Sustainable Practices in the Textile Industry PDF by Luqman Jameel Rather, Mohd Shabbir and Aminoddin Haji

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Sustainable Practices in the Textile Industry

By Luqman Jameel Rather, Mohd Shabbir and Aminoddin Haji

Sustainable Practices in the Textile Industry By Luqman Jameel Rather, Mohd Shabbir and Aminoddin Haji

Contents:

Preface xv

Part 1: Sustainable Dye Extraction and Dyeing Techniques 1

1 Extraction and Application of Natural Dyes 3

Sanjeeda Iqbal and Taiyaba Nimra Ansari

1.1 Introduction 4

1.2 What are Natural Dyes? 6

1.3 Why Natural Dyes? 7

1.4 What are Synthetic Dyes? 8

1.5 Sources of Natural Dyes 9

1.6 Types of Natural Dyes 10

1.6.1 Classification on the Basis of Their Chemical Constitution 10

1.6.2 Classification Based on Method of Application/ Preparation 11

1.7 Natural Dyes Need Fixing Agent (Mordants) for Bonding 13

1.7.1 Metallic Mordants 13

1.7.2 Tannins and Tannic Acid 14

1.7.3 Oil Mordants 14

1.7.4 Bio-Mordants 14

1.7.5 Method of Application 16

1.8 Fibers/Fabrics Used for Natural Dyeing 16

1.8.1 Cellulosic Fiber 16

1.8.2 Protein Fiber 16

1.8.3 Synthetic Fiber 17

1.9 Extraction of Natural Dyes 17

1.10 Dyeing Process 18

1.10.1 Preparation of Fabric Before Dyeing 18

1.10.2 Mechanism of Dyeing 19

1.10.3 Process of Dyeing 19

1.11 Evaluation of the Dyed Fabric 24

1.11.1 Color Strength or K/S Value 24

1.11.2 Color Fastness Properties 25

1.12 Some Special Characteristics of Naturally Dyed Fabric 26

1.12.1 Antimicrobial Properties 26

1.12.2 UV Protection 26

1.12.3 Deodorizing Finishing 27

1.12.4 Moth Resistant and Insect Repellent 27

1.13 Conclusion 27

1.13.1 Overview 29

1.13.2 Legislative Regulations for Synthetic Dyes 30

1.13.3 Sustainability Aspects of Natural Dyes 30

1.13.4 Practicality of Natural Dyes 32

Acknowledgement 32

References 33

2 Recent Advances in Non-Aqueous Dyeing Systems 43

Omer Kamal Alebeid, Elwathig A.M. Hassan and LiujunPei

2.1 Introduction 43

2.2 Supercritical Fluid Dyeing System 44

2.2.1 Application of Supercritical CO2 on Synthetic Fabric 46

2.2.2 Application of Supercritical CO2 on Natural Fabric 48

2.2.3 Dyes Solubility in Supercritical Fluids 56

2.3 Reverse Micelle Systems 57

2.3.1 Mechanism and Formation of Reverse Micelle 57

2.3.2 Application of Reverse Micelle Dyeing System 59

2.4 Solvent Dyeing 61

2.5 Silicone Non-Aqueous Dyeing 62

2.6 Conclusion 68

References 68

3 Structural Coloration of Textile Materials 75

Showkat Ali Ganie and Qing Li

3.1 Introduction 75

3.2 Thin-Film Interference 77

3.2.1 Principle of Thin-Film Interference 78

3.2.2 Multilayer Interference 79

References 84

4 Enzymatic Wet Processing 87

Mohammad Toufiqul Hoque, Nur-Us-Shafa Mazumder

and Mohammad Tajul Islam

4.1 Introduction 87

4.2 Enzymes 89

4.3 Function of Enzymes 89

4.4 Classification of Enzymes 89

4.5 Αn-Amylase Enzyme for Desizing 92

4.6 Pectinase Enzyme for Scouring 93

4.7 Protease Enzyme for Wool Anti-Felting 94

4.8 Cellulase Enzyme for Biopolishing and Biostoning 96

4.9 Hairiness Removal Mechanism 98

4.9.1 During Scouring and Bleaching in Alkaline Condition 98

4.9.2 Applying Before Dyeing in Acidic Condition 99

4.10 Enzyme Decolorization of Textile Effluent 100

4.11 Enzymes for Increasing Dyeability of Different Fibers 101

4.11.1 Application on Cotton 101

4.11.2 Application on Nylon 103

4.12 Conclusion 104

References 105

Part 2: Sustainable Functional Finishing of Various Textile Materials 111

5 Coating Textiles: Towards Sustainable Processes 113

Imene Ghezal

5.1 Introduction 114

5.2 Most Used Polymers for Coating Textiles 114

5.2.1 Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) 114

5.2.2 Polyvinyl Acetate (PVAc) 115

5.2.3 Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) 116

5.2.4 Polyurethanes (PUs) 116

5.2.5 Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) and Polyvinylidene Chloride (PVDC) 116

