Forensic and Legal Psychology Psychological Science Applied to Law, 4th Edition PDF by Mark Costanzo and Daniel Krauss


Forensic and Legal Psychology Psychological Science Applied to Law, Fourth Edition

By Mark Costanzo and Daniel Krauss

Forensic and Legal Psychology Psychological Science Applied to Law, Fourth Edition



1 Psychology and Law: A Cautious Alliance

A Brief History of Psychology and Law

A Clash of Cultures

Goals: Approximate Truth Versus Approximate Justice

Methods: Rulings Versus Data

Style of Inquiry: Advocacy Versus Objectivity

The Importance of Bridging the Two Cultures

Roles Played by Psychologists Interested in Law

Psychologists as Advisors

Psychologists as Evaluators

Scientific American Spotlight 1.1 Does Tough Treatment of

Troubled Teens Work?

Psychologists as Reformers

Five Pathways for Influencing the Legal System

Expert Testimony

Scientific American Spotlight 1.2 Neuroscience in the


Cross-Disciplinary Education

Amicus Curiae Briefs

Broad Dissemination of Research Findings

Influencing Legislatures and Public Policy

Has Psychology Influenced the Legal System?

The Criminal Justice System: A Flow Chart

2 Lie Detection

The Complexity and Pervasiveness of Deception

Can We Tell When Others Are Lying?

The Polygraph

Development of the Polygraph

Focus on Careers Police and Forensic Psychologist

The Process of Polygraphing

Research on the Polygraph

The Polygraph as Coercion Device

Legal Status of the Polygraph

Hot Topic 2.1 Postconviction Polygraphing of Sex Offenders

How Jurors Respond to Polygraph Evidence

An Alternative Technique: The Guilty Knowledge Test

Consider This 2.1 Lower-Tech Lie Detection: Words and Wizards

From Physiological Arousal to Cognitive Load

Some Emerging Technologies for Lie Detection

3 Interrogations and Confessions

The Power of a Confession

The Evolution of Interrogation Techniques

Inside the Modern Interrogation Room

Consider This 3.1 Core Principles of Social Influence

The Problem of False Confessions

The Prevalence of False Confessions

Types of False Confessions

Should Interrogators Be Allowed to Lie?

Hot Topic 3.1 Ethics, the American Psychological

Association, and the Use of Torture as an Interrogation Device

From Accusatorial Interrogations to Information Gathering:


Potential Solutions to the Problem of False Confessions

Video Recording of Interrogations

Requiring Probable Cause for Interrogation

Time Limits on Interrogations

The “Appropriate Adult” Safeguard for Vulnerable Suspects

Instructions to the Jury

Expert Testimony

4 The Psychology of Forensic Identification: DNA, Fingerprints, and

Other Types of Physical Trace Evidence

Trace Evidence in Context

Hot Topic 4.1 Modern Biometrics: Beyond Fingerprints and DNA

When Does a Trace “Match” a Source?

Basic Principles of Scientific Measurement: Reliability and


The Scientific Foundation of Forensic Identification

DNA Evidence

Consider This 4.1 Forensic Genetic Genealogy: Using

Familial DNA Matches to Identify Criminal Suspects

Fingerprint Evidence

Techniques of Weak or Unknown Validity

Legal Spotlight 4.1 “Changed Science” Laws

Communicating the Similarity of a Trace and a Source

Reducing Error and Bias

Hot Topic 4.2 Is There Really a “CSI Effect”?

Science as the Solution to the Problem of Identification Bias

How Jurors Think About Trace Evidence

5 Criminal Profiling and Psychological Autopsies

The Process of Profiling

Three Famous Profiles

Jack the Ripper

The Olympic Bomber

The Mad Bomber

Characteristics of Serial Killers

Scientific American Spotlight 5.1 What “Psychopath”


Research on Profiling

Scientific American Spotlight 5.2 Implicit Racial Bias and

Police Shootings

Profiling Problems and Promise


Cross-Situational Consistency

The Utility of Inferences

Persistent Problems

Geographic Profiling: An Alternative to Intuition

Precise Profiles or Sloppy Stereotypes?

