal Residence 574

29.9 Loss on Residence Converted to Rental Property 575

29.10 Loss on Residence Acquired by Gift or Inheritance 576

Tax Rules for Investors in Securities 578

30.1 Planning Year-End Securities Transactions 579

30.2 Earmarking Stock Lots 579

30.3 Sale of Stock Dividends 580

30.4 Stock Rights 581

30.5 Short Sales of Stock 581

30.6 Wash Sales 583

30.7 Convertible Stocks and Bonds 585

30.8 Stock Options 586

30.9 Sophisticated Financial Transactions 587

30.10 Investing in Tax-Exempts 587

30.11 Ordinary Loss for Small Business Stock (Section 1244) 588

30.12 Series EE Bonds 589

30.13 I Bonds 590

30.14 Trader, Dealer, or Investor? 591

30.15 Mark-to-Market Election for Traders 592

30.16 Cryptocurrency Transactions 594

Tax Savings for Investors in Real Estate 595

31.1 Real Estate Ventures 596

31.2 Sales of Subdivided Land—Dealer or Investor? 597

31.3 Exchanging Real Estate Without Tax 598

31.4 Timing Your Real Property Sales 600

31.5 Cancellation of a Lease 600

31.6 Sale of an Option 600

31.7 Granting of an Easement 600

31.8 Special Tax Credits for Real Estate Investments 601

31.9 Foreclosures, Repossessions, Short Sales, and

Voluntary Conveyances to Creditors 602

31.10 Restructuring Mortgage Debt 603

31.11 Abandonments 604

31.12 Seller’s Repossession After Buyer’s Default on Mortgage 605

31.13 Foreclosure on Mortgages Other Than Purchase Money 607

31.14 Foreclosure Sale to Third Party 607

31.15 Transferring Mortgaged Realty 608

31.16 QBI Deduction for REIT Dividends 608

Tax Rules for Investors in Mutual Funds 609

32.1 Timing of Your Investment Can Affect Your Taxes 610

32.2 Reinvestment Plans 610

32.3 Mutual Fund Distributions Reported on Form 1099-DIV 610

32.4 Tax-Exempt Bond Funds 611

32.5 Fund Expenses 611

32.6 Tax Credits From Mutual Funds 612

32.7 How to Report Mutual Fund Distributions 612

32.8 Redemptions and Exchanges of Fund Shares 612

32.9 Basis of Redeemed Shares 614

32.10 Comparison of Basis Methods 616

32.11 Mutual Funds Compared to Exchange-Traded Funds 617

Educational Tax Benefits 618

33.1 Scholarships and Grants 619

33.2 Tuition Reductions for College Employees 619

33.3 How Fulbright Awards Are Taxed 619

33.4 United States Savings Bond Tuition Plans 619

33.5 Contributing to a Qualified Tuition Program

(Section 529 Plan) 621

33.6 Distributions From Qualified Tuition Programs

(Section 529 Plans) 622

33.7 Education Tax Credits 624

33.8 American Opportunity Credit 625

33.9 Lifetime Learning Credit 627

33.10 Contributing to a Coverdell Education Savings Account (ESA) 628

33.11 Distributions From Coverdell ESAs 629

33.12 Tuition and Fees Deduction No Longer Allowed 631

33.13 Student Loan Interest Deduction 631

33.14 Types of Deductible Work-Related Costs 633

33.15 Work-Related Tests for Education Costs 633

33.16 Local Transportation and Travel Away From

Home To Take Courses 634

Special Tax Rules for Senior Citizens and the Disabled 636

34.1 Senior Citizens Get Certain Filing Breaks 637

34.2 Social Security Benefits Subject to Tax 637

34.3 Computing Taxable Social Security Benefits 638

34.4 Election for Lump-Sum Social Security Benefit Payment 643

34.5 Retiring on Social Security Benefits 643

34.6 How Tax on Social Security Reduces Your Earnings 644

34.7 Eligibility for the Credit for the Elderly or the Disabled 645

34.8 Figuring the Credit for the Elderly or Disabled 645

34.9 Tax Effects of Moving to a Continuing Care Facility 646

34.10 Medicare Part B and Part D Premiums for 2022 648

34.11 Special Tax Rules for Individuals with a Disability 648

34.12 ABLE Accounts 649

Members of the Armed Forces 651

35.1 Taxable Armed Forces Pay and Benefits 652

35.2 Tax Breaks for Armed Forces Members 652

35.3 Deductions for Armed Forces Personnel 654

35.4 Tax-Free Pay for Service in Combat Zone 654

35.5 Tax Deadlines Extended for Combat Zone or

Contingency Operation Service 656

35.6 Tax Forgiveness for Combat Zone or Terrorist or

Military Action Deaths 656