5.2.6 Polysiloxanes 118

5.2.7 Acrylics 118

5.2.8 Phosphorous-Based Polymers 118

5.3 Traditional Coating Methods 118

5.4 Environmental Friendly Polymers 121

5.4.1 Cyclodextrins 121

5.4.2 Chitin and Chitosan 123

5.4.3 Sodium Alginate 123

5.4.4 Polyethylene Glycols 124

5.4.5 Natural Rubber 125

5.4.6 Polyvinyl Alcohol 126

5.4.7 Dendrimers 127

5.4.8 Sericin 127

5.4.9 Polyphenols 128

5.5 Sustainable Coating Technologies 129

5.5.1 Powder Coating Technique 129

5.5.2 Sol–Gel Technology 130

5.5.3 Plasma Treatment 131

5.5.4 Electro-Fluidodynamic Technology 132

5.5.5 Supercritical Fluid Technology 133

5.5.6 Vapor Deposition Methods 134

5.6 Conclusion 135

References 136

6 A Review on Hydrophobicity and Fabricating

Hydrophobic Surfaces on the Textiles 149

Mohammad Khajeh Mehrizi and Zahra Shahi

6.1 Introduction 149

6.2 Self-Cleaning Surfaces 151

6.3 Applications of Hydrophobic Surfaces 151

6.4 Basic Theories: Modeling of Contact Angle 152

6.4.1 Young’s Model 152

6.4.2 Wenzel Model (Homogeneous Interface) 152

6.4.3 Cassie–Baxter Model (Composite Interface) 153

6.5 Techniques to Make Super-Hydrophobic Surfaces 154

6.6 Methods of Applying Hydrophobic Coating on Textiles 156

6.6.1 Dip-Coating 156

6.6.2 Spray Coating 156

6.7 Contact Angles (CA) Measurement 156

6.8 Research Records on Hydrophobic Surface Production 157

6.9 Conclusion 162

References 163

7 UV Protection: Historical Perspectives and State-of-the-Art

Achievements 167

Narcisa Vrinceanu and Diana Coman

7.1 Introduction 167

7.2 Fundamentals Regarding UV Protection of Textile Fabrics 169

7.2.1 The Design of the Woven Support Representsa Relevant Factor That Directly Affect UPF 171

7.2.2 The Synergism Between Structural Parameters and UV Protection of Textile Supports 172

7.2.3 Yarn Curve End up Being the Significant Determinant of the UV Security Attributes of Textile Supports 172

7.2.4 The Correlation Between Fabric Porosity and Cover Factor and UV Protection 172

7.2.5 Concepts of Ultraviolet Protection Factor and Sun Protection Factor 173

7.3 UV Stabilizers Beginnings and Initial Development 178

7.3.1 UV Protection Finishing of Fabrics Using Nanoparticles 178

7.3.1.1 Inorganic Formulations With Nano-ZnO Particles 178

7.3.1.2 UV Shield of Cotton Support Conferred by TiO2 Nanoparticles 179

7.3.1.3 Formulations Containing Nanoparticles of ZnO, Titania, Silica, Silver, Carbon-

Nanotubes, Graphene and Silver Onto Cotton Textiles 180

7.3.2 UV Protection of Fabrics by Dyeing of Textile Supports 181

7.3.3 Other Kind of Finishes 182

7.4 Conclusion 182

References 188

8 Synthetic and Natural UV Protective Agents

for Textile Finishing 207

Iftay Khairul Alam, Nazia Nourin Moury

and Mohammad Tajul Islam

8.1 Introduction 207

8.2 Ultraviolet Radiation (UVR) 208

8.3 Importance of Ultraviolet Protective Finish 209

8.3.1 Ultraviolet Protection With Textiles 211

8.4 Methods of Blocking Ultraviolet Rays 212

8.5 Ultraviolet Protection Factor Measurement System 214

8.5.1 In Vitro 214

8.5.2 In Vivo 215

8.6 Clothing Factors Affecting Ultraviolet Protection Factor 216

8.6.1 Fabric Structure 217

8.6.2 Fiber Physio-Chemical Nature 218

8.6.3 Dyeing 218

8.7 Mechanisms of UV Protection 220

8.8 Types of Ultraviolet Absorbers 223

8.8.1 Organic 223

8.8.2 Inorganic 223

8.9 Commercial Ultraviolet Protective Clothing 225

8.10 Nanoparticle Coatings for Ultraviolet Protective Textiles 226

8.11 Durability of Ultraviolet Protective Finish 228

8.12 Conclusion 231

References 232

9 Sustainable Orientation of Textile Industry Companies 237

Gherghel Sabina

9.1 Introduction 238

9.2 Textile Industry—Environmental, Social

and Economic Issues 239

9.3 Circular Economy 243

9.4 Sustainability Circles 244

9.5 Circularity in the Supply Chain 245

