American Government and Politics Today, 11th Edition PDF by Steffen W Schmidt, Mack C Shelley II and Barbara A Bardes


American Government and Politics Today, Brief 11th Edition (2021-2022)

By Steffen W. Schmidt, Mack C. Shelley II and Barbara A. Bardes

American Government and Politics Today, Brief 11th Edition (2021-2022)


Part I: The American System

Chapter 1 The Democratic Republic 1

Politics and Government 2

Why Is Government Necessary? 2

Limiting Government Power 3

Authority and Legitimacy 3

Democracy and Other Forms of Government 4

Types of Government 4

Direct Democracy as a Model 4

The Dangers of Direct Democracy 5

A Democratic Republic 5

What Kind of Democracy Do We Have? 6

Democracy for Everyone 7

Democracy for the Few 7

Democracy for Groups 8

At Issue: Will the Coronavirus Change Everything? 8

Fundamental Values 9

Liberty Versus Order 9

Liberty Versus Equality 11

The Proper Role and Size of Government 12

Political Ideologies 14

Conservatism 15

Liberalism 16

The Traditional Political Spectrum 17

Problems With the Traditional Political Spectrum 18

A Four-Cornered Ideological Grid 18

Making A Difference: Seeing Democracy in Action 19

Key Terms • Chapter Summary • Test Yourself

Chapter 2 Forging a New Government: The Constitution 22

The Colonial Background 23

Separatists, the Mayflower, and the Compact 23

More Colonies, More Government 24

At Issue: Is America a Christian Nation? 25

British Restrictions and Colonial Grievances 26

The First Continental Congress 26

The Second Continental Congress 26

An Independent Confederation 27

The Resolution for Independence 28

July 4, 1776—The Declaration of Independence 28

The Rise of Republicanism 29

The Articles of Confederation: Our First Form of Government 30

The Constitutional Convention 32

Factions Among the Delegates 32

Politicking and Compromises 33

Working Toward Final Agreement 35

The Final Document 37

The Difficult Road to Ratification 37

The Federalists Push for Ratification 37

The March to the Finish 38

The Bill of Rights 39

Altering the Constitution 39

The Formal Amendment Process 40

Informal Methods of Constitutional Change 41

Making A Difference: How Can You Affect the U.S. Constitution? 43

Key Terms • Chapter Summary • Test Yourself

Chapter 3 Federalism 46

Federalism and Its Alternatives 47

A Unitary System 47

A Confederal System 47

A Federal System 48

Why Federalism? 48

At Issue: Should Recreational Marijuana Be Legal? 50

Arguments Against Federalism 50

The Constitutional Basis for American Federalism 51

Powers of the National Government 51

Powers of the State Governments 52

Prohibited Powers 53

Concurrent Powers 53

The Supremacy Clause 53

Interstate Relations 54

Defining Constitutional Powers—The Early Years 54

McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) 55

Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) 55

States’ Rights and the Resort to Civil War 56

The Continuing Dispute Over the Division of Power 58

Dual Federalism 58

The New Deal and Cooperative Federalism 58

The Politics of Federalism 59

Methods of Implementing Cooperative Federalism 60

Federalism and Today’s Supreme Court 62

A Trend Toward States’ Rights 62

Recent Decisions 63

Making A Difference: Writing E-mails and Letters to the Editor 64

Key Terms • Chapter Summary • Test Yourself

Chapter 4 Civil Liberties 68

The Constitutional Bases of Our Liberties 69

Protections Listed in the Original Constitution 69

Extending the Bill of Rights to State Governments 70

Incorporation Under the Fourteenth Amendment 70

Freedom of Religion 71

The Separation of Church and State—The Establishment Clause 71

The Free Exercise Clause 74

Freedom of Expression 75

No Prior Restraint 75

The Protection of Symbolic Speech 76

The Protection of Commercial Speech 76

Attempts to Ban Subversive or Advocacy Speech 76

