Employee Training and Development, 9th Edition PDF by Raymond A Noe


Employee Training and Development, Ninth Edition

By Raymond A Noe

Employee Training and Development, Ninth Edition


Preface iv


The Context For Training And Development 3

Chapter One

Introduction to Employee Training and Development 4

Introduction 5

Training and Development: Key Components of Learning 6

Designing Effective Training 9

Overcoming the Flaws of the ISD Model 10

The Forces Influencing Working and Learning 11

Economic Cycles 12

Globalization 14

Increased Value Placed on Intangible Assets and Human Capital 17

Focus on Link to Business Strategy 20

Changing Demographics and Diversity of the Workforce 21

Talent Management 24

Customer Service and Quality Emphasis 27

New Technology 31

High-Performance Work Systems 35

Snapshot of Training Practices 36

Training Facts and Figures 37

Training Investment Leaders 38

Roles, Capabilities, Positions, and Salaries of Training Professionals 40

Who Provides Training? 43

Who Is in Charge of Training? 43

Preparing to Work in Training 45

Key Terms 45

Discussion Questions 46

Application Assignments 47

Case Zappos: Facing Competitive Challenges 48

Endnotes 50

Chapter Two

Strategic Training 60

Introduction 62

The Evolution of Training: From an Event to Learning 63

Learning as a Strategic Focus 64

The Learning Organization 64

Implications of Learning for Human Capital Development 66

The Strategic Training and Development Process 67

Business Strategy Formulation and Identification 68

Identify Strategic Training and Development

Initiatives That Support the Strategy 70

Provide Training and Development Activities Linked

to Strategic Training and Development Initiatives 74

Identify and Collect Metrics to Show Training Success 75

Examples of the Strategic Training and Development Process 76

Organizational Characteristics That Influence Training 79

Company Size 79

Roles of Employees and Managers 79

Top Management Support 80

Integration of Business Units 81

Global Presence 82

Business Conditions 82

Other HRM Practices 84

Strategic Value of Jobs and Employee Uniqueness 85

Extent of Unionization 86

Training Needs in Different Strategies 86

Models of Organizing the Training Department 89

The Corporate University (Corporate Training Universities) 89

Creating a Corporate University 92

Business-Embedded Learning Function 92

Learning, Training, and Development from a Change Model Perspective 94

Marketing Training and Creating a Brand 97

Outsourcing Training 99

Summary 100

Key Terms 100

Discussion Questions 101

Application Assignments 102

Case: Learning at iCIMS 103

Endnotes 103

Case 1: Learning in Practice: “Alexa, Tell Me

About Learning at Amazon.com, Inc.” 109


Designing Training 111

Chapter Three

Needs Assessment 112

Introduction 113

Why Is Needs Assessment Necessary? 113

Who Should Participate in Needs Assessment? 115

Methods Used in Needs Assessment 118

The Needs Assessment Process 121

Organizational Analysis 121

Person Analysis 124

The Process for Person Analysis 124

Task Analysis 133

Competency Models 138

Scope of Needs Assessment 142

Needs Assessment in Practice 143

Summary 143

Key Terms 144

Discussion Questions 144

Application Assignments 145

Case: Identifying Training Needs at the U.S.