Hot Topic 5.1 Racial Profiling

Psychological Autopsies

Legal Status of Psychological Autopsies

6 Eyewitness Identification and Testimony

Eyewitness Testimony and the Legal System

The Manson Criteria

How the Legal System Attempts to Expose Eyewitness Error

Legal Spotlight 6.1 Post-Manson Court Decisions on

Eyewitness Identification

The Construction, Reconstruction, and Evaluation of

Eyewitness Memories

Cross-Racial Identifications

Stress and Weapons Focus

Unconscious Transference

Preexisting Expectations

Leading or Suggestive Comments

Witness Confidence

When the Eyewitness Is a Child

Hot Topic 6.1 Cameras and Computers as “Eyewitnesses”

Using Research Findings to Improve Eyewitness Accuracy

Prelineup Interviews

Consider This 6.1 Translating Science Into Practice

Evidence-Based Grounds for Putting Suspects in Lineups

Double-Blind Lineups

Appropriate Lineup Fillers

Prelineup Instructions to Eyewitnesses

Obtaining an Immediate Postlineup Confidence Statement

Video Recording

Avoiding Repeated Identification Procedures With the Same

Witness and Suspect

Avoiding the Use of Showups

Expert Testimony

Techniques for Refreshing the Memories of Witnesses


The Cognitive Interview

7 Child Sexual Abuse: Interviewing Children and Assessing the

Recovered Memories of Adults

The Reported Memories of Young Children

The Day Care Center Cases

Hot Topic 7.1 The Use of Child Interviewing Props: Dolls

and Diagrams

Effective Interviewing of Children

Hot Topic 7.2 Child Sexual Abuse Accommodation


Testimony by Children at Trial

Adults’ Recovered Memories of Sexual Abuse

Were the Memories Created or Recovered?

Focus on Careers Social Science Analyst

The Ingram Case

Research on Implanting False Memories in Adults

Scientific American Spotlight 7.1 Recovered Memories: An

Interview With Elizabeth Loftus

Scientific American Spotlight 7.2 Traumatic Therapies Can

Have Long-Lasting Effects on Mental Health

8 Competency to Stand Trial

The Meaning of Competency to Stand Trial

The Dusky Standard

Functional Elements of CST

CST Versus Competency to Plead Guilty and Competency to

Waive an Attorney

How the Criminal Justice System Deals With Incompetent


Methods for Evaluating CST

CST Assessment Instruments


CST Evaluations and Ultimate Issue Testimony by Experts

Restoration of CST

Legal Spotlight 8.1 Legal Issues in Competency for


Treatment of Defendants Judged Incompetent

Right to Refuse Treatment and CST

Adolescents and CST

Consider This 8.1 Juvenile Transfer to Adult Court

Hot Topic 8.1 Juvenile Competency to Waive Miranda


9 Plea Bargaining, Jury Selection, and Trial Procedure

The Hidden, Consequential World of Plea Bargaining

Plea Bargaining in Theory and Practice

Plea Bargaining and Vulnerable Defendants

Jury Selection

Assembling a Jury: Pools, Venires, and Voir Dire

From Jury Pool to Venire

Voir Dire

Cognizable Groups

Using Stereotypes and Science to Select Jurors

Legal Spotlight 9.1 Using Social Media to Select Jurors

The Use of Trial Consultants

Hot Topic 9.1 Jury Consulting and the Role of Money at


Focus on Careers Trial Consultant

Scientific Jury Selection

Juror Characteristics and Attitudes as Predictors of Verdict

General Personality Tendencies

Attitudes About the Legal System

Defendant–Juror Similarity

Pretrial Publicity as a Source of Bias

An Overview of Trial Procedure

10 The Insanity Defense

The Trial of Andrea Yates

The Evolution of Insanity Law

Three Important Cases and Their Consequences

The M’Naghten Case

The Durham Case

The Hinckley Case

Hot Topic 10.1 Brain Scans as Evidence

Common Misconceptions About the Insanity Defense

Post-Hinckley Developments in Insanity Law

Guilty but Mentally Ill

Mens Rea Defenses and Diminished Capacity

Legal Spotlight 10.1 Is It Constitutional to Prohibit an

Insanity Defense and Instead Allow a Mens Rea Defense?

How Jurors Define Insanity

Clinical Evaluations of Insanity

Methods for Assessing Insanity



11 Intimate Partner Violence, Battered Woman Syndrome, Rape

Trauma Syndrome, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Intimate Partner Violence

Syndromes in Court

Battered Woman Syndrome

The Historical Development of BWS

Characteristics of Battered Women

Characteristics of Batterers

BWS and the Legal System

The Scientific Validity of BWS

Rape Trauma Syndrome

The Historical Development of RTS

Recovery From Rape and Characteristics of RTS

RTS and the Legal System

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder


Scientific American Spotlight 11.1 Trapped in a Cycle of

Sexual Abuse


Scientific American Spotlight 11.2 How to Find Meaning in


12 Juries and Judges as Decision Makers

The Process of Jury Decision Making

Models of Decision Making

The Impact of Evidence

The Effects of Biasing Information

Defendant Characteristics

Inadmissible Evidence

Impeachment Evidence

Complex Evidence

The Group Dynamics of Jury Deliberations

Hot Topic 12.1 The Effects of Technology in and out of the


Diversity and Deliberation

Strong Jurors and the Power of the Majority

Stages in the Deliberation Process

Other Characteristics of Deliberations

Size of the Jury

Decision Rules (Unanimous or Majority Rule)

Jury Nullification

Jury Reform

Hot Topic 12.2 Should We Use Professional Jurors?