The Eclipse of Obscenity as a Legal Category 77

Unprotected Speech: Slander 79

Student Speech 79

Freedom of the Press 80

The Right to Privacy 82

Privacy Rights and Abortion 82

Privacy Rights and the “Right to Die” 84

The Great Balancing Act: The Rights of the

Accused Versus the Rights of Society 85

Rights of the Accused 86

At Issue: Do Police Use Excessive Force Against Black Men? 87

Extending the Rights of the Accused 88

The Exclusionary Rule 88

Civil Liberties Versus Security Issues 89

Subsequent Revelations of NSA Activity 90

Making A Difference: Your Civil Liberties: Searches and Seizures 92

Key Terms • Chapter Summary • Test Yourself

Chapter 5 Civil Rights 96

The African American

Experience and the Civil Rights Movement 97

Ending Servitude 97

The Ineffectiveness of the Early Civil Rights Laws 98

The End of the Separate-but-Equal Doctrine 99

De Jure and De Facto Segregation 100

The Civil Rights Movement 101

Modern Civil Rights Legislation 101

Civil Rights and the Courts 105

Standards for Judicial Review 105

The Supreme Court Addresses Affirmative Action 106

Experiences of Other Minority Groups 108

Latinos and the Immigration Issue 108

National Security and the Rights of Immigrants 111

At Issue: Should We Deport Unauthorized Immigrants? 112

The Agony of the American Indian 113

Women’s Struggle for Equal Rights 113

Early Women’s Political Movements 114

The Modern Women’s Movement 114

Women in Politics Today 116

Gender-Based Discrimination in the Workplace 116

The Rights and Status of LGBTQ Americans 117

Growth in the Gay Male and Lesbian Rights Movement 117

State and Local Laws Targeting LGBTQ Persons 118

“Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” 118

Same-Sex Marriage 119

The Rights of Transgender Individuals 120

Making A Difference: Dealing with Discrimination 121

Key Terms • Chapter Summary • Test Yourself

Part II: The Politics of American Democracy

Chapter 6 Public Opinion, Political Socialization,

and the Media 124

Public Opinion and Political Socialization 125

Consensus and Divided Opinion 125

Forming Public Opinion: Political Socialization 126

The Media and Public Opinion 127

Political Events and Public Opinion 128

The Influence of Demographic Factors 129

Educational Achievement 129

Economic Status 129

Religious Denomination 131

Religious Commitment and Beliefs 131

Race and Ethnicity 132

The Hispanic Vote 132

The Gender Gap 132

Geographic Region 133

Measuring Public Opinion 134

The History of Opinion Polls 134

Sampling Techniques 135

The Difficulty of Obtaining Accurate Results 136

Additional Problems With Polls 137

Public Opinion and the Political Process 138

Political Culture and Public Opinion 138

Policymaking and Public Opinion 138

At Issue: Was Impeaching President Trump the Right Thing to Do? 139

The Media in the United States 140

The Roles of the Media 140

Television Versus the New Media 142

Challenges Facing the Media 143

The Media and Political Campaigns 145

Political Advertising 145

Management of News Coverage 146

Going for the Knockout Punch—Presidential Debates 146

Political Campaigns and the Internet 147

Blogosphere Politics 147

Bias in the Media 148

Making A Difference: Being a Critical Consumer of the News 150

Key Terms • Chapter Summary • Test Yourself

Chapter 7 Interest Groups and Political Parties 154

A Nation of Joiners 155

Thousands of Groups 155

Interest Groups and Social Movements 156

Reasons to Join—or Not Join 156

Types of Interest Groups 156

Economic Interest Groups 157

At Issue: Should States Raise the Minimum Wage? 159

Environmental Interest Groups 161

Public-Interest Groups 161

Additional Types of Interest Groups 162

Interest Group Strategies 162

Direct Techniques 163

Indirect Techniques 164

Regulating Lobbyists 164

Political Parties in the United States 166

Functions of Political Parties in the United States 166

