Talaro’s Foundations in Microbiology: Basic Principles, 12th Edition PDF by Berry Chess


Talaro’s Foundations in Microbiology: Basic Principles, Twelfth Edition

By Berry Chess

Talaro’s Foundations in Microbiology: Basic Principles, 12th Edition



The Main Themes of Microbiology 2

1.1 The Scope of Microbiology 4

1.2 General Characteristics of

Microorganisms and Their Roles

in the Earth’s Environments 4

The Origins and Dominance of

Microorganisms 4

The Cellular Organization of Microorganisms 7

Noncellular Pathogenic Particles—Viruses and Prions 8

Microbial Dimensions: How Small Is Small? 8

Microbial Involvement in Energy and Nutrient Flow 8

1.3 Human Use of Microorganisms 10

1.4 Microbial Roles in Infectious Diseases 11

The Changing Specter of Infectious Diseases 11

Microbial Roles in Noninfectious Diseases 13

1.5 The Historical Foundations of Microbiology 13

The Development of the Microscope: Seeing Is Believing 13

The Scientific Method and the Search for Knowledge 14

The Development of Medical Microbiology 16

1.6 Taxonomy: Organizing, Classifying, and Naming

Microorganisms 18

The Levels of Classification 19

Assigning Scientific Names 19

1.7 The Origin and Evolution of Microorganisms 21

All Life Is Related and Connected Through Evolution 21

Systems for Presenting a Universal Tree of Life 23


The Chemistry of Biology 30

2.1 Atoms: Fundamental Building Blocks

of All Matter in the Universe 32

Different Types of Atoms: Elements

and Their Properties 33

The Major Elements of Life and Their Primary

Characteristics 33

2.2 Bonds and Molecules 35

Covalent Bonds: Molecules with Shared Electrons 36

Ionic Bonds: Electron Transfer among Atoms 37

Electron Transfer and Oxidation-Reduction

Reactions 38

2.3 Chemical Reactions, Solutions, and pH 39

Formulas, Models, and Equations 39

Solutions: Homogeneous Mixtures of Molecules 40

Acidity, Alkalinity, and the pH Scale 41

2.4 The Chemistry of Carbon and Organic Compounds 43

Functional Groups of Organic Compounds 43

Organic Macromolecules: Superstructures of Life 45

2.5 Molecules of Life: Carbohydrates 45

The Nature of Carbohydrate Bonds 47

The Functions of Carbohydrates in Cells 48

2.6 Molecules of Life: Lipids 49

Membrane Lipids 50

Miscellaneous Lipids 51

2.7 Molecules of Life: Proteins 51

Protein Structure and Diversity 52

2.8 Nucleic Acids: A Program for Genetics 54

The Double Helix of DNA 55

Making New DNA: Passing on the Genetic

Message 55

RNA: Organizers of Protein Synthesis 55

ATP: The Energy Molecule of Cells 56


Tools of the Laboratory:

Methods of Studying

Microorganisms 62

3.1 Methods of Microbial

Investigation 64

3.2 The Microscope: Window on an

Invisible Realm 66

Magnification and Microscope

Design 66

Variations on the Optical Microscope 69

Electron Microscopy 71

3.3 Preparing Specimens for Optical

Microscopes 73

Fresh, Living Preparations 73

Fixed, Stained Smears 73

3.4 Additional Features of the Six “I”s 77

Inoculation, Growth, and Identification

of Cultures 77

Isolation Techniques 77

Identification Techniques 79

3.5 Media: The Foundations of Culturing 80

Types of Media 81

Physical States of Media 81

Chemical Content of Media 82

Media to Suit Every Function 84


A Survey of Prokaryotic Cells

and Microorganisms 92

4.1 Basic Characteristics of

Cells and Life Forms 94

What is Life? 94

4.2 Prokaryotic Profiles: The Bacteria

and Archaea 94

The Structure of a Generalized Bacterial Cell 96

Cell Extensions and Surface Structures 96

Biofilms 100

4.3 The Cell Envelope: The Outer Boundary Layer of

Bacteria 102

Basic Types of Cell Envelopes 102

Structure of Cell Walls 103

The Cell Wall and Infections 104

Mycoplasmas and Other Cell Wall–Deficient Bacteria 105

Cell Membrane Structure 106

4.4 Bacterial Internal Structure 107

Contents of the Cytoplasm 107

Bacterial Endospores: An Extremely Resistant

Life Form 108

4.5 Bacterial Shapes, Arrangements, and Sizes 111

4.6 Classification Systems of Prokaryotic Domains:

Archaea and Bacteria 114

Prokaryotic Taxonomy: A Work in Progress 114

4.7 Survey of Prokaryotic Groups with Unusual

Characteristics 119

Free-Living Nonpathogenic Bacteria 119

Unusual Forms of Medically Significant Bacteria 120

Archaea: The Other Prokaryotes 122


A Survey of Eukaryotic Cells

and Microorganisms 128

5.1 The History of Eukaryotes 130

5.2 Form and Function of the Eukaryotic

Cell: External Structures 131

Locomotor Appendages: Cilia

and Flagella 131

The Glycocalyx 133

Form and Function of the Eukaryotic Cell: Boundary

Structures 133

5.3 Form and Function of the Eukaryotic Cell: Internal

Structures 134

The Nucleus: The Control Center 134

Endoplasmic Reticulum: A Passageway and Production System for

Eukaryotes 135

Golgi Apparatus: A Packaging Machine 136

Mitochondria: Energy Generators of the Cell 137

Chloroplasts: Photosynthesis Machines 138

Ribosomes: Protein Synthesizers 139

The Cytoskeleton: A Support Network 139

5.4 Eukaryotic-Prokaryotic Comparisons and Taxonomy of

Eukaryotes 140

Overview of Taxonomy 140

5.5 The Kingdom Fungi 142

Fungal Nutrition 143

Organization of Microscopic Fungi 144

Reproductive Strategies and Spore Formation 144

Fungal Classification 146

Fungal Identification and Cultivation 147

Fungi in Medicine, Nature, and Industry 147

5.6 Survey of Protists: Algae 149

The Algae: Photosynthetic Protists 150

5.7 Survey of Protists: Protozoa 152

Protozoan Form and Function 152

Protozoan Identification and Cultivation 153

Important Protozoan Pathogens 154

5.8 The Parasitic Helminths 158

General Worm Morphology 158

Life Cycles and Reproduction 158

A Helminth Cycle: The Pinworm 159

Helminth Classification and

Identification 160

Distribution and Importance of Parasitic

Worms 160


An Introduction to Viruses,

Viroids, and Prions 166

6.1 Overview of Viruses 168

Early Searches for the Tiniest

Microbes 168

The Position of Viruses in the

Biological Spectrum 168

6.2 The General Structure of Viruses 168

Size Range 168

Viral Components: Capsids, Nucleic Acids, and Envelopes 170

6.3 How Viruses Are Classified and Named 175

6.4 Modes of Viral Multiplication 175

Multiplication Cycles in Animal Viruses 177

Persistent Viral Infection and Viral Integration 181