35.7 Extension To Pay Your Tax When Entering the Service 657

35.8 Tax Information for Reservists 657

How To Treat Foreign Earned Income 659

36.1 Claiming the Foreign Earned Income Exclusion 660

36.2 What Is Foreign Earned Income? 660

36.3 Qualifying for the Foreign Earned Income Exclusion 662

36.4 How To Treat Housing Costs 663

36.5 Meeting the Foreign Residence or Physical Presence Test 664

36.6 Claiming Deductions 666

36.7 Exclusion Not Established When Your Return Is Due 666

36.8 Tax-Free Meals and Lodging for Workers in Camps 667

36.9 U. S. Virgin Islands, Samoa, Guam, and Northern Marianas 667

36.10 Earnings in Puerto Rico 667

36.11 Tax Treaties With Foreign Countries 668

36.12 Exchange Rates and Blocked Currency 668

36.13 Foreign Tax Credit or Deduction for Foreign Taxes Paid 668

Planning Alimony and Marital Settlements 670

37.1 Rules for Post-2018 Divorce and Separation Agreements 671

37.2 Rules for Pre-2019 Divorces or Separation Agreements 671

37.3 Decree or Agreement Required 672

37.4 Cash Payments Required 672

37.5 Payments Must Stop at Death 673

37.6 Child Support Payments Are Not Alimony 674

37.7 No Minimum Payment Period for Alimony 675

37.8 Legal Fees of Marital Settlements 675

Other Taxes 676

38.1 Overview of Household Employment Taxes 677

38.2 Social Security and Medicare (FICA) Taxes

for Household Employees 678

38.3 Filing Schedule H To Report Household

Employment Taxes 679

38.4 Federal Unemployment Taxes (FUTA)

for Household Employees 681

Gift and Estate Tax Planning Basics 682

39.1 Gifts of Appreciated Property 683

39.2 Gift Tax Basics 683

39.3 Filing a Gift Tax Return 684

39.4 Gift Tax Credit 684

39.5 Custodial Accounts for Minors 684

39.6 Trusts in Family Planning 685

39.7 What is the Estate Tax? 686

39.8 Take Inventory and Estimate the Value

of Your Potential Estate 686

39.9 Estate Tax for 2021 687

39.10 Planning for a Potential Estate Tax 688

BUSINESS TAX PLANNING 691

Income or Loss From Your Business or Profession 693

40.1 Forms of Doing Business 694

40.2 Reporting Self-Employed Income 694

40.3 Accounting Methods for Reporting Business Income 696

40.4 Tax Reporting Year for Self-Employed 697

40.5 Reporting Certain Payments and Receipts to the IRS 697

40.6 Filing Schedule C 699

40.7 Deductions for Professionals 704

40.8 Nondeductible Expense Items 705

40.9 How Authors and Artists May Write Off Expenses 706

40.10 Deducting Expenses of a Sideline Business or Hobby 706

40.11 Deducting Expenses of Looking for a New Business 707

40.12 Home Office Deduction 708

40.13 Write-Off Methods for Home Office Expenses 710

40.14 Allocating Expenses to Business Use 712

40.15 Business Income May Limit Home Office Deductions 713

40.16 Home Office for Sideline Business 715

40.17 Depreciation of Office in Cooperative Apartment 716

40.18 Net Operating Losses (NOLs) 716

40.19 How To Report a Net Operating Loss 717

40.20 Excess Business Losses 718

40.21 Business Credits 718

40.22 Filing Schedule F 720

40.23 Farming Expenses 720

40.24 Qualified Business Income Deduction 721

Retirement and Medical Plans for Self-Employed 723

41.1 Overview of Retirement and Medical Plans 724

41.2 Choosing a Qualified Retirement Plan 724

41.3 Choosing a SEP 725

41.4 Deductible Contributions 725

41.5 How To Qualify a Retirement Plan or SEP Plan 729

41.6 Tax Credits for Setting Up a Retirement Plan 729

41.7 Annual Qualified Retirement Plan Reporting 730

41.8 How Qualified Retirement Plan Distributions Are Taxed 730

41.9 SIMPLE IRA Plans 731

41.10 Health Savings Account (HSA) Basics 731

41.11 Limits on Deductible HSA Contributions 731

41.12 Distributions From HSAs 732

41.13 Archer MSAs 733

41.14 Health Reimbursement Arrangements (HRAs) 734

41.15 Small Employer Health Insurance Credit 735

Claiming Depreciation Deductions 736

42.1 What Property May Be Depreciated? 737

42.2 Claiming Depreciation on Your Tax Return 738

42.3 First-Year Expensing Deduction 738