Simplifying Instructions to the Jury

Allowing Jury Discussion During Trial

Judges Compared to Juries

Judges as Decision Makers

Agreement and Disagreement Between Juries and Judges

13 Child Custody Disputes

Varieties of Custody Arrangements

Consider This 13.1 Parental Alienation Syndrome and

Parent Alienation

Best Interest of the Child Standard

The Tender Years Doctrine

Primary Caretaker Rule

The Uniform Marriage and Divorce Act of 1976

Weaknesses of the BICS

Legal Spotlight 13.1 Same-Sex Unions and Child Custody

Approximation Rule

Children’s Responses to Divorce

The Psychologist’s Contribution to Custody Decisions

The Role of the Psychological Expert

Psychological Tests and Their Problems

Scientific American Spotlight 13.1 What’s Wrong With

This Picture?

Judges’ Views of Experts

Custody Mediation as an Alternative to Litigation

Parent Coordination and Collaborative Divorce

14 Workplace Law: Harassment, Discrimination, and Fairness

The Evolution of Sexual Discrimination Law

Sexual Harassment: Prevalence and Perceptions

The Legal Boundaries of Sexual Harassment

Current Status of Harassment Law

Sexual Harassment Lawsuits

The Psychology of Sexual Harassment

Some Causes

Some Effects


Scientific American Spotlight 14.1 Who Should Be a Cop?

Selecting and Training Police Officers

A Broader Look at Workplace Discrimination

Scientific American Spotlight 14.2 Detecting Implicit Bias

Racial Discrimination in the Workplace

The Changing Nature of Racial Prejudice

Reducing Racial Bias

Scientific American Spotlight 14.3 Technology, Psychology,

and the Search for the Best Employees

The Psychology of Perceived Fairness

Three Models for Allocating Rewards

Research on Perceptions of Fairness

Consider This 14.1 The Gender Gap in Salaries

15 Predicting Violent Behavior: The Psychology of Risk Assessment

Sexually Violent Predators and the Law

Consider This 15.1 Sexual Offender Community

Notification and Registration Laws

Risk Assessment and the Law

Future Dangerousness and the Death Penalty

Scientific American Spotlight 15.1 Deranged and


Civil Commitment

Consider This 15.2 The Tarasoff and Ewing Cases

Sexually Violent Predator Civil Commitment

Methods and Outcomes of Risk Assessment

Unstructured Clinical Judgment and Ways to Improve It

Actuarial Prediction

Types of Risk Factors

Hot Topic 15.1 Pretrial Detention and the Use of Risk

Algorithms: Are They Biased?

Focus on Careers Violence Risk Expert

Structured Professional Judgment Instruments

Jurors’ Reactions to Risk-Assessment Evidence

Treatments to Reduce the Risk of Violence

16 Corrections: Sentencing, Imprisonment, and Alternatives

Sentencing Decisions


Consider This 16.1 Free Will and the Purpose of Prisons


Types of Imprisonment

Hot Topic 16.1 Modern Solitary Confinement in Supermax


The Goals of Imprisonment

The Evolution of Prisons in the United States

The 1800s

The 1900s

Scientific American Spotlight 16.1 Victim–Offender Mediation

Prisoner Rights and the Role of the Courts

Basic Statistics on Prisons and Prisoners

The Distinctive Culture of Prison

The Power of the Prison Situation

The Harshness of Prison Life

Focus on Careers Correctional Psychologist

Does Prison Work?

Alternatives to Prison

17 The Death Penalty

Capital Punishment in Context

Supreme Court Decisions

Hot Topic 17.1 Should We Execute the Elderly?

Research on Capital Murder Trials

Consider This 17.1 Victim Impact Statements and

Execution Impact Statements

Hot Topic 17.2 Ethical Issues in Competency for Execution

Racial Disparities and the Death Penalty

Is the Death Penalty a Deterrent to Murder?

Errors and Mistakes in Death Penalty Cases



Name Index

Subject Index

Index of Cases and Acts

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