6.5 The Multiplication Cycle in Bacteriophages 183

Lysogeny: The Silent Virus Infection 184

6.6 Techniques in Cultivating and Identifying Animal

Viruses 185

Using Cell (Tissue) Culture Techniques 185

Using Bird Embryos 185

Using Live Animal Inoculation 187

6.7 Viral Infection, Detection, and

Treatment 187

6.8 Prions and Other Nonviral Infectious

Particles 187


Microbial Nutrition, Ecology,

and Growth 194

7.1 Microbial Nutrition 196

Chemical Analysis of Cell

Contents 196

Forms, Sources, and Functions

of Essential Nutrients 197

7.2 Classification of Nutritional Types 198

Autotrophs and Their Energy Sources 199

Heterotrophs and Their Energy Sources 201

7.3 Transport: Movement of Substances across the Cell

Membrane 202

Diffusion and Molecular Motion 202

The Diffusion of Water: Osmosis 203

Adaptations to Osmotic Variations in the

Environment 203

The Movement of Solutes across Membranes 204

Active Transport: Bringing in Molecules against

a Gradient 205

Endocytosis: Eating and Drinking by Cells 207

7.4 Environmental Factors that Influence

Microbes 207

Adaptations to Temperature 208

Gas Requirements 210

Effects of pH 212

Osmotic Pressure 213

Miscellaneous Environmental Factors 213

7.5 Ecological Associations among Microorganisms 213

7.6 The Study of Microbial Growth 218

The Basis of Population Growth: Binary Fission and the Bacterial

Cell Cycle 218

The Rate of Population Growth 218

Determinants of Population Growth 219

Other Methods of Analyzing Population

Growth 221


An Introduction to Microbial

Metabolism: The Chemical

Crossroads of Life 228

8.1 An Introduction to Metabolism

and Enzymes 230

Enzymes: Catalyzing the Chemical

Reactions of Life 230

Regulation of Enzymatic Activity and

Metabolic Pathways 237

8.2 The Pursuit and Utilization of Energy 240

Cell Energetics 240

8.3 Pathways of Bioenergetics 243

Catabolism: An Overview of Nutrient Breakdown and Energy

Release 243

Energy Strategies in Microorganisms 243

Aerobic Respiration 245

Pyruvic Acid—A Central Metabolite 247

The Krebs Cycle—A Carbon and Energy Wheel 247

The Respiratory Chain: Electron Transport and Oxidative

Phosphorylation 249

Summary of Aerobic Respiration 252

Anaerobic Respiration 252

8.4 The Importance of Fermentation 253

8.5 Biosynthesis and the Crossing Pathways of

Metabolism 255

The Frugality of the Cell—Waste Not, Want Not 255

Assembly of the Cell 257

8.6 Photosynthesis: The Earth’s Lifeline 258

Light-Dependent Reactions 259

Light-Independent Reactions 260

Other Mechanisms of Photosynthesis 261


An Introduction to

Microbial Genetics 268

9.1 Introduction to Genetics and Genes:

Unlocking the Secrets of

Heredity 270

The Nature of the Genetic

Material 270

The Structure of DNA: A Double Helix with Its Own

Language 272

DNA Replication: Preserving the Code and

Passing It On 273

9.2 Applications of the DNA Code: Transcription and

Translation 277

The Gene-Protein Connection 278

The Major Participants in Transcription and

Translation 278

Transcription: The First Stage of Gene

Expression 279

Translation: The Second Stage of Gene

Expression 281

Eukaryotic Transcription and Translation: Similar yet

Different 284

9.3 Genetic Regulation of Protein Synthesis and

Metabolism 286

The Lactose Operon: A Model for Inducible Gene Regulation in

Bacteria 286

A Repressible Operon 287

RNA and Gene Expression 287

9.4 Mutations: Changes in the Genetic

Code 289

Causes of Mutations 289

Categories of Mutations 290

Repair of Mutations 290

The Ames Test 291

Positive and Negative Effects of Mutations 292

9.5 DNA Recombination Events 293

Transmission of Genetic Material in Bacteria 293

