Management: A Practical Introduction, 9th Edition PDF by By Angelo Kinicki and Brian K Williams


Management: A Practical Introduction, Ninth Edition

By Angelo Kinicki and Brian K. Williams

Management 9th Edition





The Exceptional Manager: What You Do,

How You Do It 2

1.1 Management: What It Is, What Its Benefits Are 4

The Rise of the Die Maker’s Daughter 4

Key to Career Growth: “Doing Things I’ve Never

Done Before” 4

The Art of Management Defined 5

Why Organizations Value Managers: The Multiplier

Effect 6

The Financial Rewards of Being an Exceptional

Manager 6

What Are the Rewards of Studying and Practicing

Management? 7

1.2 What Managers Do: The Four Principal

Functions 9

Planning: Discussed in Part 3 of This Book 9

Organizing: Discussed in Part 4 of This Book 9

Leading: Discussed in Part 5 of This Book 10

Controlling: Discussed in Part 6 of This Book 10

1.3 Pyramid Power: Levels and Areas of Management 11

The Traditional Management Pyramid: Levels and

Areas 11

Three Levels of Management 11

Areas of Management: Functional Managers versus

General Managers 13

Managers for Three Types of Organizations:


Profit, Nonprofit, Mutual-Benefit 14

Different Organizations, Different Management? 14

1.4 Roles Managers Must Play Successfully 15

The Manager’s Roles: Mintzberg’s Useful Findings 15

Three Types of Managerial Roles: Interpersonal,

Informational, and Decisional 17

1.5 The Skills Exceptional Managers Need 19

Technical Skills—The Ability to Perform a Specific Job 19

Conceptual Skills—The Ability to Think Analytically 19

Human Skills—“Soft Skills,” the Ability to Interact Well with People 20

The Most Valued Traits in Managers 21

1.6 Seven Challenges to Being an Exceptional Manager 22

CHALLENGE #1: Managing for Competitive

Advantage—Staying Ahead of Rivals 23

CHALLENGE #2: Managing for Information

Technology—Dealing with the “New Normal” 24

CHALLENGE #3: Managing for Diversity—The Future

Won’t Resemble the Past 26

CHALLENGE #4: Managing for Globalization—The

Expanding Management Universe 26

CHALLENGE #5: Managing for Ethical Standards 27

CHALLENGE #6: Managing for Sustainability—The

Business of Green 28

CHALLENGE #7: Managing for Happiness and

Meaningfulness 28

How Strong Is Your Motivation to Be a Manager? The

First Self-Assessment 29

1.7 Building Your Career Readiness 30

A Model of Career Readiness 30

Developing Career Readiness 35

Let Us Help 36

1.8 Career Corner: Managing Your Career

Readiness 37

Key Terms Used in This Chapter 38

Key Points 38

Understanding the Chapter: What Do I Know? 39

Management in Action 39

Legal/Ethical Challenge 41


Management Theory: Essential

Background for the Successful

Manager 42

2.1 Evolving Viewpoints: How We Got to Today’s

Management Outlook 44

Creating Modern Management: The Handbook of

Peter Drucker 44

Six Practical Reasons for Studying This

Chapter 44

Two Overarching Perspectives about Management:

Historical and Contemporary 46

2.2 Classical Viewpoint: Scientific and

Administrative Management 47

Scientific Management: Pioneered by Taylor and the Gilbreths 47

Administrative Management: Pioneered by Spaulding,

Fayol, and Weber 49

The Problem with the Classical Viewpoint:

