Biology: A Global Approach, 12th Edition PDF by Neil A Campbell, Lisa A Urry, Michael L Cain, Steven A Wasserman, Peter V Minorsky and Rebecca B Orr


BIOLOGY: A Global Approach, Twelfth Edition

By Neil A. Campbell, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky and Rebecca B. Orr

BIOLOGY: A Global Approach, Twelfth Edition

Detailed Contents:

1 Biology and Its Themes 50

CONCEPT 1.1 The study of life reveals unifying themes 51

Theme: New Properties Emerge at Successive Levels of Biological

Organization 52

Theme: Life’s Processes Involve the Expression and Transmission of

Genetic Information 54

Theme: Life Requires the Transfer and Transformation of Energy

and Matter 57

Theme: From Molecules to Ecosystems, Interactions Are Important

in Biological Systems 57

CONCEPT 1.2 The Core Theme: Evolution accounts for the

unity and diversity of life 59

Classifying the Diversity of Life 60

Charles Darwin and the Theory of Natural Selection 62

The Tree of Life 63

CONCEPT 1.3 In studying nature, scientists form and test

hypotheses 64

Exploration and Observation 65

Gathering and Analyzing Data 65

Forming and Testing Hypotheses 65

The Flexibility of the Scientific Process 66

A Case Study in Scientific Inquiry: Investigating Coat Coloration in

Mouse Populations 68

Variables and Controls in Experiments 68

Theories in Science 69

CONCEPT 1.4 Science benefits from a cooperative approach

and diverse viewpoints 70

Building on the Work of Others 70

Science, Technology, and Society 71

The Value of Diverse Viewpoints in Science 72

Unit 1 The Role of Chemistry in Biology 75

Interview: Kenneth Olden 75

2 Atoms and Molecules 76

CONCEPT 2.1 Matter consists of chemical elements in pure

form and in combinations called compounds 77

Elements and Compounds 77

The Elements of Life 77

Case Study: Evolution of Tolerance to Toxic Elements 78

CONCEPT 2.2 An element’s properties depend on the

structure of its atoms 78

Subatomic Particles 78

Atomic Number and Atomic Mass 79

Isotopes 79

The Energy Levels of Electrons 80

Electron Distribution and Chemical Properties 82

Electron Orbitals 83

CONCEPT 2.3 The formation and function of molecules

and ionic compounds depend on chemical bonding between atoms 84

Covalent Bonds 84

Ionic Bonds 85

Weak Chemical Interactions 86

Molecular Shape and Function 87

CONCEPT 2.4 Chemical reactions make and break chemical bonds 88

3 The Chemistry of Water 92

CONCEPT 3.1 Polar covalent bonds in water molecules result in hydrogen bonding 93

CONCEPT 3.2 Four emergent properties of water contribute to Earth’s suitability for life 93