42.4 MACRS Recovery Periods 740

42.5 MACRS Rates 741

42.6 Half-Year Convention for MACRS 742

42.7 Last Quarter Placements—Mid-Quarter Convention 743

42.8 150% Rate Election 744

42.9 Straight Line Depreciation 745

42.10 Listed Property 746

42.11 Assets in Service Before 1987 747

42.12 MACRS for Real Estate Placed in Service After 1986 747

42.13 Demolishing a Building 749

42.14 Qualified Improvement Property 749

42.15 Depreciating Real Estate Placed in Service

After 1980 and Before 1987 750

42.16 Amortizing Goodwill and Other Intangibles (Section 197) 750

42.17 Amortizing Research and Experimentation Costs 751

42.18 Bonus Depreciation 751

Deducting Car and Truck Expenses 753

43.1 Standard Mileage Rate 754

43.2 Expense Allocations 755

43.3 Depreciation Restrictions on Cars, Trucks, and Vans 756

43.4 Annual Ceilings on Depreciation 757

43.5 MACRS Rates for Cars, Trucks, and Vans 758

43.6 Straight Line Method 763

43.7 Depreciation for Year Vehicle Is Disposed Of 764

43.8 Depreciation After Recovery Period Ends 764

43.9 Trade-in of Business Vehicle 765

43.10 Recapture of Deductions on Business Car, Truck, or Van 765

43.11 Keeping Records of Business Use 767

43.12 Leased Business Vehicles: Deductions and Income 767

Sales of Business Property 768

44.1 Depreciation Recaptured as Ordinary Income

on Sale of Personal Property 769

44.2 Depreciation Recaptured as Ordinary Income

on Sale of Real Estate 769

44.3 Recapture of First-Year Expensing and Bonus Depreciation 770

44.4 Gifts and Inheritances of Depreciable Property 771

44.5 Involuntary Conversions and Tax-Free Exchanges 771

44.6 Installment Sale of Depreciable Property 771

44.7 Sale of a Proprietorship 771

44.8 Property Used in a Business (Section 1231 Assets) 772

44.9 Sale of Property Used for Business and Personal Purposes 773

44.10 Should You Trade in Business Equipment? 773

44.11 Corporate Liquidation 773

44.12 Additional Taxes on Higher-Income Taxpayers 774

Figuring Self-Employment Tax 775

45.1 What Is Self-Employment Income? 776

45.2 Partners Pay Self-Employment Tax 777

45.3 Schedule SE 778

45.4 How Wages Affect Self-Employment Tax 778

45.5 Optional Method If 2021 Was a Low-Income or Loss Year 781

45.6 Self-Employment Tax Rules for Certain Positions 782

45.7 Paying the Deferred Portion of Self-Employment Tax for 2021 784

FILING YOUR RETURN AND WHAT HAPPENS AFTER YOU FILE 785

Filing Your Return 787

46.1 Keeping Tax Records 788

46.2 Getting Ready to File Your Return 788

46.3 Applying for an Extension 789

46.4 Getting Your Refund 790

46.5 Paying Taxes Due 791

46.6 Handling Identity Theft 793

46.7 Notify the IRS of Address Changes 793

46.8 Interest on Tax Underpayments 793

46.9 Tax Penalties for Late Filing and Late Payment 794

Filing Refund Claims, and Amended Returns 795

47.1 Filing an Amended Return 796

47.2 When to File a Refund Claim 796

47.3 Stating the Reasons for Refund Claim 797

47.4 Quick Refund Claims 797

47.5 Interest Paid on Refund Claims 797

47.6 Refunds Withheld to Cover Debts 798

47.7 Amended Returns Showing Additional Tax 798

47.8 Penalty for Filing Excessive Refund Claim 798

If the IRS Examines Your Return 799

48.1 Odds of Being Audited 800

48.2 When the IRS Can Assess Additional Taxes 801

48.3 Audit Overview 802

48.4 Preparing for the Audit 803

48.5 Handling the Audit 804

48.6 Tax Penalties for Inaccurate Returns 804

48.7 Penalties for Not Reporting Foreign Financial Accounts 807

48.8 Agreeing to the Audit Changes 808

48.9 Disputing the Audit Changes 808

48.10 Offer in Compromise 809

48.11 Recovering Costs of a Tax Dispute 811

48.12 Suing the IRS for Unauthorized Collection 811

2021 TAX FORMS 813

Form 1040 815

Form 1040-SR 817

Schedule 1 821

Schedule 2 823

Schedule 3 825

Schedule A 827

Schedule B 828

Schedule 8812 829

2021 Tax Table 832

2021 Tax Computation Worksheet 844

2021 Earned Income Credit (EIC) Table 845

GLOSSARY 855

INDEX 861

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