Too Mechanistic 50

2.3 Behavioral Viewpoint: Behaviorism, Human

Relations, and Behavioral Science 51

Early Behaviorism: Pioneered by Munsterberg, Follett,

and Mayo 51

The Human Relations Movement: Pioneered by Maslow

and McGregor 52

The Behavioral Science Approach 54

2.4 Quantitative Viewpoints: Management Science

and Operations Management 56

Management Science: Using Mathematics to Solve

Management Problems 56

Operations Management: Being More Effective 57

2.5 Systems Viewpoint 58

The Systems Viewpoint 59

The Four Parts of a System 59

2.6 Contingency Viewpoint 61

Gary Hamel: Management Ideas Are Not Fixed, They’re

a Process 61

Evidence-Based Management: Facing Hard Facts,

Rejecting Nonsense 62

2.7 Quality-Management Viewpoint 63

Quality Control and Quality Assurance 63

Total Quality Management: Creating an Organization

Dedicated to Continuous Improvement 63

Six Sigma and ISO 9000

2.8 The Learning Organization in an Era of

Accelerated Change 66

The Learning Organization: Handling Knowledge and

Modifying Behavior 66

How to Build a Learning Organization: Three Roles

Managers Play 67

2.9 Career Corner: Managing Your Career

Readiness 69

Key Terms Used in This Chapter 71

Key Points 71

Understanding the Chapter: What Do I Know? 72

Management in Action 73

Legal/Ethical Challenge 74


The Environment of



The Manager’s Changing Work Environment

and Ethical Responsibilities: Doing the Right Thing 76

3.1 The Triple Bottom Line: People, Planet, and Profit 78

The Millennials’ Search for Meaning 78

3.2 The Community of Stakeholders Inside the Organization 79

Internal and External Stakeholders 79

Internal Stakeholders 79

3.3 The Community of Stakeholders Outside the

Organization 82

The Task Environment 82

The General Environment 87

3.4 The Ethical Responsibilities Required of You as a

Manager 92

Defining Ethics and Values 93

Four Approaches to Resolving Ethical Dilemmas 95

White-Collar Crime, SarbOx, and Ethical Training 95

How Organizations Can Promote Ethics 97

3.5 The Social Responsibilities Required of You as a

Manager 100

Corporate Social Responsibility: The Top of the

Pyramid 100

Is Social Responsibility Worthwhile? Opposing and

Supporting Viewpoints 100

One Type of Social Responsibility: Climate Change,

Sustainability, and Natural Capital 103

Another Type of Social Responsibility: Undertaking

Philanthropy, “Not Dying Rich” 104

Does Being Good Pay Off? 104

3.6 Corporate Governance 106

Ethics and Corporate Governance 106

The Need for Trust 106

3.7 Career Corner: Managing Your Career

Readiness 108

Focus on the Greater Good and on Being More Ethical 108

Become an Ethical Consumer 109

Key Terms Used in This Chapter 110

Key Points 110

Understanding the Chapter: What Do I Know? 112

Management in Action 112

Legal/Ethical Challenge 114


Global Management: Managing across Borders 116

4.1 Globalization: The Collapse of Time and Distance 118

Competition and Globalization: Who Will Be No. 1 Tomorrow? 118

The Rise of the “Global Village” and Electronic Commerce 119

One Big World Market: The Global Economy 120

Cross-Border Business: The Rise of Both Megamergers

and Minifirms Worldwide 121

4.2 You and International Management 122

Why Learn about International Management? 123

The Successful International Manager: Geocentric,

Not Ethnocentric or Polycentric 124

4.3 Why and How Companies Expand

Internationally 126

Why Companies Expand Internationally 126

How Companies Expand Internationally 127

4.4 The World of Free Trade: Regional Economic

Cooperation and Competition 131

Barriers to International Trade 131

Organizations Promoting International Trade 133

Major Trading Blocs: NAFTA and the EU 134

Most Favored Nation Trading Status 136

Exchange Rates 136

4.5 The Value of Understanding Cultural

Differences 139