Cohesion of Water Molecules 93

Moderation of Temperature by Water 94

Floating of Ice on Liquid Water 96

Water: The Solvent of Life 97

Possible Evolution of Life on Other Planets 98

CONCEPT 3.3 Acidic and basic conditions affect living

organisms 99

Acids and Bases 99

The pH Scale 99

Buffers 100

Acidification: A Threat to Our Oceans 101

4 Carbon: The Basis of Molecular Diversity 104

CONCEPT 4.1 Organic chemistry is key to the origin of life 105

CONCEPT 4.2 Carbon atoms can form diverse molecules by

bonding to four other atoms 106

The Formation of Bonds with Carbon 106

Molecular Diversity Arising from Variation in Carbon

Skeletons 108

CONCEPT 4.3 A few chemical groups are key to molecular

function 110

The Chemical Groups Most Important in the Processes of Life 110

ATP: An Important Source of Energy for Cellular Processes 112

The Chemical Elements of Life: A Review 112

5 Biological Macromolecules

and Lipids 114

CONCEPT 5.1 Macromolecules are polymers, built from

monomers 115

The Synthesis and Breakdown of Polymers 115

The Diversity of Polymers 115

CONCEPT 5.2 Carbohydrates serve as fuel and building

material 116

Sugars 116

Polysaccharides 118

CONCEPT 5.3 Lipids are a diverse group of hydrophobic

molecules 120

Fats 120

Phospholipids 122

Steroids 123

CONCEPT 5.4 Proteins include a diversity of structures,

resulting in a wide range of functions 123

Amino Acids (Monomers) 123

Polypeptides (Amino Acid Polymers) 126

Protein Structure and Function 126

CONCEPT 5.5 Nucleic acids store, transmit, and help express

hereditary information 132

The Roles of Nucleic Acids 132

The Components of Nucleic Acids 132

Nucleotide Polymers 133

The Structures of DNA and RNA Molecules 134

CONCEPT 5.6 Genomics and proteomics have transformed

biological inquiry and applications 134

DNA and Proteins as Tape Measures of Evolution 135

7 Cell Structure and Function 163

CONCEPT 7.1 Biologists use microscopes and biochemistry to

study cells 164

Microscopy 164

Cell Fractionation 166

CONCEPT 7.2 Eukaryotic cells have internal membranes that

compartmentalize their functions 167

Comparing Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells 167

A Panoramic View of the Eukaryotic Cell 169

CONCEPT 7.3 The eukaryotic cell’s genetic instructions are

housed in the nucleus and carried out by the ribosomes 172

The Nucleus: Information Central 172

Ribosomes: Protein Factories 172

CONCEPT 7.4 The endomembrane system regulates protein

traffic and performs metabolic functions 174

The Endoplasmic Reticulum: Biosynthetic Factory 174

The Golgi Apparatus: Shipping and Receiving Center 175

Lysosomes: Digestive Compartments 177

Vacuoles: Diverse Maintenance Compartments 178

The Endomembrane System: A Review 178

CONCEPT 7.5 Mitochondria and chloroplasts change energy

from one form to another 179

The Evolutionary Origins of Mitochondria and Chloroplasts 179

Mitochondria: Chemical Energy Conversion 180

Chloroplasts: Capture of Light Energy 180

Peroxisomes: Oxidation 182

CONCEPT 7.6 The cytoskeleton is a network of fibers that

organizes structures and activities in the cell 182

Roles of the Cytoskeleton: Support and Motility 182

Components of the Cytoskeleton 183

CONCEPT 7.7 Extracellular components and connections

between cells help coordinate cellular activities 188

Cell Walls of Plants 188

The Extracellular Matrix (ECM) of Animal Cells 188

Cell Junctions 189

CONCEPT 7.8 A cell is greater than the sum of its parts 191

8 Cell Membranes 196

CONCEPT 8.1 Cellular membranes are fluid mosaics

of lipids and proteins 197

The Fluidity of Membranes 198

Evolution of Differences in Membrane Lipid Composition 199

6 Energy and Life 141

CONCEPT 6.1 An organism’s metabolism transforms matter

and energy 142

Metabolic Pathways 142

Forms of Energy 142

The Laws of Energy Transformation 143

CONCEPT 6.2 The free-energy change of a reaction tells us

whether or not the reaction occurs spontaneously 145

Free-Energy Change, ΔG 145

Free Energy, Stability, and Equilibrium 145

Free Energy and Metabolism 146

CONCEPT 6.3 ATP powers cellular work by coupling exergonic

reactions to endergonic reactions 148

The Structure and Hydrolysis of ATP 148

How ATP Provides Energy That Performs Work 149

The Regeneration of ATP 151

CONCEPT 6.4 Enzymes speed up metabolic reactions by

lowering energy barriers 151

The Activation Energy Barrier 151

How Enzymes Speed Up Reactions 152

Substrate Specificity of Enzymes 153

Catalysis in the Enzyme’s Active Site 154

Effects of Local Conditions on Enzyme Activity 155

The Evolution of Enzymes 157

CONCEPT 6.5 Regulation of enzyme activity helps control

metabolism 157

Allosteric Regulation of Enzymes 158

Localization of Enzymes Within the Cell 159

Membrane Proteins and Their Functions 199

The Role of Membrane Carbohydrates in Cell-Cell

Recognition 200

Synthesis and Sidedness of Membranes 201

CONCEPT 8.2 Membrane structure results in selective

permeability 201

The Permeability of the Lipid Bilayer 202

Transport Proteins 202

CONCEPT 8.3 Passive transport is diffusion of a substance

across a membrane with no energy investment 202

Effects of Osmosis on Water Balance 203

Facilitated Diffusion: Passive Transport Aided by Proteins 205

CONCEPT 8.4 Active transport uses energy to move solutes

against their gradients 206

The Need for Energy in Active Transport 206

How Ion Pumps Maintain Membrane Potential 207

Cotransport: Coupled Transport by a Membrane Protein 208

CONCEPT 8.5 Bulk transport across the plasma membrane

occurs by exocytosis and endocytosis 209

Exocytosis 209

Endocytosis 209

9 Cellular Signaling 214

CONCEPT 9.1 External signals are converted to responses

within the cell 215

Evolution of Cell Signaling 215

Local and Long-Distance Signaling 217

The Three Stages of Cell Signaling: A Preview 218

CONCEPT 9.2 Signal reception: A signaling molecule binds to

a receptor, causing it to change shape 219

Receptors in the Plasma Membrane 219

Intracellular Receptors 222

CONCEPT 9.3 Signal transduction: Cascades of molecular

interactions transmit signals from receptors to relay molecules

in the cell 223

Signal Transduction Pathways 223

Protein Phosphorylation and Dephosphorylation 224

Small Molecules and Ions as Second Messengers 225

CONCEPT 9.4 Cellular response: Cell signaling leads to

regulation of transcription or cytoplasmic activities 228

Nuclear and Cytoplasmic Responses 228

Regulation of the Response 228

CONCEPT 9.5 Apoptosis requires integration of multiple

cell-signaling pathways 231

Apoptosis in the Soil Worm Caenorhabditis elegans 232

Apoptotic Pathways and the Signals That Trigger Them 232

10 Cell Respiration 236

CONCEPT 10.1 Catabolic pathways yield energy by oxidizing

organic fuels 237

Catabolic Pathways and Production of ATP 237

Redox Reactions: Oxidation and Reduction 237

The Stages of Cellular Respiration: A Preview 240

CONCEPT 10.2 Glycolysis harvests chemical energy by

oxidizing glucose to pyruvate 242

CONCEPT 10.3 After pyruvate is oxidized, the citric acid

cycle completes the energy-yielding oxidation of organic

molecules 243

Oxidation of Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA 243

The Citric Acid Cycle 244

CONCEPT 10.4 During oxidative phosphorylation,

chemiosmosis couples electron transport to ATP synthesis 246

The Pathway of Electron Transport 246

Chemiosmosis: The Energy-Coupling Mechanism 247

An Accounting of ATP Production by Cellular Respiration 249

CONCEPT 10.5 Fermentation and anaerobic respiration

enable cells to produce ATP without the use of oxygen 251

Types of Fermentation 252

Comparing Fermentation with Anaerobic and Aerobic

Respiration 253

The Evolutionary Significance of Glycolysis 254

CONCEPT 10.6 Glycolysis and the citric acid cycle connect to

many other metabolic pathways 254

The Versatility of Catabolism 254

Biosynthesis (Anabolic Pathways) 255

Regulation of Cellular Respiration via Feedback Mechanisms 255

11 Photosynthetic Processes 259

CONCEPT 11.1 Photosynthesis feeds the biosphere 260

CONCEPT 11.2 Photosynthesis converts light energy to the

chemical energy of food 261

Chloroplasts: The Sites of Photosynthesis in Plants 261

Tracking Atoms Through Photosynthesis 261

The Two Stages of Photosynthesis: A Preview 263

CONCEPT 11.3 The light reactions convert solar energy to the

chemical energy of ATP and NADPH 264

The Nature of Sunlight 264

Photosynthetic Pigments: The Light Receptors 264

Excitation of Chlorophyll by Light 267

A Photosystem: A Reaction-Center Complex Associated with

Light-Harvesting Complexes 267

Linear Electron Flow 269

Cyclic Electron Flow 270

A Comparison of Chemiosmosis in Chloroplasts and

Mitochondria 271

CONCEPT 11.4 The Calvin cycle uses the chemical energy of

ATP and NADPH to reduce CO2 to sugar 273

CONCEPT 11.5 Alternative mechanisms of carbon fixation

have evolved in hot, arid climates 275

Photorespiration: An Evolutionary Relic? 275

C4 Plants 275

CAM Plants 277

CONCEPT 11.6 Photosynthesis is essential for life on Earth: a

review 278

12 Mitosis 284

CONCEPT 12.1 Most cell division results in genetically

identical daughter cells 285

Key Roles of Cell Division 285

Cellular Organization of the Genetic Material 285

Distribution of Chromosomes During Eukaryotic Cell Division 286

CONCEPT 12.2 The mitotic phase alternates with interphase in

the cell cycle 287

Phases of the Cell Cycle 287

The Mitotic Spindle: A Closer Look 290

Cytokinesis: A Closer Look 291

Binary Fission in Bacteria 292

The Evolution of Mitosis 293

CONCEPT 12.3 The eukaryotic cell cycle is regulated by a

molecular control system 294

The Cell Cycle Control System 294

Loss of Cell Cycle Controls in Cancer Cells 298

13 Sexual Life Cycles and Meiosis 304

CONCEPT 13.1 Offspring acquire genes from parents by

inheriting chromosomes 305

Inheritance of Genes 305

Comparison of Asexual and Sexual Reproduction 305

CONCEPT 13.2 Fertilization and meiosis alternate in sexual life

cycles 306

Sets of Chromosomes in Human Cells 306

Behavior of Chromosome Sets in the Human Life Cycle 307

The Variety of Sexual Life Cycles 308

CONCEPT 13.3 Meiosis reduces the number of chromosome

sets from diploid to haploid 309

The Stages of Meiosis 309

Crossing Over and Synapsis During Prophase I 312

A Comparison of Mitosis and Meiosis 312

CONCEPT 13.4 Genetic variation produced in sexual life cycles

contributes to evolution 315

Origins of Genetic Variation Among Offspring 315

The Evolutionary Significance of Genetic Variation Within

Populations 316

14 Mendelian Genetics 319

CONCEPT 14.1 Mendel used the scientific approach to

identify two laws of inheritance 320

Mendel’s Experimental, Quantitative Approach 320

The Law of Segregation 321

The Law of Independent

Assortment 324

CONCEPT 14.2 Probability

laws govern Mendelian

inheritance 326

The Multiplication and Addition

Rules Applied to Monohybrid

Crosses 327

Solving Complex Genetics

Problems with the Rules

of Probability 327

CONCEPT 14.3 Inheritance patterns are often more complex

than predicted by simple Mendelian genetics 328

Extending Mendelian Genetics for a Single Gene 328

Extending Mendelian Genetics for Two or More Genes 331

Nature and Nurture: The Environmental Impact on

Phenotype 332

A Mendelian View of Heredity and Variation 332

CONCEPT 14.4 Many human traits follow Mendelian

patterns of inheritance 334

Pedigree Analysis 334

Recessively Inherited Disorders 335

Dominantly Inherited Disorders 337

Multifactorial Disorders 337

Genetic Testing and Counseling 337

15 Linkage and Chromosomes 344

CONCEPT 15.1 Mendelian inheritance has its physical basis in

the behavior of chromosomes 345

Morgan’s Choice of Experimental Organism 345

Correlating Behavior of a Gene’s Alleles with Behavior of a

Chromosome Pair: Scientific Inquiry 345

CONCEPT 15.2 Sex-linked genes exhibit unique patterns of

inheritance 348

The Chromosomal Basis of Sex 348

Inheritance of X-Linked Genes 349

X Inactivation in Female Mammals 350

CONCEPT 15.3 Linked genes tend to be inherited together

because they are located near each other on the same

chromosome 351

How Linkage Affects Inheritance 351

Genetic Recombination and Linkage 352

Mapping the Distance Between Genes Using Recombination Data:

Scientific Inquiry 355

CONCEPT 15.4 Alterations of chromosome number or

structure cause some genetic disorders 356

Abnormal Chromosome Number 357

Alterations of Chromosome Structure 357

Human Conditions Due to Chromosomal Alterations 358

CONCEPT 15.5 Some inheritance patterns are exceptions to

standard Mendelian inheritance 360

Genomic Imprinting 360

Inheritance of Organelle Genes 361

16 Nucleic Acids and Inheritance 364

CONCEPT 16.1 DNA is the genetic material 365

The Search for the Genetic Material: Scientific Inquiry 365

Building a Structural Model of DNA 367

CONCEPT 16.2 Many proteins work together in DNA

replication and repair 370

The Basic Principle: Base Pairing to a Template Strand 371

DNA Replication: A Closer Look 372

Proofreading and Repairing DNA 377

Evolutionary Significance of Altered DNA Nucleotides 378

Replicating the Ends of DNA Molecules 378

CONCEPT 16.3 A chromosome consists of a DNA molecule

packed together with proteins 380

17 Expression of Genes 385

CONCEPT 17.1 Genes specify proteins via transcription and

translation 386

Evidence from Studying Metabolic Defects 386

Basic Principles of Transcription and Translation 387

The Genetic Code 390

CONCEPT 17.2 Transcription is the DNA-directed synthesis of

RNA: A Closer Look 392

Molecular Components of Transcription 392

Synthesis of an RNA Transcript 392

CONCEPT 17.3 Eukaryotic cells modify RNA after

transcription 395

Alteration of mRNA Ends 395

Split Genes and RNA Splicing 395

CONCEPT 17.4 Translation is the RNA-directed synthesis of a

polypeptide: A Closer Look 397

Molecular Components of Translation 398

Building a Polypeptide 400

Completing and Targeting the Functional Protein 402

Making Multiple Polypeptides in Bacteria and Eukaryotes 405

CONCEPT 17.5 Mutations of one or a few nucleotides can

affect protein structure and function 407

Types of Small-Scale Mutations 407

New Mutations and Mutagens 410

Using CRISPR to Edit Genes and Correct Disease-Causing

Mutations 410

What Is a Gene? Revisiting the Question 411

18 Control of Gene Expression 415

CONCEPT 18.1 Bacteria often respond to environmental

change by regulating transcription 416

Operons: The Basic Concept 416

Repressible and Inducible Operons: Two Types of Negative Gene

Regulation 418

Positive Gene Regulation 419

CONCEPT 18.2 Eukaryotic gene expression is regulated at

many stages 420

Differential Gene Expression 420

Regulation of Chromatin Structure 421

Regulation of Transcription Initiation 423

Mechanisms of Post-transcriptional Regulation 427

CONCEPT 18.3 Noncoding RNAs play multiple roles in

controlling gene expression 429

Effects on mRNAs by MicroRNAs and Small Interfering RNAs 429

Chromatin Remodeling and Effects on Transcription by

ncRNAs 430

CONCEPT 18.4 A program of differential gene expression

leads to the different cell types in a multicellular organism 431

A Genetic Program for Embryonic Development 431

Cytoplasmic Determinants and Inductive Signals 432

Sequential Regulation of Gene Expression During Cellular

Differentiation 433

Pattern Formation: Setting Up the Body Plan 434

CONCEPT 18.5 Cancer results from genetic changes that affect

cell cycle control 438

Types of Genes Associated with Cancer 438

Interference with Normal Cell-Signaling

Pathways 439

The Multistep Model of Cancer Development 441

Inherited Predisposition and Environmental Factors Contributing

to Cancer 444

The Role of Viruses in Cancer 444

19 DNA Technology 449

CONCEPT 19.1 DNA sequencing and DNA cloning are

valuable tools for genetic engineering and biological

inquiry 450

DNA Sequencing 450

Making Multiple Copies of a Gene or Other DNA

Segment 452

Using Restriction Enzymes to Make a Recombinant DNA

Plasmid 453

Amplifying DNA: The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Its

Use in DNA Cloning 454

Expressing Cloned Eukaryotic Genes 456

CONCEPT 19.2 Biologists use DNA technology to study gene

expression and function 457

Analyzing Gene Expression 457

Determining Gene Function 460

CONCEPT 19.3 Cloned organisms and stem cells are useful for

basic research and other applications 462

Cloning Plants: Single-Cell Cultures 462

Cloning Animals: Nuclear Transplantation 462

Stem Cells of Animals 464

CONCEPT 19.4 The practical applications of DNA-based

biotechnology affect our lives in many ways 467

Medical Applications 467

Forensic Evidence and Genetic Profiles 470

Environmental Cleanup 471

Agricultural Applications 471

Safety and Ethical Questions Raised by DNA Technology 472

20 The Evolution of Genomes 476

CONCEPT 20.1 The Human Genome Project fostered

development of faster, less expensive sequencing

techniques 477

CONCEPT 20.2 Scientists use bioinformatics to analyze

genomes and their functions 478

Centralized Resources for Analyzing Genome Sequences 478

Identifying Protein-Coding Genes and Understanding Their

Functions 479

Understanding Genes and Gene Expression at the Systems Level 480

CONCEPT 20.3 Genomes vary in size, number of genes,

and gene density 482

Genome Size 482

Number of Genes 483

Gene Density and Noncoding DNA 483

CONCEPT 20.4 Multicellular eukaryotes have a lot of

noncoding DNA and many multigene families 484

Transposable Elements and Related Sequences 485

Other Repetitive DNA, Including Simple Sequence DNA 486

Genes and Multigene Families 486

CONCEPT 20.5 Duplication, rearrangement, and mutation of

DNA contribute to genome evolution 488

Duplication of Entire Chromosome Sets 488

Alterations of Chromosome

Structure 488

Duplication and Divergence of Gene-

Sized Regions of DNA 489

Rearrangements of Parts of Genes:

Exon Duplication and Exon

Shuffling 490

How Transposable Elements

Contribute to Genome

Evolution 493

CONCEPT 20.6 Comparing genome

sequences provides clues to

evolution and development 493

Comparing Genomes 493

Widespread Conservation of

Developmental Genes Among

Animals 497

Unit 4 Evolution 501

Interview: Cassandra Extavour 501

21 How Evolution Works 502

CONCEPT 21.1 The Darwinian revolution challenged

traditional views of a young Earth inhabited by unchanging

species 503

Endless Forms Most Beautiful 503

Scala Naturae and Classification of Species 504

Ideas About Change over Time 504

Lamarck’s Hypothesis of Evolution 505

CONCEPT 21.2 Descent with modification by natural selection

explains the adaptations of organisms and the unity and

diversity of life 505

Darwin’s Research 505

Ideas from The Origin of Species 507

Key Features of Natural Selection 510

CONCEPT 21.3 Evolution is supported by an overwhelming

amount of scientific evidence 510

Direct Observations of Evolutionary Change 511

Homology 513

The Fossil Record 515

Biogeography 516

What Is Theoretical About Darwin’s View of Life? 517

22 Phylogenetic Reconstruction 521

CONCEPT 22.1 Phylogenies show evolutionary

relationships 522

Binomial Nomenclature 522

Hierarchical Classification 522

Linking Classification and Phylogeny 523

What We Can and Cannot Learn from Phylogenetic Trees 523

Applying Phylogenies 525

CONCEPT 22.2 Phylogenies are inferred from morphological

and molecular data 526

Morphological and Molecular Homologies 526

Sorting Homology from Analogy 526

Evaluating Molecular Homologies 527

CONCEPT 22.3 Shared characters are used to construct

phylogenetic trees 527

Cladistics 527

Phylogenetic Trees with Proportional Branch Lengths 529

Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood 530

Phylogenetic Trees as Hypotheses 532

CONCEPT 22.4 An organism’s evolutionary history is

documented in its genome 533

Gene Duplications and Gene Families 533

Genome Evolution 534

CONCEPT 22.5 Molecular clocks help track evolutionary

time 534

Molecular Clocks 534

Applying a Molecular Clock: Dating the Origin of HIV 535

CONCEPT 22.6 Our understanding of the tree of life

continues to change based on new data 536

From Two Kingdoms to Three Domains 536

The Important Role of Horizontal Gene Transfer 536

23 Microevolution 542

CONCEPT 23.1 Genetic variation makes evolution

possible 543

Genetic Variation 543

Sources of Genetic Variation 544

CONCEPT 23.2 The Hardy-Weinberg equation can be used to

test whether a population is evolving 545

Gene Pools and Allele Frequencies 546

The Hardy-Weinberg Equation 546

CONCEPT 23.3 Natural selection, genetic drift, and gene flow

can alter allele frequencies in a population 549

Natural Selection 550

Genetic Drift 550

Gene Flow 552

CONCEPT 23.4 Natural selection is the only mechanism that

consistently causes adaptive evolution 553

Natural Selection: A Closer Look 553

The Key Role of Natural Selection in Adaptive

Evolution 554

Sexual Selection 555

Balancing Selection 556

Why Natural Selection Cannot Fashion Perfect

Organisms 557

24 Species and Speciation 562

CONCEPT 24.1 The biological species concept emphasizes

reproductive isolation 563

The Biological Species Concept 563

Other Definitions of Species 566

CONCEPT 24.2 Speciation can take place with or without

geographic separation 567

Allopatric (“Other Country”) Speciation 567

Sympatric (“Same Country”) Speciation 569

Allopatric and Sympatric Speciation: A Review 572

CONCEPT 24.3 Hybrid zones reveal factors that cause

reproductive isolation 572

Patterns Within Hybrid Zones 572

Hybrid Zones and Environmental Change 573

Hybrid Zones over Time 574

CONCEPT 24.4 Speciation can occur rapidly or slowly and can

result from changes in few or many genes 576

The Time Course of Speciation 576

Studying the Genetics of Speciation 578

From Speciation to Macroevolution 579

25 Macroevolution 581

CONCEPT 25.1 Conditions

on early Earth made the

origin of life possible 582

Synthesis of Organic

Compounds on Early

Earth 582

Abiotic Synthesis of

Macromolecules 583

Protocells 583

Self-Replicating RNA 584

CONCEPT 25.2 The fossil

record documents the

history of life 584

The Fossil Record 585

How Rocks and Fossils Are Dated 585

The Origin of New Groups of Organisms 586

CONCEPT 25.3 Key events in life’s history include the

origins of unicellular and multicellular organisms and the

colonization of land 588

The First Single-Celled Organisms 589

The Origin of Multicellularity 591

The Colonization of Land 592

CONCEPT 25.4 The rise and fall of groups of organisms reflect

differences in speciation and extinction rates 593

Plate Tectonics 594

Mass Extinctions 596

Adaptive Radiations 598

CONCEPT 25.5 Major changes in body form can result from

changes in the sequences and regulation of developmental

genes 600

Effects of Developmental Genes 600

The Evolution of Development 601

CONCEPT 25.6 Evolution is not goal oriented 603

Evolutionary Novelties 603

Evolutionary Trends 604

Unit 5 The Diversity of Life 609

Interview: Penny Chisholm 609

26 Introduction to Viruses 610

CONCEPT 26.1 A virus consists of a nucleic acid surrounded

by a protein coat 611

The Discovery of Viruses: Scientific Inquiry 611

Structure of Viruses 611

CONCEPT 26.2 Viruses replicate only in host cells 613

General Features of Viral Replicative Cycles 613

Replicative Cycles of Phages 614

Replicative Cycles of Animal Viruses 616

Evolution of Viruses 618

CONCEPT 26.3 Viruses and prions are formidable pathogens

in animals and plants 620

Viral Diseases in Animals 620

Emerging Viral Diseases 621

Viral Diseases in Plants 624

Prions: Proteins as Infectious Agents 624

27 Prokaryotes 627

CONCEPT 27.1 Structural and functional adaptations

contribute to prokaryotic success 628

Cell-Surface Structures 628

Motility 630

Internal Organization and DNA 631

Reproduction 631

CONCEPT 27.2 Rapid reproduction, mutation, and genetic

recombination promote genetic diversity in prokaryotes 632

Rapid Reproduction and Mutation 632

Genetic Recombination 633

CONCEPT 27.3 Diverse nutritional and metabolic adaptations

have evolved in prokaryotes 635

The Role of Oxygen in Metabolism 636

Nitrogen Metabolism 636

Metabolic Cooperation 636

CONCEPT 27.4 Prokaryotes have radiated into a diverse set

of lineages 637

An Overview of Prokaryotic Diversity 637

Bacteria 637

Archaea 639

CONCEPT 27.5 Prokaryotes play crucial roles in the

biosphere 640

Chemical Recycling 640

Ecological Interactions 641

CONCEPT 27.6 Prokaryotes have both beneficial and harmful

impacts on humans 641

Mutualistic Bacteria 641

Pathogenic Bacteria 642

Antibiotic Resistance 642

Prokaryotes in Research and Technology 643

28 The Origin and Evolution

of Eukaryotes 647

CONCEPT 28.1 Most eukaryotes are single-celled

organisms 648

Structural and Functional Diversity in Protists 648

Endosymbiosis in Eukaryotic Evolution 648

Four Supergroups of Eukaryotes 651

CONCEPT 28.2 Excavates include protists with modified

mitochondria and protists with unique flagella 651

Diplomonads and Parabasalids 654

Euglenozoans 654