Department of Agriculture’s Animal Plant and

Health Inspection Service (APHIS) 147

Endnotes 147

Chapter Four

Learning and Transfer of Training 152

Introduction 153

What Is Learning? What Is Learned? 154

Learning Theories 156

Reinforcement Theory 156

Social Learning Theory 156

Goal Theories 158

Need Theories 159

Expectancy Theory 160

Adult Learning Theory 161

Information Processing Theory 162

Transfer of Training Theory 163

Theory of Identical Elements 163

Stimulus Generalization Approach 165

Cognitive Theory of Transfer 165

The Learning Process 166

Mental and Physical Processes 166

Learning Cycles and Styles 167

Implications of the Learning Process and Transfer of

Training for Instruction 168

Instructional Emphasis for Learningn Outcomes 183

Summary 185

Key Terms 185

Discussion Questions 186

Application Assignments 187

Case: Revised Training for the U.S. Navy 189

Endnotes 189

Chapter Five

Program Design 196

Introduction 197

Considerations in Designing Effective Programs 199

Selecting and Preparing the Training Site 199

Choosing Trainers 201

How Trainers Can Make the Training Site and

Instruction Conducive to Learning 202

Curriculum, Course, and Lesson Design 213

Curriculum Road Map 214

Converting In-Person to Online Learning 220

Program Design Implications for Transfer of Training 221

Determine Focus: Near versus Far Transfer 221

Encourage Self-Management 222

Encourage Manager Support for Training 223

Peer Support 227

Opportunity to Use Learned Capabilities 227

Technological Support 228

Content Curation: Keeping Training Content

Up-to-Date, Organized, and Accessible 228

How to Choose a Vendor or Consultant for Training Services 228

Using Knowledge Management for Learning and

Transfer of Training 230

Keys for Effective Knowledge Management 232

Summary 233

Key Terms 234

Discussion Questions 234

Application Assignments 235

Case: Designing Effective Sales Training at

Harrison Pharmaceuticals 237

Endnotes 237

Chapter Six

Training Evaluation 243

Introduction 244

Reasons for Evaluating Training 244

Formative Evaluation 245

Summative Evaluation 246

Overview of the Evaluation Process 247

Outcomes Used in the Evaluation of Training

Programs 248

Reaction Outcomes 250

Learning or Cognitive Outcomes 252

Behavior and Skill-Based Outcomes 252

Affective Outcomes 253

Results 254

Return on Investment 254

Determining Whether Outcomes Are

Appropriate 255

Relevance 255

Reliability 256

Discrimination 256

Practicality 257

Evaluation Practices 257

Which Training Outcomes Should Be Collected? 258

Evaluation Designs 259

Threats to Validity: Alternative Explanations for Evaluation Results 260

Types of Evaluation Designs 262

Considerations in Choosing an Evaluation Design 266

Determining Return on Investment 268

Determining Costs 270

Determining Benefits 270

Example of a Cost-Benefit Analysis 271

Other Methods for Cost-Benefit Analysis 273

Practical Considerations in Determining ROI 274

Success Cases and Return on Expectations 274

Measuring Human Capital and Training Activity 275

Big Data and Workforce Analytics 276

Summary 277

Key Terms 277

Discussion Questions 278

Application Assignments 279

Case: Training Relationship Managers at KCB Group 281

Endnotes 281

Case 2: Learning in Practice: Learning Online at PepsiCo 287


Training And Development Methods 289

Chapter Seven

Traditional Training Methods 290

Introduction 291

Presentation Methods 294

Lecture 294

Audiovisual Techniques 296

Hands-on Methods 296

On-the-Job Training 296

Apprenticeship 297

Simulations 301

Case Studies 302

Business Games 304

Role Plays 305

Behavior Modeling 305

Group Building Methods 308

Adventure Learning 308

Team Training 310

Action Learning 312

Choosing a Training Method 313

Summary 316

Key Terms 316

Discussion Questions 316

Application Assignments 317

Case: Developing Leadership at Farm Bureau

Financial Services 319

Endnotes 320

Chapter Eight

Technology-Based Training Methods 325

Introduction 326

Technology’s Influence on Training and Learning 327

Technology Facilitates Collaboration 329

Technology Creates a Dynamic Learning Environment 329

Technology Gives Learners Control 330

Computer-Based Training, Online Learning,

Web-Based Training, and E-Learning 332

Potential Features of Online Learning 333

Advantages of Online Learning 334

Effectiveness of Online Learning 336

Developing Effective Online Learning 337

Needs Assessment 337

Creating a Positive Online Learning Experience 339

Learner Control 340

Provide Time and Space for Online Learning 341

Technology for Collaboration and Linking 341

Massive Open Online Courses 342

Social Media: Wikis, Blogs, Microblogs, and

Social Networks 344

Blended Learning 347

Simulations and Games 348

Augmented Reality 352

Mobile Technology and Learning 353

Adaptive Training 355

Distance Learning 356

Technologies for Training Support: Artificial

Intelligence, Expert Systems, and Performance Support 357

Artificial Intelligence 358

Electronic Performance Support Systems 359

Learning Management Systems: Systems for

Training Delivery, Support, and Administration 359

Choosing New Technology Training Methods 361

Summary 364

Key Terms 365

Discussion Questions 365

Application Assignments 366

Case: Training Customer Service Team Members

at Valvoline Instant Oil Change 367

Endnotes 367

Chapter Nine

Employee Development and Career Management 375

Introduction 376

The Relationship Among Development, Training, and Careers 377

Development and Training 377

Development and Careers 377

Development Planning Systems 380

Self-Assessment 380

Reality Check 381

Goal Setting 381

Action Planning 383

Examples of Career Development Systems 383

Approaches to Employee Development 385

Formal Education 386

Assessment 389

Job Experiences 394

Interpersonal Relationships 402

Special Topics in Employee Development: Succession

Planning, Developing Dysfunctional Managers, and Onboarding 407

Summary 415

Key Terms 415

Discussion Questions 416

Application Assignments 417

Case: Mentoring at Roscoe Property Management (RPM) 417

Endnotes 418

Case 3: Learning in Practice: Building a

Workforce at Huntington Ingalls Industries 427


Social Responsibility And The Future 429

Chapter Ten

Social Responsibility: Legal Issues, Managing

Diversity, and Career Challenges 430

Introduction 431

Training Partnerships 432

Joint Union-Management Programs 434

Legal Issues and Managing a Diverse Workforce at Home and Abroad 435

Legal Issues 435

Managing Workforce Diversity and Ensuring Equity and Inclusion 440

Melting the Glass Ceiling 447

Cross-Cultural Preparation 449

Steps in Cross-Cultural Preparation 449

Career Challenges Facing the Workforce 452

Work-Life Balance 453

Career Paths and Dual Career Paths 456

Dual Career Path 458

Career Recycling 460

Job Hopping 461

Coping with Career Breaks 461

Coping with Job Loss 462

Meeting the Needs of Older Workers 463

Preretirement Socialization 464

Retirement 466

Early Retirement Programs 466

Summary 467

Key Terms 467

Discussion Questions 468

Application Assignments 468

Case: Black Professionals at Coca-Cola 469

Endnotes 470

Chapter Eleven

The Future of Training and Development 479

Introduction 480

Automatization of Work 480

Greater Need for Digital Literacy and Closing the Skills Gap 482

Increased Use of New Technologies for Training

Delivery and Instruction 484

Breakthroughs in Neuroscience About Learning 486

Faster Training Design Using Key Stakeholders 487

Increased Use of Just-In-Time Learning and Performance Support 488

Increased Emphasis on Using Big Data to Show

How Learning Helps the Business 489

Implications of Future Trends for Trainers’ Skills and Competencies 490

Summary 491

Key Terms 491

Discussion Questions 491

Application Assignments 492

Case: Robots Make the Choice Cuts at Tyson Foods 493

Endnotes 493

Case 4: Learning in Practice: Eastern Bankshares

Diversity Efforts 496

Glossary 497

Name Index 511

Company Index 523

Subject Index 527

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