The Importance of National Culture 140

Cultural Dimensions: The Hofstede and GLOBE Project

Models 140

Other Cultural Variations: Language, Interpersonal

Space, Communication, Time Orientation, Religion, and

Law and Political Stability 144

U.S. Managers on Foreign Assignments: Why Do They

Fail? 148

4.6 Career Corner: Managing Your Career Readiness 149

Listen and Observe 149

Become Aware of the Context 150

Choose Something Basic 150

Key Terms Used in This Chapter 151

Key Points 151

Understanding the Chapter: What Do I Know? 153

Management in Action 153

Legal/Ethical Challenge 154




Planning: The Foundation of Successful

Management 156

5.1 Planning and Strategy 158

Planning, Strategy, and Strategic Management 158

Why Planning and Strategic Management Are

Important 159

5.2 Fundamentals of Planning 162

Mission, Vision, and Values Statements 163

Three Types of Planning for Three Levels of

Management: Strategic, Tactical,

and Operational 166

5.3 Goals and Plans 169

Long-Term and Short-Term Goals 169

The Operating Plan and Action Plan 169

Types of Plans: Standing Plans and Single-Use

Plans 171

5.4 Promoting Consistencies in Goals: SMART

Goals, Management by Objectives, and Goal

Cascading 172

SMART Goals 172

Management by Objectives: The Four-Step Process for

Motivating Employees 173

Cascading Goals: Making Lower-Level Goals Align with

Top Goals 176

The Importance of Deadlines 177

5.5 The Planning/Control Cycle 178

5.6 Career Corner: Managing Your Career

Readiness 180

Becoming More Proactive 181

Keeping an Open Mind and Suspending

Judgment 181

Key Terms Used in This Chapter 182

Key Points 182

Understanding the Chapter: What Do I Know? 183

Management in Action 184

Legal/Ethical Challenge 185


Strategic Management: How Exceptional

Managers Realize a Grand Design 188

6.1 Strategic Positioning and Levels of

Strategy 190

Strategic Positioning and Its Principles 190

Levels of Strategy 191

Does Strategic Management Work for Small as Well as

Large Firms? 192

6.2 The Strategic-Management Process 193

The Five Steps of the Strategic-Management

Process 193

6.3 Assessing the Current Reality 196

SWOT Analysis 196

Using VRIO to Assess Competitive Potential: Value,

Rarity, Imitability, and Organization 199

Forecasting: Predicting the Future 200

Benchmarking: Comparing with the Best 202

6.4. Establishing Corporate-Level Strategy 203

Three Overall Types of Corporate Strategy 203

The BCG Matrix 204

Diversification Strategy 205

6.5 Establishing Business-Level Strategy 206

Porter’s Five Competitive Forces 206

Porter’s Four Competitive Strategies 207

6.6 Executing and Controlling Strategy 209

Executing the Strategy 209

Maintaining Strategic Control 209

Execution: Getting Things Done 209

The Three Core Processes of Business: People,

Strategy, and Operations 210

How Execution Helps Implement and Control

Strategy 211

6.7 Career Corner: Managing Your Career

Readiness 213

Why Is Strategic Thinking Important to New

Graduates? 213

Key Terms Used in This Chapter 215

Key Points 215

Understanding the Chapter: What Do I Know? 217

Management in Action 217

Legal/Ethical Challenge 219

LEARNING MODULE 1: Entrepreneurship 220

LM1.1 Entrepreneurship: Its Foundations and

Importance 221

Entrepreneurship: It’s Not the Same as

Self-Employment 222

Characteristics of Entrepreneurs 224

Entrepreneurship Matters across the Globe 226

LM1.2 Starting a Business 229

Businesses Start with an Idea 229

Writing the Business Plan 230

Choosing a Legal Structure 232

Obtaining Financing 233

Creating the “Right” Organizational Culture and

Design 234

Key Terms Used in This Learning Module 237

Key Points 237


Individual and Group Decision Making: How

Managers Make Things Happen 238

7.1 Two Kinds of Decision Making: Rational and

Nonrational 240

Decision Making in the Real World 241