CONCEPT 28.3 SAR is a highly diverse group of protists

defined by DNA similarities 655

Stramenopiles 656

Alveolates 658

Rhizarians 660

CONCEPT 28.4 Red algae and green algae are the closest

relatives of plants 663

Red Algae 663

Green Algae 664

CONCEPT 28.5 Unikonts include protists that are closely

related to fungi and animals 665

Amoebozoans 666

Opisthokonts 667

CONCEPT 28.6 Protists play key roles in ecological

communities 668

Symbiotic Protists 668

Photosynthetic Protists 668

29 Nonvascular and Seedless

Vascular Plants 672

CONCEPT 29.1 Plants evolved from green algae 673

Evidence of Algal Ancestry 673

Adaptations Enabling the Move to Land 673

Derived Traits of Plants 675

The Origin and Diversification of Plants 675

CONCEPT 29.2 Mosses and other nonvascular plants have life

cycles dominated by gametophytes 677

Bryophyte Gametophytes 678

Bryophyte Sporophytes 679

The Ecological and Economic Importance of Mosses 681

CONCEPT 29.3 Ferns and other seedless vascular plants were

the first plants to grow tall 683

Origins and Traits of Vascular Plants 683

Classification of Seedless Vascular Plants 685

The Significance of Seedless Vascular Plants 687

30 Seed Plants 690

CONCEPT 30.1 Seeds and pollen grains are key adaptations

for life on land 691

Advantages of Reduced Gametophytes 691

Heterospory: The Rule Among Seed Plants 692

Ovules and Production of

Eggs 692

Pollen and Production of

Sperm 692

The Evolutionary Advantage of

Seeds 693

CONCEPT 30.2 Gymnosperms

bear “naked” seeds, typically on

cones 694

The Life Cycle of a Pine 694

Early Seed Plants and the Rise of

Gymnosperms 695

Gymnosperm Diversity 695

CONCEPT 30.3 The reproductive adaptations of angiosperms

include flowers and fruits 698

Characteristics of Angiosperms 698

Angiosperm Evolution 701

Angiosperm Diversity 703

CONCEPT 30.4 Human welfare depends on seed plants 705

Products from Seed Plants 705

Threats to Plant Diversity 705

31 Introduction to Fungi 708

CONCEPT 31.1 Fungi are heterotrophs that feed by

absorption 709

Nutrition and Ecology 709

Body Structure 709

Specialized Hyphae in Mycorrhizal Fungi 710

CONCEPT 31.2 Fungi produce spores through sexual or

asexual life cycles 711

Sexual Reproduction 712

Asexual Reproduction 712

CONCEPT 31.3 The ancestor of fungi was an aquatic, singlecelled,

flagellated protist 713

The Origin of Fungi 713

The Move to Land 714

CONCEPT 31.4 Fungi have radiated into a diverse set of

lineages 714

Cryptomycetes and Microsporidians 715

Zoopagomycetes 716

Mucoromycetes 717

Ascomycetes 717

Basidiomycetes 719

CONCEPT 31.5 Fungi play key roles in nutrient cycling,

ecological interactions, and human welfare 721

Fungi as Decomposers 721

Fungi as Mutualists 721

Practical Uses of Fungi 724

32 An Introduction to Animal

Diversity 727

CONCEPT 32.1 Animals are multicellular, heterotrophic

eukaryotes with tissues that develop from embryonic

layers 728

Nutritional Mode 728

Cell Structure and Specialization 728

Reproduction and Development 728

CONCEPT 32.2 The history of animals spans more than half a

billion years 729

Steps in the Origin of Multicellular Animals 729

Neoproterozoic Era (1 Billion–541 Million Years Ago) 730

Paleozoic Era (541–252 Million Years Ago) 731

Mesozoic Era (252–66 Million Years Ago) 733

Cenozoic Era (66 Million Years Ago to the Present) 733

CONCEPT 32.3 Animals can be characterized by body

plans 733

Symmetry 733

Tissues 733

Body Cavities 734

Protostome and Deuterostome Development 735

CONCEPT 32.4 Views of animal phylogeny continue to be

shaped by new molecular and morphological data 736

The Diversification of Animals 736

Future Directions in Animal Systematics 738

33 Invertebrates 740

CONCEPT 33.1 Sponges are basal animals that lack

tissues 744

CONCEPT 33.2 Cnidarians are an ancient phylum of

eumetazoans 745

Medusozoans 746

Anthozoans 747

CONCEPT 33.3 Lophotrochozoans, a clade identified by

molecular data, have the widest range of animal body

forms 748

Flatworms 748

Rotifers and Acanthocephalans 751

Ectoprocts and Brachiopods 752

Molluscs 753

Annelids 757

CONCEPT 33.4 Ecdysozoans

are the most species-rich

animal group 759

Nematodes 759

Arthropods 760

CONCEPT 33.5 Echinoderms

and chordates are

deuterostomes 767

Echinoderms 767

Chordates 769

34 Vertebrates 772

CONCEPT 34.1 Chordates have a notochord and a dorsal,

hollow nerve cord 773

Derived Characters of Chordates 773

Lancelets 774

Tunicates 775

Early Chordate Evolution 776

CONCEPT 34.2 Vertebrates are chordates that have a

backbone 776

Derived Characters of Vertebrates 776

Hagfishes and Lampreys 777

Early Vertebrate Evolution 778

CONCEPT 34.3 Gnathostomes are vertebrates that have

jaws 779

Derived Characters of Gnathostomes 779

Fossil Gnathostomes 780

Chondrichthyans (Sharks, Rays, and Their

Relatives) 780

Ray-Finned Fishes and Lobe-Fins 782

CONCEPT 34.4 Tetrapods are gnathostomes that have

limbs 784

Derived Characters of Tetrapods 784

The Origin of Tetrapods 785

Amphibians 785

CONCEPT 34.5 Amniotes are tetrapods that have a terrestrially

adapted egg 788

Derived Characters of Amniotes 788

Early Amniotes 789

Reptiles 789

CONCEPT 34.6 Mammals are amniotes that have hair and

produce milk 795

Derived Characters of Mammals 795

Early Evolution of Mammals 795

Monotremes 796

Marsupials 797

Eutherians (Placental Mammals) 798

CONCEPT 34.7 Humans are mammals that have a large brain

and bipedal locomotion 802

Derived Characters of Humans 802

The Earliest Hominins 802

Australopiths 803

Bipedalism 804

Tool Use 804

Early Homo 804

Neanderthals 806

Homo sapiens 807

Unit 6 Plants: Structure and Function 811

Interview: Dennis Gonsalves 811

35 Plant Structure and Growth 812

CONCEPT 35.1 Plants have a hierarchical organization

consisting of organs, tissues, and cells 813

Vascular Plant Organs: Roots, Stems, and Leaves 813

Dermal, Vascular, and Ground Tissues 816

Common Types of Plant Cells 817

CONCEPT 35.2 Different meristems

generate new cells for primary and

secondary growth 820

CONCEPT 35.3 Primary growth

lengthens roots and shoots 822

Primary Growth of Roots 822

Primary Growth of Shoots 823

CONCEPT 35.4 Secondary growth

increases the diameter of stems and

roots in woody plants 826

The Vascular Cambium and Secondary Vascular Tissue 827

The Cork Cambium and the Production of Periderm 828

Evolution of Secondary Growth 828

CONCEPT 35.5 Growth, morphogenesis, and cell

differentiation produce the plant body 829

Model Organisms: Revolutionizing the Study of Plants 830

Growth: Cell Division and Cell Expansion 830

Morphogenesis and Pattern Formation 831

Gene Expression and the Control of Cell Differentiation 832

Shifts in Development: Phase Changes 832

Genetic Control of Flowering 833

36 Transport in Vascular Plants 838

CONCEPT 36.1 Adaptations for acquiring resources were key

steps in the evolution of vascular plants 839

Shoot Architecture and Light Capture 839

Root Architecture and Acquisition of Water and Minerals 841

CONCEPT 36.2 Different mechanisms transport substances

over short or long distances 841

The Apoplast and Symplast: Transport Continuums 841

Short-Distance Transport of Solutes Across Plasma