The Party Organization 167

The Party-in-the-Electorate 168

The Party-in-Government 169

A History of Political Parties in the United States 169

The Formative Years: Federalists and Anti-Federalists 170

Democrats and Whigs 171

The Civil War Crisis 171

The Post–Civil War Period 171

The Progressive Interlude 172

The New Deal Era 172

An Era of Divided Government 173

The Parties Today 173

Why Has the Two-Party System Endured? 174

The Historical Foundations of the Two-Party System 175

Political Socialization and Practical Considerations 175

The Winner-Take-All Electoral System 175

State and Federal Laws Favoring the Two Parties 176

The Role of Minor Parties in U.S. Politics 177

The Rise of the Independents 179

Making A Difference: You Can Be a Convention Delegate 180

Key Terms • Chapter Summary • Test Yourself

Chapter 8 Campaigns and Elections 183

The Twenty-First-Century Campaign 184

Who Is Eligible? 184

Who Runs? 184

Managing the Campaign 185

Financing the Campaign 187

The Evolution of the Campaign Finance System 187

The Current Campaign Finance Environment 189

At Issue: Can Money Buy Elections? 191

Running for President: The Longest Campaign 192

Reforming the Presidential Primaries 193

The Invisible Primary 193

The Party Decides 194

Primaries and Caucuses 194

Front-Loading the Primaries 196

On to the National Convention 197

The Electoral College 197

How Are Elections Conducted? 199

Voting by Mail 199

Voting Fraud and Voter ID Laws 199

Turning Out to Vote 201

Legal Restrictions on Voting 202

Is the Franchise Still Too Restrictive? 203

How Do Voters Decide? 204

Party Identification 204

Other Political Factors 204

Demographic Characteristics 205

Making A Difference: Registering and Voting 206

Key Terms • Chapter Summary • Test Yourself

Part III: Institutions of American Government

Chapter 9 Congress 210

The Nature and Functions of Congress 211

Bicameralism 211

The Lawmaking Function 211

The Representation Function 212

Service to Constituents 212

The Oversight Function 213

The Public-Education Function 214

The Conflict-Resolution Function 214

The Powers of Congress 214

House-Senate Differences and Congressional Perks 215

Size and Rules 215

Debate and Filibustering 216

At Issue: Is It Time to Get Rid of the Filibuster? 217

Congresspersons and the Citizenry: A Comparison 218

Perks and Privileges 218

Congressional Elections and Apportionment 219

Candidates for Congressional Elections 219

Apportionment of the House 219

Gerrymandering 220

“Minority-Majority” Districts 223

How Congress Is Organized 223

The Power of Committees 224

Committees Versus the Leadership 224

Types of Congressional Committees 225

The Selection of Committee Members 226

Leadership in the House 227

Leadership in the Senate 228

Lawmaking and Budgeting 229

How Much Will the Government Spend? 231

Preparing the Budget 231

Congress Faces the Budget 232

Budget Resolutions and Crises 233

Making A Difference: Learning About Your Representatives 234

Key Terms • Chapter Summary • Test Yourself

Chapter 10 The President 237

Who Can Become President? 238

Birthplace and Age 238

The Process of Becoming President 238

The Many Roles of the President 239

Head of State 239

At Issue: Should We Elect the President by Popular Vote? 240

Chief Executive 241

Commander in Chief 242

Chief Diplomat 243

Chief Legislator 244

Party Chief and Politician 246

Presidential Powers 247

Emergency Powers 248

Executive Orders 249

Executive Privilege 249

Signing Statements 250

Abuses of Executive Power and Impeachment 251

The Executive Organization 252

The Cabinet 253

The Executive Office of the President 254

The Vice President 255

The Vice President’s Job 255

Presidential Succession 257

Making A Difference: Communicating With the White House 259

Key Terms • Chapter Summary • Test Yourself

Chapter 11 The Executive Branch 262