9.6 Consumer Behavior of Sustainable Textile Products 247

9.7 Decision to Purchase Sustainable Textile Products 248

9.8 Policies and Strategies Used in the Sustainable

Textile Industry 249

9.9 Conclusions 250

References 250

Part 3: Sustainable Wastewater Remediation 253

10 Sustainable Application of Ionic Flocculation Method for Textile Effluent Treatment 255

Hamadia Sultana, Muhammad Usman, Abdul Ghaffar,

Tanveer Hussain Bokhari, Asim Mansha and Amnah Yusaf

10.1 Introduction 255

10.2 Conventional Methods for Degradation of Textile Effluents 256

10.2.1 Biological Methods 257

10.2.2 Chemical Methods 257

10.2.3 Physical Methods 257

10.3 Surfactants 258

10.4 Adsorptive Micellar Flocculation (AMF) 260

10.5 Mechanism 260

10.6 Choice of Flocculant 261

10.7 Analysis and Calculations 262

10.7.1 Analysis of Reagents 262

10.7.2 Calculated Parameters 262

10.8 Optimization of Conditions for Better Removal of Dye Using AMF 264

10.8.1 Effect of Temperature 264

10.8.2 Effect of pH 264

10.8.3 Surfactant Dosage 265

10.8.4 Flocculant/Surfactant Ratio 265

10.8.5 Addition of Electrolyte 265

10.8.6 Contact Time and Stirring Speed 266

10.9 Potential Advantages of AMF 266

10.10 Application to Wastewaters 266

10.11 Conclusion 267

10.12 Future Prospective 267

References 268

11 Remediation of Textile Wastewater by Ozonation 273

Astha Gupta, Suhail Ayoub Khan and Tabrez Alam Khan

11.1 Introduction 273

11.2 Sources of Wastewater 274

11.3 Ozonation Remediation for Textile Water 275

11.3.1 Impact of pH on Uptake of Organic Pollutants 276

11.3.2 Impact of Initial Dye Concentration 277

11.3.3 Impact of Inlet Ozone Concentration 278

11.3.4 Impact of Ozonation Time 278

11.4 Impact of Various Techniques in Combination

Ozonation Process for Treatment of Textile Wastewater 279

11.5 Degradation of Dyes via Ozonation 279

11.6 Conclusion 281

References 281

12 Design of a New Cold Atmospheric Plasma Reactor

Based on Dielelectric Barrier Discharge for the Treatment

and Recovery of Textile Dyeing Wastewater: Profoks/CAP Reactor 285

Lokman Hakan Tecer and Ali Mutlu Gündüz

12.1 Introduction 286

12.2 Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOP) in Wastewater Treatment 287

12.2.1 Cold Atmospheric Plasma Technology (CAP) 288

12.2.2 Formation and Chemical Reactivity of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) 289

12.2.3 CAP/AOP Application in Textile Wastewater Treatment 291

12.3 Profoks/CAP Wastewater Treatment and Water Recovery System 293

12.3.1 Profoks/CAP Wastewater Treatment

and Water Recovery System and Textile Wastewater Recovery Studies 296

12.3.2 Profoks/CAP Wastewater Treatment and

Water Recovery System and the Results

of Treatability of Textile Wastewater and the Study of Water Recovery 296

12.3.3 Profoks/CAP Wastewater Treatment

and Water Recovery System Investment and Operating Costs 299

12.4 Conclusion 301

References 302

13 Nanotechnology and its Application in Wastewater Treatment 307

Nitu Singh, Manzoor Ahmad Malik and Athar Adil Hashmi

13.1 Introduction 308

13.2 Nanotechnology 309

13.2.1 Adsorption 309

13.2.1.1 Carbon-Based Nanoadsorbents 310

13.2.1.2 Metal-Based Nanoadsorbents 312

13.2.1.3 Polymeric Nanoadsorbents 313

13.2.1.4 Zeolites 314

13.2.2 Membrane-Based Techniques 314

13.2.2.1 Nanofiber Membranes 315

13.2.2.2 Nanocomposite Membranes 316

13.2.2.3 Thin Film Nanocomposite Membranes 317

13.2.2.4 Nanofiltration Membranes 317

13.2.2.5 Aquaporin-Based Membranes 318

13.2.3 Metal Nanoparticles 319

13.2.3.1 Silver Nanoparticles 319

13.2.3.2 Iron Nanoparticles 319

13.2.3.3 Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles 320

13.3 Conclusion 320

References 321

Index 333

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