Membranes 842

Short-Distance Transport of Water Across Plasma Membranes 842

Long-Distance Transport: The Role of Bulk Flow 845

CONCEPT 36.3 Transpiration drives the transport of water and

minerals from roots to shoots via the xylem 846

Absorption of Water and Minerals by Root Cells 846

Transport of Water and Minerals into the Xylem 846

Bulk Flow Transport via the Xylem 846

Xylem Sap Ascent by Bulk Flow: A Review 850

CONCEPT 36.4 The rate of transpiration is regulated by

stomata 850

Stomata: Major Pathways for Water Loss 850

Mechanisms of Stomatal Opening and Closing 851

Stimuli for Stomatal Opening and Closing 852

Effects of Transpiration on Wilting and Leaf Temperature 852

Adaptations That Reduce Evaporative Water Loss 852

CONCEPT 36.5 Sugars are transported from sources to sinks

via the phloem 853

Movement from Sugar Sources to Sugar Sinks 853

Bulk Flow by Positive Pressure: The Mechanism of Translocation in

Angiosperms 854

CONCEPT 36.6 The symplast is highly dynamic 855

Changes in Plasmodesmatal Number and Pore Size 856

Phloem: An Information Superhighway 856

Electrical Signaling in the Phloem 856

37 Plant Nutrition 859

CONCEPT 37.1 Soil contains a living, complex ecosystem 860

Soil Texture 860

Topsoil Composition 860

Soil Conservation and Sustainable Agriculture 861

CONCEPT 37.2 Plant roots absorb many types of essential

elements from the soil 863

Essential Elements 864

Symptoms of Mineral Deficiency 864

Global Climate Change and Food Quality 866

CONCEPT 37.3 Plant nutrition often involves relationships

with other organisms 866

Bacteria and Plant Nutrition 868

Fungi and Plant Nutrition 871

Epiphytes, Parasitic Plants, and Carnivorous Plants 872

38 Reproduction of Flowering

Plants 876

CONCEPT 38.1 Flowers, double

fertilization, and fruits are key features

of the angiosperm life cycle 877

Flower Structure and Function 877

Methods of Pollination 879

The Angiosperm Life Cycle: An

Overview 880

Development of Female Gametophytes

(Embryo Sacs) 880

Development of Male Gametophytes in

Pollen Grains 880

Seed Development and Structure 882

Sporophyte Development from Seed to Mature Plant 883

Fruit Structure and Function 884

CONCEPT 38.2 Flowering plants reproduce sexually, asexually,

or both 887

Mechanisms of Asexual Reproduction 887

Advantages and Disadvantages of Asexual and Sexual

Reproduction 887

Mechanisms That Prevent Self-Fertilization 888

Totipotency, Vegetative Reproduction, and Tissue Culture 889

CONCEPT 38.3 People modify crops by breeding and genetic

engineering 890

Plant Breeding 891

Plant Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering 891

The Debate over Plant Biotechnology 893

39 Plant Signals and Behavior 896

CONCEPT 39.1 Signal transduction pathways link signal

reception to response 897

Reception 898

Transduction 898

Response 899

CONCEPT 39.2 Plants use chemicals to communicate 899

General Characteristics of Plant Hormones 900

A Survey of Plant Hormones 901

CONCEPT 39.3 Responses to light are critical for plant

success 909

Blue-Light Photoreceptors 909

Phytochrome Photoreceptors 910

Biological Clocks and Circadian Rhythms 911

The Effect of Light on the Biological Clock 912

Photoperiodism and Responses to Seasons 913

CONCEPT 39.4 Plants respond to a wide variety of stimuli

other than light 915

Gravity 915

Mechanical Stimuli 915

Environmental Stresses 916

CONCEPT 39.5 Plants respond to attacks by pathogens and

herbivores 920

Defenses Against Pathogens 920

Defenses Against Herbivores 921

Unit 7 Animals: Structure and Function 926

Interview: Steffanie Strathdee 926

40 The Animal Body 927

CONCEPT 40.1 Animal form and function are correlated at all

levels of organization 928

Evolution of Animal Size and Shape 928

Exchange with the Environment 928

Hierarchical Organization of Body Plans 930

Coordination and Control 934

CONCEPT 40.2 Feedback control maintains the internal

environment in many animals 935

Regulating and Conforming 935

Homeostasis 935

CONCEPT 40.3 Homeostatic processes for thermoregulation

involve form, function, and behavior 938

Endothermy and Ectothermy 938

Variation in Body Temperature 938

Balancing Heat Loss and Gain 939

Acclimatization in Thermoregulation 942

Physiological Thermostats and Fever 942

CONCEPT 40.4 Energy requirements are related to animal

size, activity, and environment 943

Energy Allocation and Use 943

Quantifying Energy Use 944

Minimum Metabolic Rate and Thermoregulation 944

Influences on Metabolic Rate 945

Torpor and Energy Conservation 946

41 Chemical Signals in Animals 953

CONCEPT 41.1 Hormones and other signaling molecules bind

to target receptors, triggering specific response

pathways 954

Intercellular Information Flow 954

Chemical Classes of Hormones 955

Cellular Hormone Response Pathways 956

Endocrine Tissues and Organs 957

CONCEPT 41.2 Feedback regulation and coordination with the

nervous system are common in hormone

pathways 958

Simple Endocrine Pathways 958

Simple Neuroendocrine Pathways 959

Feedback Regulation 959

Coordination of the Endocrine and Nervous Systems 960

Thyroid Regulation: A Hormone Cascade Pathway 962

Hormonal Regulation of Growth 963

CONCEPT 41.3 Endocrine glands respond to diverse stimuli

in regulating homeostasis, development, and

behavior 965

Parathyroid Hormone and Vitamin D: Control of Blood

Calcium 965

Adrenal Hormones: Response to Stress 966

Sex Hormones 968

Hormones and Biological Rhythms 969

Evolution of Hormone Function 969

42 Animal Digestive Systems 974

CONCEPT 42.1 An animal’s diet must supply chemical energy,

organic building blocks, and essential nutrients 975

Essential Nutrients 975

Variation in Diet 977

Dietary Deficiencies 977

Assessing Nutritional Needs 978

CONCEPT 42.2 Food processing involves ingestion, digestion,

absorption, and elimination 978

Digestive Compartments 980

CONCEPT 42.3 Organs specialized for sequential stages of

food processing form the mammalian digestive system 981

The Oral Cavity, Pharynx, and Esophagus 981

Digestion in the Stomach 983

Digestion in the Small Intestine 984

Absorption in the Small Intestine 985

Processing in the Large Intestine 986

CONCEPT 42.4 Evolutionary adaptations of vertebrate

digestive systems correlate with diet 987

Dental Adaptations 987

Stomach and Intestinal Adaptations 988

Mutualistic Adaptations 988

CONCEPT 42.5 Feedback circuits regulate digestion,

energy storage, and appetite 991

Regulation of Digestion 991

Regulation of Energy Storage 991

Regulation of Appetite and Consumption 993

43 Animal Transport Systems 997

CONCEPT 43.1 Circulatory systems link exchange surfaces

with cells throughout the body 998

Gastrovascular Cavities 998

Open and Closed Circulatory Systems 999

Organization of Vertebrate Circulatory

Systems 1000

CONCEPT 43.2 Coordinated cycles of heart contraction drive

double circulation in mammals 1002

Mammalian Circulation 1002

The Mammalian Heart: A Closer Look 1002

Maintaining the Heart’s Rhythmic Beat 1004

CONCEPT 43.3 Patterns of blood pressure and flow reflect the

structure and arrangement of blood vessels 1005

Blood Vessel Structure and Function 1005