The Nature and Scope of the Federal Bureaucracy 263

Public and Private Bureaucracies 263

The Size of the Bureaucracy 263

The Federal Budget 264

At Issue: Can the Coronavirus Bankrupt the Government? 266

The Organization of the Executive Branch 267

Cabinet Departments 267

Independent Executive Agencies 268

Independent Regulatory Agencies 270

Government and Government-Controlled Corporations 271

Staffing the Bureaucracy 272

Political Appointees 273

History of the Federal Civil Service 273

Modern Attempts at Bureaucratic Reform 275

Sunshine Laws Before and After 9/11 275

Privatization, or Contracting Out 276

The Issue of Whistleblowers 277

Bureaucrats as Politicians and Policymakers 278

The Rulemaking Environment 279

Negotiated Rulemaking 280

Bureaucrats as Policymakers 280

Congressional Control of the Bureaucracy 282

Making A Difference: What the Government Knows About You 282

Key Terms • Chapter Summary • Test Yourself

Chapter 12 The Courts 285

Sources of American Law 286

The Common Law Tradition 286

Constitutions 287

Statutes and Administrative Regulations 287

Case Law 287

The Federal Court System 288

Basic Judicial Requirements 288

Parties to Lawsuits 288

Procedural Rules 289

Types of Federal Courts 289

Federal Courts and the War on Terrorism 291

The Supreme Court at Work 293

Which Cases Reach the Supreme Court? 294

Court Procedures 294

Decisions and Opinions 295

The Selection of Federal Judges 296

Judicial Appointments 296

At Issue: Should State Judges Be Elected? 297

Partisanship and Judicial Appointments 299

The Senate’s Role 299

Policymaking and the Courts 300

Judicial Review 301

Judicial Activism and Judicial Restraint 301

The Roberts Court 302

What Checks Our Courts? 305

Making A Difference: Changing the Legal System 308

Key Terms • Chapter Summary • Test Yourself

Part IV: Policymaking

Chapter 13 Domestic and Economic Policy 311

At Issue: Does Entitlement Spending Corrupt Us? 312

The Policymaking Process: The CARES Act 313

The CARES Act: Agenda Building 313

The CARES Act: Policy Formulation 314

The CARES Act: Policy Adoption 314

The CARES Act: Policy Implementation 314

The CARES Act: Policy Evaluation 315

Health Care in the Twenty-first Century 315

The Affordable Care Act—Obamacare 317

Energy and the Environment 319

Energy Independence—A Strategic Issue 319

Climate Change 321

The Politics of Economic Decision Making 322

Good Times, Bad Times 322

Fiscal Policy 323

The Public Debt and Deficit Spending 325

Monetary Policy 327

The Politics of Taxation 329

Federal Income Tax Rates 329

Income Tax Loopholes and Other Types of Taxes 330

Making A Difference: Learning about Entitlement Reform 331

Key Terms • Chapter Summary • Test Yourself

Chapter 14 Foreign Policy 334

Facing the World: Foreign and Defense Policies 335

Aspects of Foreign Policy 335

Idealism Versus Realism in Foreign Policy 336

Terrorism and Warfare 337

The Emergence of Terrorism 337

Wars in Iraq 339

Afghanistan 339

The Civil War in Syria and the Rise of ISIS 340

U.S. Diplomatic Efforts 341

Nuclear Weapons 341

Israel and the Palestinians 343

The New Power: China 345

Economic Troubles in Europe 347

Who Makes Foreign Policy? 348

Constitutional Powers of the President 348

The Executive Branch and Foreign Policymaking 350

Congress Balances the Presidency 351

The Major Foreign Policy Themes 352

The Formative Years: Avoiding Entanglements 352

The Era of Internationalism 352

Superpower Relations 353

At Issue: How Dangerous Is Putin’s Russia? 356

Making A Difference: Working for Human Rights 357

Appendix A The Declaration of Independence 361

Appendix B The Constitution of the United States 363

Appendix C Federalist Papers No. 10 and No. 51 383

Appendix D Government Spending and Revenue Charts 391

Glossary 393

Index 405

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