Rational Decision Making: Managers Should Make

Logical and Optimal Decisions 242

Stage 1: Identify the Problem or Opportunity—

Determining the Actual versus the Desirable 242

Stage 2: Think Up Alternative Solutions—Both the

Obvious and the Creative 242

Stage 3: Evaluate Alternatives and Select a

Solution—Ethics, Feasibility, and Effectiveness 242

Stage 4: Implement and Evaluate the Solution

Chosen 243

What’s Wrong with the Rational Model? 244

Nonrational Decision Making: Managers Find It Difficult

to Make Optimal Decisions 244

7.2 Making Ethical Decisions 247

The Dismal Record of Business Ethics 247

Road Map to Ethical Decision Making: A Decision

Tree 248

7.3 Evidence-Based Decision Making and

Analytics 250

Evidence-Based Decision Making 251

In Praise of Analytics 252

“Big Data”: What It Is, How It’s Used 254

7.4 Four General Decision-Making Styles 257

Value Orientation and Tolerance for Ambiguity 257

The Directive Style: Action-Oriented Decision Makers

Who Focus on Facts 258

The Analytical Style: Careful Decision Makers Who

Like Lots of Information and Alternative Choices 258

The Conceptual Style: Decision Makers Who

Rely on Intuition and Have a Long-Term

Perspective 258

The Behavioral Style: The Most People-Oriented

Decision Makers 258

Which Style Do You Have? 259

7.5 Decision-Making Biases and the Use of Artificial

Intelligence 260

Nine Common Decision-Making Biases: Rules of Thumb,

or “Heuristics” 260

The Decision-Making Potential of Artificial

Intelligence 262

Pros and Cons of Artificial Intelligence 263

7.6 Group Decision Making: How to Work with

Others 265

Advantages and Disadvantages of Group Decision

Making 265

Groupthink 266

Characteristics of Group Decision Making 267

Group Problem-Solving Techniques: Reaching for

Consensus 269

More Group Problem-Solving Techniques 269

7.7 Career Corner: Managing Your Career

Readiness 272

Improving Your Critical Thinking and

Problem-Solving Skills 272

Reflect on Past Decisions 272

Key Terms Used in This Chapter 274

Key Points 274

Understanding the Chapter: What Do I Know? 276

Management in Action 276

Legal/Ethical Challenge 278




Organizational Culture, Structure, and

Design: Building Blocks of the

Organization 280

8.1 Aligning Strategy, Culture, and Structure 282

How an Organization’s Culture and Structure Are Used

to Implement Strategy 282

8.2 What Kind of Organizational Culture Will You Be

Operating In? 286

The Three Levels of Organizational Culture 286

Four Types of Organizational Culture: Clan, Adhocracy,

Market, and Hierarchy 287

How Employees Learn Culture: Symbols, Stories,

Heroes, Rites and Rituals, and Organizational

Socialization 290

The Importance of Culture 291

What Does It Mean to “Fit”? Anticipating a Job

Interview 292

8.3 The Process of Culture Change 293

Formal Statements 293

Slogans and Sayings 293

Rites and Rituals 293

Stories, Legends, and Myths 294

Leader Reactions to Crises 294

Role Modeling, Training, and Coaching 294

Physical Design 294

Rewards, Titles, Promotions, and Bonuses 295

Organizational Goals and Performance Criteria 295

Measurable and Controllable Activities 295

Organizational Structure 296

Organizational Systems and Procedures 296

Don’t Forget about Person–Organization Fit 297

8.4 Organizational Structure 298

The Organization: Three Types 298

The Organization Chart 298

8.5 The Major Elements of an Organization 300

Common Elements of Organizations: Four Proposed by

Edgar Schein 300

Common Elements of Organizations: Three More That

Most Authorities Agree On 301

8.6 Basic Types of Organizational Structures 304

Traditional Designs: Simple, Functional, Divisional,

and Matrix Structures 304

The Horizontal Design: Eliminating Functional Barriers

to Solve Problems 307

Designs That Open Boundaries between Organizations:

Hollow, Modular, and Virtual Structures 309

8.7 Contingency Design: Factors in Creating

the Best Structure 311

Three Factors to Be Considered in Designing an

Organization’s Structure 311

The Environment: Mechanistic versus Organic

Organizations—the Burns and Stalker Model 311

The Environment: Differentiation versus Integration—

the Lawrence and Lorsch Model 313

Linking Strategy, Culture, and Structure 313

8.8 Career Corner: Managing Your Career

Readiness 314

Understanding the Business and Where You “Fit” In 314

Becoming More Adaptable 315

Key Terms Used in This Chapter 316

Key Points 316

Understanding the Chapter: What Do I Know? 318

Management in Action 318

Legal/Ethical Challenge 320


Human Resource Management: Getting the

Right People for Managerial Success 322

9.1 Strategic Human Resource Management 324

Human Resource Management: Managing an

Organization’s Most Important Resource 324

Planning the Human Resources Needed 326

9.2 Recruitment and Selection: Putting the Right

People into the Right Jobs 329

Recruitment: How to Attract Qualified Applicants 329

Selection: How to Choose the Best Person for the

Job 333

9.3 Managing an Effective Workforce: Compensation

and Benefits 339

Wages or Salaries 339

Incentives 339

Benefits 339

9.4 Orientation and Learning and Development 340

Orientation: Helping Newcomers Learn the Ropes 340

Learning and Development: Helping People Perform

Better 341

9.5 Performance Appraisal 344

Performance Management in Human Resources 344

Performance Appraisals: Are They Worthwhile? 345

Two Kinds of Performance Appraisal: Objective and

Subjective 346

Who Should Make Performance Appraisals? 347

Effective Performance Feedback 348

9.6 Managing Promotions, Transfers, Disciplining,

and Dismissals 350

Promotion: Moving Upward 350

Transfer: Moving Sideways 351

Disciplining and Demotion: The Threat of Moving

Downward 351

Dismissal: Moving Out of the Organization 351

9.7 The Legal Requirements of Human Resource

Management 354

Labor Relations 354

Compensation and Benefits 354

Health and Safety 354

Equal Employment Opportunity 356

Workplace Discrimination, Affirmative Action, Sexual

Harassment, and Bullying 356

9.8 Labor–Management Issues 361

How Workers Organize 361

How Unions and Management Negotiate a Contract 362

The Issues Unions and Management Negotiate

About 362

Settling Labor–Management Disputes 364

9.10 Career Corner: Managing Your Career

Readiness 366

Becoming a Better Receiver 366

Key Terms Used in This Chapter 368

Key Points 368

Understanding the Chapter: What Do I Know? 371

Management in Action 371

Legal/Ethical Challenge 373


Organizational Change and Innovation:

Lifelong Challenges for the Exceptional

Manager 374

10.1 The Nature of Change in Organizations 376

Fundamental Change: What Will You Be Called

On to Deal With? 376

Two Types of Change: Reactive and Proactive 378

The Forces for Change Outside and Inside the

Organization 380

10.2 Types and Models of Change 383

Three Kinds of Change: From Least Threatening

to Most Threatening 383

Lewin’s Change Model: Unfreezing, Changing, and

Refreezing 384

A Systems Approach to Change 385

10.3 Organizational Development: What It Is,

What It Can Do 389

What Can OD Be Used For? 389

How OD Works 390

The Effectiveness of OD 391

10.4 Organizational Innovation 392

Approaches to Innovation 392

An Innovation System: The Supporting Forces for

Innovation 394

10.5 The Threat of Change: Managing Employee

Fear and Resistance 399

The Causes of Resistance to Change 399

Ten Reasons Employees Resist Change 400

10.6 Career Corner: Managing Your Career

Readiness 402

Applying Self-Affirmation Theory 402

Practicing Self-Compassion 403

Key Terms Used in This Chapter 404

Key Points 404

Understanding the Chapter: What Do I Know? 405

Management in Action 405

Legal/Ethical Challenge 407

PART 5 Leading


Managing Individual Differences and

Behavior: Supervising People as People 408

11.1 Personality and Individual Behavior 410

The Big Five Personality Dimensions 410

Core Self-Evaluations 411

Emotional Intelligence: Understanding Your Emotions

and the Emotions of Others 414

11.2 Values, Attitudes, and Behavior 416

Organizational Behavior: Trying to Explain and Predict

Workplace Behavior 416

Values: What Are Your Consistent Beliefs and Feelings

about All Things? 416

Attitudes: What Are Your Consistent Beliefs and Feelings

about Specific Things? 416

Behavior: How Values and Attitudes Affect People’s

Actions and Judgments 419

11.3 Perception and Individual Behavior 420

The Four Steps in the Perceptual Process 420

Five Distortions in Perception 420

The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy, or Pygmalion Effect 424

11.4 Work-Related Attitudes and Behaviors Managers

Need to Deal With 426

Employee Engagement: How Connected Are You to Your Work? 426

Job Satisfaction: How Much Do You Like or Dislike Your Job? 428

Organizational Commitment: How Much Do You

Identify with Your Organization? 428

Important Workplace Behaviors 429

11.5 The New Diversified Workforce 431

How to Think about Diversity: Which Differences Are

Important? 431

Trends in Workforce Diversity 433

Barriers to Diversity 437

11.6 Understanding Stress and Individual

Behavior 441

The Toll of Workplace Stress 441

How Does Stress Work? 442

The Sources of Job-Related Stress 442

Reducing Stressors in the Organization 445

11.7 Career Corner: Managing Your Career

Readiness 448

Fostering a Positive Approach 448

Self-Managing Your Emotions 449

Key Terms Used in This Chapter 450

Key Points 450

Understanding the Chapter: What Do I Know? 452

Management in Action 452

Legal/Ethical Challenge 454


Motivating Employees: Achieving Superior

Performance in the Workplace 456

12.1 Motivating for Performance 458

Motivation: What It Is, Why It’s Important 458

The Four Major Perspectives on Motivation:

An Overview 460

12.2 Content Perspectives on Employee

Motivation 461

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory: Five Levels 461

McClelland’s Acquired Needs Theory: Achievement,

Affiliation, and Power 463

Deci and Ryan’s Self-Determination Theory:

Competence, Autonomy, and Relatedness 464

Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory: From Dissatisfying

Factors to Satisfying Factors 466

12.3 Process Perspectives on Employee

Motivation 469

Equity/Justice Theory: How Fairly Do You Think You’re

Being Treated in Relation to Others? 469

Expectancy Theory: How Much Do You Want and How

Likely Are You to Get It? 473

Goal-Setting Theory: Objectives Should Be Specific and

Challenging but Achievable 475

12.4 Job Design Perspectives on Motivation 478

Fitting People to Jobs 478

Fitting Jobs to People 478

The Job Characteristics Model: Five Job Attributes for

Better Work Outcomes 479

12.5 Reinforcement Perspectives on Motivation 483

The Four Types of Reinforcement: Positive, Negative,

Extinction, and Punishment 483

Using Reinforcement to Motivate Employees 484

12.6 Using Compensation, Nonmonetary Incentives,

and Other Rewards to Motivate: In Search of the

Positive Work Environment 487

Is Money the Best Motivator? 487

Motivation and Compensation 487

Nonmonetary Ways of Motivating Employees 489

12.7 Career Corner: Managing Your Career Readiness 494

Identify Your “Wildly Important” Long-Term Goal 494

Break Your Wildly Important Goal into

Short-Term Goals 495

Create a “To-Do” List for Accomplishing Your Short-Term Goals 495

Prioritize the Tasks 495

Create a Time Schedule 495

Work the Plan, Reward Yourself, and Adjust as Needed 495

Key Terms Used in This Chapter 496

Key Points 496

Understanding the Chapter: What Do I Know? 498

Management in Action 498

Legal/Ethical Challenge 500


Groups and Teams: Increasing Cooperation,

Reducing Conflict 502

13.1 Groups versus Teams 504

Groups and Teams: How Do They Differ? 505

Formal versus Informal Groups 506

Types of Teams 507

13.2 Stages of Group and Team Development 510

Tuckman’s Five-Stage Model 510

Punctuated Equilibrium 512

13.3 Building Effective Teams 513

Collaboration—the Foundation of Teamwork 513

Trust: “We Need to Have Reciprocal Faith in Each Other” 514

Performance Goals and Feedback 515

Motivation through Mutual Accountability and Interdependence 516

Team Composition 516

Roles: How Team Members Are Expected to Behave 517

Norms: Unwritten Rules for Team Members 518

Effective Team Processes 520

Putting It All Together 520

13.4 Managing Conflict 521

The Nature of Conflict: Disagreement Is Normal 521

Can Too Little or Too Much Conflict Affect

Performance? 522

Three Kinds of Conflict: Personality, Intergroup, and

Cross-Cultural 523

How to Stimulate Constructive Conflict 524

Five Basic Behaviors to Help You Better Handle

Conflict 526

Dealing with Disagreements: Five Conflict-Handling

Styles 526

13.5 Career Corner: Managing Your Career

Readiness 528

Become a More Effective Team Member 528

Become a More Effective Collaborator 529

Key Terms Used in This Chapter 530

Key Points 530

Understanding the Chapter: What Do I Know? 531

Management in Action 531

Legal/Ethical Challenge 533


Power, Influence, and Leadership: From

Becoming a Manager to Becoming a

Leader 534

14.1 The Nature of Leadership: The Role of Power

and Influence 536

What Is the Difference between Leading and

Managing? 536

Managerial Leadership: Can You Be Both a Manager and

a Leader? 537

Coping with Complexity versus Coping with Change:

The Thoughts of John Kotter 538

Five Sources of Power 538

Common Influence Tactics 540

Match Tactics to Influence Outcomes 542

An Integrated Model of Leadership 542

14.2 Trait Approaches: Do Leaders Have Distinctive

Traits and Personal Characteristics? 544

Positive Task-Oriented Traits and Positive/Negative

Interpersonal Attributes 544

What Do We Know about Gender and Leadership? 545

Are Knowledge and Skills Important? 548

So What Do We Know about Leadership Traits? 548

14.3 Behavioral Approaches: Do Leaders Show

Distinctive Patterns of Behavior? 550

Task-Oriented Leader Behaviors: Initiating-Structure

Leadership and Transactional Leadership 550

Relationship-Oriented Leader Behavior: Consideration,

Empowerment, Ethical Leadership, and Servant

Leadership 551

Passive Leadership: The Lack of Leadership Skills 555

So What Do We Know about the Behavioral

Approaches? 556

14.4 Situational Approaches: Does Leadership Vary

with the Situation? 557

The Contingency Leadership Model: Fiedler’s Approach 557

The Path–Goal Leadership Model: House’s Approach 559

So What Do We Know about the Situational

Approaches? 561

14.5 The Uses of Transformational Leadership 563

Transformational Leaders 563

The Best Leaders Are Both Transactional and

Transformational 563

Four Key Behaviors of Transformational

Leaders 564

So What Do We Know about Transformational

Leadership? 567

14.6 Three Additional Perspectives 568

Leader–Member Exchange Leadership: Having

Different Relationships with Different

Subordinates 568

The Power of Humility 569

Followers: What Do They Want, How Can They

Help? 570

14.7 Career Corner: Managing Your Career

Readiness 572

Becoming More Self-Aware 572

Key Terms Used in This Chapter 574

Key Points 574

Understanding the Chapter: What Do I Know? 576

Management in Action 576

Legal/Ethical Challenge 578


Interpersonal and Organizational

Communication: Mastering the Exchange of

Information 580

15.1 The Communication Process: What It Is, How It Works 582

Communication Defined: The Transfer of Information

and Understanding 582

How the Communication Process Works 583

Selecting the Right Medium for Effective

Communication 586

15.2 How Managers Fit into the Communication  Process 588

Formal Communication Channels: Up, Down, Sideways,

and Outward 588

Informal Communication Channels 589

15.3 Barriers to Communication 592

Physical Barriers: Sound, Time, Space 592

Personal Barriers: Individual Attributes That Hinder Communication 593

Cross-Cultural Barriers 595

Nonverbal Communication: How Unwritten and Unspoken Messages May Mislead 596

Gender Differences 598

15.4 Social Media and Management 600

Social Media Has Changed the Fabric of Our Lives 600

Social Media and Managerial and Organizational

Effectiveness 601

Downsides of Social Media 608

Managerial Implications of Texting 611

Managerial Considerations in Creating Social Media

Policies 612

15.5 Improving Communication Effectiveness 615

Nondefensive Communication 615

Using Empathy 617

Being an Effective Listener 618

Being an Effective Writer 619

Being an Effective Speaker 620

15.6 Career Corner: Managing Your Career

Readiness 623

Improve Your Face-to-Face Networking Skills 623

Key Terms Used in This Chapter 625

Key Points 625

Understanding the Chapter: What Do I Know? 626

Management in Action 627

Legal/Ethical Challenge 628




Control Systems and Quality Management:

Techniques for Enhancing Organizational

Effectiveness 630

16.1 Control: When Managers Monitor

Performance 632

Why Is Control Needed? 632

Steps in the Control Process 635

Types of Controls 639

16.2 Levels and Areas of Control 641

Levels of Control: Strategic, Tactical, and

Operational 641

Six Areas of Control 641

Controlling the Supply Chain 643

Control in Service Firms 644

16.3 The Balanced Scorecard and Strategy

Maps 645

The Balanced Scorecard: A Dashboard-like View of the

Organization 645

Strategy Mapping: Visual Representation of the Path to

Organizational Effectiveness 648

16.4 Some Financial Tools for Control 650

Budgets: Formal Financial Projections 650

Financial Statements: Summarizing the Organization’s

Financial Status 651

Audits: External versus Internal 652

16.5 Total Quality Management 654

Deming Management: The Contributions of W. Edwards

Deming to Improved Quality 655

Core TQM Principles: Deliver Customer Value and Strive

for Continuous Improvement 655

Applying TQM to Services 659

Some TQM Tools, Techniques, and Standards 661

Takeaways from TQM Research 663

16.6 Managing Control Effectively 664

The Keys to Successful Control Systems 664

Barriers to Control Success 665

16.7 Managing for Productivity 667

What Is Productivity? 667

Why Is Increasing Productivity Important? 668

What Processes Can I Use to Increase Productivity? 669

Managing Individual Productivity 670

16.8 Career Corner: Managing Your Career

Readiness 671

  1. Make Every Day Count 672
  2. Stay Informed and Network 672
  3. Promote Yourself 672
  4. Roll with Change and Disruption 673
  5. Small Things Matter during Interviews 673

Epilogue: The Keys to Your Managerial Success 674

Key Terms Used in This Chapter 676

Key Points 676

Understanding the Chapter: What Do I Know? 678

Management in Action 678

Legal/Ethical Challenge 680

LEARNING MODULE 2: The Project Planner’s

Toolkit: Flowcharts, Gantt Charts, and

Break-Even Analysis 681

Tool #1: Flowcharts—for Showing Event Sequences and

Alternate Decision Scenarios 681

Tool #2: Gantt Charts—Visual Time Schedules for Work

Tasks 683

Tool #3: Break-Even Analysis—How Many Items Must

You Sell to Turn a Profit? 684





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