Blood Flow Velocity 1006

Blood Pressure 1006

Capillary Function 1008

Fluid Return by the Lymphatic System 1009

CONCEPT 43.4 Blood components function in exchange,

transport, and defense 1010

Blood Composition and Function 1010

Cardiovascular Disease 1013

CONCEPT 43.5 Gas exchange occurs across specialized

respiratory surfaces 1015

Partial Pressure Gradients in Gas Exchange 1015

Respiratory Media 1015

Respiratory Surfaces 1016

Gills in Aquatic Animals 1016

Tracheal Systems in Insects 1017

Lungs 1018

CONCEPT 43.6 Breathing ventilates the lungs 1020

How an Amphibian Breathes 1020

How a Bird Breathes 1020

How a Mammal Breathes 1021

Control of Breathing in Humans 1022

CONCEPT 43.7 Adaptations for gas exchange include

pigments that bind and transport gases 1023

Coordination of Circulation and Gas Exchange 1023

Respiratory Pigments 1023

Respiratory Adaptations of Diving Mammals 1025

44 Animal Excretory Systems 1029

CONCEPT 44.1 Osmoregulation balances the uptake and loss

of water and solutes 1030

Osmosis and Osmolarity 1030

Osmoregulatory Challenges and Mechanisms 1030

Energetics of Osmoregulation 1032

Transport Epithelia in Osmoregulation 1033

CONCEPT 44.2 An animal’s nitrogenous wastes reflect its

phylogeny and habitat 1034

Forms of Nitrogenous Waste 1034

The Influence of Evolution and Environment on Nitrogenous

Wastes 1035

CONCEPT 44.3 Diverse excretory systems are variations on a

tubular theme 1035

Survey of Excretory Systems 1036

CONCEPT 44.4 The nephron is organized for stepwise

processing of blood filtrate 1039

From Blood Filtrate to Urine: A Closer Look 1039

Solute Gradients and Water Conservation 1041

Adaptations of the Vertebrate Kidney to Diverse Environments 1043

CONCEPT 44.5 Hormonal circuits link kidney function, water

balance, and blood pressure 1046

Homeostatic Regulation of the Kidney 1046

45 Animal Reproductive Systems 1051

CONCEPT 45.1 Both asexual and sexual reproduction occur in

the animal kingdom 1052

Mechanisms of Asexual Reproduction 1052

Variation in Patterns of Sexual Reproduction 1052

Reproductive Cycles 1053

Sexual Reproduction: An Evolutionary Enigma 1053

CONCEPT 45.2 Fertilization depends on mechanisms that

bring together sperm and eggs of the same species 1054

Ensuring the Survival of Offspring 1055

Gamete Production and Delivery 1055

CONCEPT 45.3 Reproductive organs produce and transport

gametes 1057

Human Male Reproductive Anatomy 1057

Human Female Reproductive Anatomy 1058

Gametogenesis 1059

CONCEPT 45.4 The interplay of tropic and sex hormones

regulates reproduction in mammals 1062

Biological Sex, Gender Identity, and Sexual Orientation in Human

Sexuality 1063

Hormonal Control of the Male Reproductive System 1063

Hormonal Control of Female Reproductive Cycles 1064

Human Sexual Response 1066

CONCEPT 45.5 In placental mammals, an embryo develops

fully within the mother’s uterus 1066

Conception, Embryonic Development, and Birth 1066

Maternal Immune Tolerance of the Embryo and Fetus 1069

Contraception and Abortion 1069

Modern Reproductive Technologies 1071

46 Development in Animals 1075

CONCEPT 46.1 Fertilization and cleavage initiate embryonic

development 1076

Fertilization 1076

Cleavage 1078

CONCEPT 46.2 Morphogenesis in animals involves specific

changes in cell shape, position, and survival 1081

Gastrulation 1081

Developmental Adaptations of Amniotes 1085

Organogenesis 1086

The Cytoskeleton in Morphogenesis 1088

CONCEPT 46.3 Cytoplasmic determinants and inductive

signals regulate cell fate 1089

Fate Mapping 1090

Axis Formation 1091

Restricting Developmental Potential 1092

Cell Fate Determination and Pattern Formation by

Inductive Signals 1093

Cilia and Cell Fate 1096

47 Animal Defenses Against

Infection 1100

CONCEPT 47.1 In innate immunity, recognition and response

rely on traits common to groups of pathogens 1101

Innate Immunity of Invertebrates 1101

Innate Immunity of Vertebrates 1102

Evasion of Innate Immunity by Pathogens 1105

CONCEPT 47.2 In adaptive immunity, receptors provide

pathogen-specific recognition 1105

Antigens as the Trigger for Adaptive Immunity 1106

Antigen Recognition by B Cells and Antibodies 1106

Antigen Recognition by T Cells 1107

B Cell and T Cell Development 1108

CONCEPT 47.3 Adaptive immunity defends against infection

of body fluids and body cells 1111

Helper T Cells: Activating Adaptive Immunity 1111

B Cells and Antibodies: A Response to Extracellular

Pathogens 1112

Cytotoxic T Cells: A Response to Infected Host Cells 1114

Summary of the Humoral and Cell-Mediated Immune

Responses 1115

Immunization 1116

Active and Passive Immunity 1116

Antibodies as Tools 1117

Immune Rejection 1117

CONCEPT 47.4 Disruptions in immune system function can

elicit or exacerbate disease 1118

Exaggerated, Self-Directed, and Diminished Immune

Responses 1118

Evolutionary Adaptations of Pathogens That Underlie Immune

System Avoidance 1119

Cancer and Immunity 1122

48 Electrical Signals

in Animals 1125

CONCEPT 48.1 Neuron structure and organization reflect

function in information transfer 1126

Neuron Structure and Function 1126

Introduction to Information Processing 1126

CONCEPT 48.2 Ion pumps and ion channels establish the

resting potential of a neuron 1127

Formation of the Resting Potential 1128

Modeling the Resting Potential 1129

CONCEPT 48.3 Action potentials are the signals conducted by

axons 1130

Hyperpolarization and Depolarization 1130

Graded Potentials and Action Potentials 1131

Generation of Action Potentials: A Closer Look 1131

Conduction of Action Potentials 1133

CONCEPT 48.4 Neurons communicate with other cells at

synapses 1135

Generation of Postsynaptic Potentials 1136

Summation of Postsynaptic Potentials 1137

Termination of Neurotransmitter Signaling 1137

Modulated Signaling at Synapses 1138

Neurotransmitters 1138

49 Neural Regulation

in Animals 1143

CONCEPT 49.1 Nervous systems consist of circuits of neurons

and supporting cells 1144

Organization of the Vertebrate Nervous System 1145

The Peripheral Nervous System 1146

Glia 1148

CONCEPT 49.2 The vertebrate brain is regionally

specialized 1149

Arousal and Sleep 1152

Biological Clock Regulation 1152

Emotions 1153

Functional Imaging of the Brain 1154

CONCEPT 49.3 The cerebral cortex controls voluntary

movement and cognitive functions 1154

Information Processing 1155

Language and Speech 1156

Lateralization of Cortical Function 1156

Frontal Lobe Function 1156

Evolution of Cognition in Vertebrates 1156

CONCEPT 49.4 Changes in synaptic connections underlie

memory and learning 1157

Neuronal Plasticity 1158

Memory and Learning 1158

Long-Term Potentiation 1159

CONCEPT 49.5 Many nervous system disorders can now be

explained in molecular terms 1160

Schizophrenia 1160

Depression 1160

The Brain’s Reward System and Drug Addiction 1161

Alzheimer’s Disease 1161

Parkinson’s Disease 1162

Future Directions in Brain Research 1162

50 Sensation and Movement

in Animals 1165

CONCEPT 50.1 Sensory receptors transduce stimulus

energy and transmit signals to the central nervous

system 1166

Sensory Reception and Transduction 1166

Transmission 1167

Perception 1167

Amplification and Adaptation 1167

Types of Sensory Receptors 1168

CONCEPT 50.2 In hearing and equilibrium, mechanoreceptors

detect moving fluid or settling particles 1170

Sensing of Gravity and Sound in Invertebrates 1170

Hearing and Equilibrium in Mammals 1170

Hearing and Equilibrium in Other Vertebrates 1174

CONCEPT 50.3 The diverse visual receptors of animals depend

on light-absorbing pigments 1175

Evolution of Visual Perception 1175

The Vertebrate Visual System 1177

CONCEPT 50.4 The senses of taste and smell rely on similar

sets of sensory receptors 1181

Taste in Mammals 1181

Smell in Humans 1182

CONCEPT 50.5 The physical interaction of protein filaments is

required for muscle function 1183

Vertebrate Skeletal Muscle 1184

Other Types of Muscle 1189

CONCEPT 50.6 Skeletal systems transform muscle contraction

into locomotion 1190

Types of Skeletal Systems 1190

Types of Locomotion 1193

Unit 8 The Ecology of Life 1197

Interview: Chelsea Rochman 1197

51 An Overview of Ecology 1198

CONCEPT 51.1 Earth’s climate varies by latitude and season

and is changing rapidly 1201

Global Climate Patterns 1201

Regional and Local Effects on Climate 1201

Effects of Vegetation on Climate 1203

Microclimate 1203

Global Climate Change 1204

CONCEPT 51.2 The distribution of terrestrial biomes is

controlled by climate and disturbance 1205

Climate and Terrestrial Biomes 1205

General Features of Terrestrial Biomes 1206

Disturbance and Terrestrial Biomes 1206

CONCEPT 51.3 Aquatic biomes are diverse and dynamic

systems that cover most of Earth 1211

Zonation in Aquatic Biomes 1211

CONCEPT 51.4 Interactions between organisms

and the environment limit the distribution of

species 1212

Dispersal and Distribution 1217

Biotic Factors 1218

Abiotic Factors 1218

CONCEPT 51.5 Ecological change and evolution

affect one another over long and short periods of

time 1221

52 Behavioral Ecology 1225

CONCEPT 52.1 Discrete sensory inputs can stimulate both

simple and complex behaviors 1226

Fixed Action Patterns 1226

Migration 1226

Behavioral Rhythms 1227

Animal Signals and Communication 1227

CONCEPT 52.2 Learning establishes specific links between

experience and behavior 1229

Experience and Behavior 1229

Learning 1230

CONCEPT 52.3 Selection for individual survival

and reproductive success can explain diverse

behaviors 1234

Evolution of Foraging Behavior 1234

Mating Behavior and Mate Choice 1235

CONCEPT 52.4 Genetic analyses and the concept of inclusive

fitness provide a basis for studying the evolution

of behavior 1240

Genetic Basis of Behavior 1241

Genetic Variation and the Evolution of

Behavior 1241

Altruism 1242

Inclusive Fitness 1243

Evolution and Human Culture 1245

53 Populations and Life History

Traits 1248

CONCEPT 53.1 Biotic and abiotic factors affect population

density, dispersion, and demographics 1249

Density and Dispersion 1249

Demographics 1251

CONCEPT 53.2 The exponential model describes

population growth in an idealized, unlimited

environment 1254

Changes in Population Size 1254

Exponential Growth 1254

CONCEPT 53.3 The logistic model describes how a

population grows more slowly as it nears its carrying

capacity 1255

The Logistic Growth Model 1256

The Logistic Model and Real Populations 1257

CONCEPT 53.4 Life history traits are products of natural

selection 1258

Diversity of Life Histories 1258

“Trade-offs” and Life Histories 1259

CONCEPT 53.5 Density-dependent factors regulate

population growth 1260

Population Change and Population Density 1260

Mechanisms of Density-Dependent

Population Regulation 1261

Population Dynamics 1263

CONCEPT 53.6 The human population

is no longer growing exponentially but

is still increasing extremely rapidly 1265

The Global Human Population 1265

Global Carrying Capacity 1267

54 Biodiversity and Communities 1272

CONCEPT 54.1 Interactions between species can help, harm,

or have no effect on the individuals involved 1273

Competition 1273

Exploitation 1275

Positive Interactions 1278

CONCEPT 54.2 Diversity and trophic structure characterize

biological communities 1280

Species Diversity 1280

Diversity and Community Stability 1281

Trophic Structure 1281

Species with a Large Impact 1283

Bottom-Up and Top-Down Controls 1284

CONCEPT 54.3 Disturbance influences species diversity and

composition 1286

Characterizing Disturbance 1286

Ecological Succession 1287

Human Disturbance 1289

CONCEPT 54.4 Biogeographic factors affect community

diversity 1289

Latitudinal Gradients 1290

Area Effects 1290

Island Equilibrium Model 1290

CONCEPT 54.5 Pathogens alter community structure locally

and globally 1292

Effects on Community Structure 1292

Community Ecology and Zoonotic Diseases 1292

55 Energy Flow and Chemical Cycling

in Ecosystems 1296

CONCEPT 55.1 Physical laws govern energy flow and chemical

cycling in ecosystems 1297

Energy Flow and Chemical Cycling 1297

Conservation of Energy 1297

Conservation of Mass 1297

Energy, Mass, and Trophic Levels 1298

CONCEPT 55.2 Energy and other limiting factors control

primary production in ecosystems 1299

Ecosystem Energy Budgets 1299

Primary Production in Aquatic Ecosystems 1300

Primary Production in Terrestrial Ecosystems 1301

Effects of Climate Change on Production 1302

CONCEPT 55.3 Energy transfer between trophic levels is

typically only 10% efficient 1304

Production Efficiency 1304

Trophic Efficiency and Ecological Pyramids 1304

CONCEPT 55.4 Biological and geochemical processes cycle

nutrients and water in ecosystems 1306

Decomposition and Nutrient Cycling Rates 1306

Biogeochemical Cycles 1307

Case Study: Nutrient Cycling in the Hubbard Brook Experimental

Forest 1310

CONCEPT 55.5 Restoration ecologists return degraded

ecosystems to a more natural state 1311

Bioremediation 1311

Biological Augmentation 1313

Ecosystems: A Review 1313

56 Conservation and Global

Ecology 1318

CONCEPT 56.1 Human activities threaten earth’s

biodiversity 1319

Three Levels of Biodiversity 1319

Biodiversity and Human Welfare 1320

Threats to Biodiversity 1321

Can Extinct Species Be Resurrected? 1324

CONCEPT 56.2 Population conservation focuses

on population size, genetic diversity, and critical

habitat 1324

Extinction Risks in Small Populations 1324

Critical Habitat 1327

Weighing Conflicting Demands 1328

CONCEPT 56.3 Landscape and regional conservation help

sustain biodiversity 1328

Landscape Structure and Biodiversity 1328

Establishing Protected Areas 1330

Urban Ecology 1331

CONCEPT 56.4 Earth is changing rapidly as a result of human

actions 1332

Nutrient Enrichment 1332

Toxins in the Environment 1333

Greenhouse Gases and Climate Change 1336

Depletion of Atmospheric Ozone 1341

CONCEPT 56.5 Sustainable development can improve human

lives while conserving biodiversity 1342

Sustainable Development 1342

The Future of the Biosphere 1343

Appendix A Answers A-1

Appendix B Classification Of Life B-1

Appendix C A Comparison Of The Light Microscope And The

Electron Microscope C-1

Appendix D Scientific Skills Review D-1

Credits Cr-1

Glossary G-1

Index I-1

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