9.6 The Genetics of Animal Viruses 298

Replication Strategies in Animal Viruses 298


Genetic Engineering and

Genetic Analysis 306

10.1 Elements and Applications

of Genetic Engineering 308

Tools and Techniques of DNA

Technology 308

10.2 Recombinant DNA Technology: How to Imitate

Nature 316

Technical Aspects of Recombinant DNA and

Gene Cloning 316

Construction of a Recombinant, Insertion into a Cloning

Host, and Genetic Expression 317

Protein Products of Recombinant DNA

Technology 319

10.3 Genetically Modified Organisms and Other

Applications 320

Recombinant Microbes: Modified Bacteria and

Viruses 320

Recombination in Multicellular Organisms 322

Medical Applications of DNA Technology 325

10.4 Genome Analysis: DNA Profiling and Genetic

Testing 327

DNA Profiling: A Unique Picture of a Genome 327


Physical and Chemical Agents

for Microbial Control 336

11.1 Controlling Microorganisms 338

General Considerations in Microbial

Control 338

Relative Resistance of Microbial

Forms 338

Terminology and Methods of Microbial Control 340

What Is Microbial Death? 341

How Antimicrobial Agents Work: Their Modes of

Action 343

11.2 Physical Methods of Control: Heat 344

Effects of Temperature on Microbial Activities 344

The Effects of Cold and Desiccation 347

11.3 Physical Methods of Control: Radiation and

Filtration 349

Radiation as a Microbial Control Agent 349

Modes of Action of Ionizing Versus Nonionizing

Radiation 349

Ionizing Radiation: Gamma Rays and X-Rays 349

Nonionizing Radiation: Ultraviolet Rays 351

Filtration—A Physical Removal Process 352

11.4 Chemical Agents in Microbial Control 353

Choosing a Microbicidal Chemical 354

Factors that Affect the Germicidal Activities of Chemical

Agents 354

Categories of Chemical Agents 355


Drugs, Microbes, Host—

The Elements of

Chemotherapy 370

12.1 Principles of Antimicrobial

Therapy 372

The Origins of Antimicrobial

Drugs 372

Interactions between Drugs and

Microbes 373

12.2 Survey of Major Antimicrobial Drug Groups 379

Antibacterial Drugs that Act on the Cell Wall 379

Antibiotics that Damage Bacterial Cell Membranes 381

Drugs that Act on DNA or RNA 381

Drugs that Interfere with Protein Synthesis 382

Drugs that Block Metabolic Pathways 383

12.3 Drugs to Treat Fungal, Parasitic, and Viral

Infections 384

Antifungal Drugs 384

Antiparasitic Chemotherapy 385

Antiviral Chemotherapeutic Agents 386

12.4 Interactions between Microbes and Drugs: The Acquisition

of Drug Resistance 389

How Does Drug Resistance Develop? 390

Specific Mechanisms of Drug Resistance 390

Natural Selection and Drug Resistance 393

12.5 Interactions between Drugs and Hosts 395

Toxicity to Organs 395

Allergic Responses to Drugs 396

Suppression and Alteration of the Microbiota

by Antimicrobials 396

12.6 The Process of Selecting an Antimicrobial Drug 397

Identifying the Agent 397

Testing for the Drug Susceptibility of Microorganisms 398

The MIC and the Therapeutic Index 399

Patient Factors in Choosing an Antimicrobial Drug 400


Microbe–Human Interactions:

Infection, Disease, and

Epidemiology 406

13.1 We Are Not Alone 408

Contact, Colonization, Infection,

Disease 408

Resident Microbiota: The Human as a

Habitat 408

Indigenous Microbiota of Specific Regions 412

Colonizers of the Human Skin 413

Microbial Residents of the Gastrointestinal Tract 414

Inhabitants of the Respiratory Tract 415

Microbiota of the Genitourinary Tract 415

13.2 Major Factors in the Development of an Infection 418

Becoming Established: Phase 1—Portals of Entry 419

The Requirement for an Infectious Dose 421

Attaching to the Host: Phase 2 421

Invading the Host and Becoming Established:

Phase 3 423

13.3 The Outcomes of Infection and Disease 426

The Stages of Clinical Infections 426

Patterns of Infection 427

Signs and Symptoms: Warning Signals of

Disease 428

The Portal of Exit: Vacating the Host 429

The Persistence of Microbes and Pathologic

Conditions 430

13.4 Epidemiology: The Study of Disease in

Populations 430

Origins and Transmission Patterns of Infectious

Microbes 431

The Acquisition and Transmission of Infectious

Agents 433

13.5 The Work of Epidemiologists: Investigation and

Surveillance 435

Epidemiological Statistics: Frequency of

Cases 436

Investigative Strategies of the Epidemiologist 438

Hospital Epidemiology and Healthcare-Associated

Infections 438

Standard Blood and Body Fluid

Precautions 441


An Introduction to Host

Defenses and Innate

Immunities 448

14.1 Overview of Host Defense

Mechanisms 450

Barriers at the Portal of Entry: An

Inborn First Line of Defense 450

14.2 Structure and Function of the Organs

of Defense and Immunity 452

How Do White Blood Cells Carry Out Recognition and

Surveillance? 452

Compartments and Connections of the Immune

System 453

14.3 Second-Line Defenses: Inflammation 462

The Inflammatory Response: A Complex Concert of Reactions

to Injury 462

The Stages of Inflammation 463

14.4 Second-Line Defenses: Phagocytosis, Interferon, and

Complement 467

Phagocytosis: Ingestion and Destruction by White Blood

Cells 467

Interferon: Antiviral Cytokines and Immune

Stimulants 469

Complement: A Versatile Backup

System 470

An Outline of Major Host Defenses 472


Adaptive, Specific Immunity,

and Immunization 478

15.1 Specific Immunities:

The Adaptive Line of Defense 480

An Overview of Specific Immune

Responses 480

Development of the Immune Response

System 480

Specific Events in T-Cell Maturation 484

Specific Events in B-Cell Maturation 486

15.2 The Nature of Antigens and Antigenicity 486

Characteristics of Antigens and Immunogens 486

15.3 Immune Reactions to Antigens and the Activities of

T Cells 488

The Role of Antigen Processing and Presentation 488

T-Cell Responses and Cell-Mediated Immunity (CMI) 489

15.4 Immune Activities of B Cells 492

Events in B-Cell Responses 493

Monoclonal Antibodies: Specificity in the Extreme 498

15.5 A Classification Scheme for Specific, Acquired

Immunities 499

Defining Categories by Mode of Acquisition 499

15.6 Immunization: Providing Immune Protection through

Therapy 502

Artificial Passive Immunization 502

Artificial Active Immunity: Vaccination 502

Development of New Vaccines 505

Routes of Administration and Side Effects

of Vaccines 507

To Vaccinate: Why, Whom, and When? 508

Vaccine Protection: Magical but Not Magic 508


Disorders in Immunity 514

16.1 The Immune Response: A Two-

Sided Coin 516

Overreactions to Antigens: Allergy/

Hypersensitivity 516

16.2 Allergic Reactions: Atopy

and Anaphylaxis 517

Modes of Contact with Allergens 517

The Nature of Allergens and Their Portals of Entry 518

Mechanisms of Allergy: Sensitization and

Provocation 519

Cytokines, Target Organs, and Allergic Symptoms 521

Specific Diseases Associated with IgE- and Mast-Cell–Mediated

Allergy 521

Anaphylaxis: A Powerful Systemic Reaction to Allergens 524

Diagnosis of Allergy 524

Treatment and Prevention of Allergy 525

16.3 Type II Hypersensitivities: Reactions that Lyse Foreign

Cells 527

The Basis of Human ABO Antigens and Blood Types 527

Antibodies against A and B Antigens 527

The Rh Factor and Its Clinical Importance 529

16.4 Type III Hypersensitivities: Immune Complex

Reactions 530

Mechanisms of Immune Complex Diseases 531

Types of Immune Complex Disease 531

16.5 Immunopathologies Involving T Cells 532

Type IV Delayed Hypersensitivity 532

T Cells in Relation to Organ Transplantation 532

Practical Examples of Transplantation 535

16.6 Autoimmune Diseases: An Attack on Self 536

Genetic and Gender Correlation in Autoimmune

Disease 536

The Origins of Autoimmune Disease 536

Examples of Autoimmune Disease 537

16.7 Immunodeficiency Diseases and Cancer: Compromised

Immune Responses 539

Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases 539

Secondary Immunodeficiency Diseases 541

The Role of the Immune System in Cancer 542


Procedures for Identifying

Pathogens and Diagnosing

Infections 548

17.1 An Overview of Clinical

Microbiology 550

Phenotypic Methods 550

Genotypic Methods 551

Immunologic Methods 551

On the Track of the Infectious Agent: Specimen

Collection 551

17.2 Phenotypic Methods 553

Immediate Direct Examination of Specimen 553

Cultivation of Specimen 553

17.3 Genotypic Methods 556

DNA Analysis Using Genetic Probes 556

Roles of the Polymerase Chain Reaction and Ribosomal RNA in

Identification 556

17.4 Immunologic Methods 558

General Features of Immune Testing 559

Agglutination and Precipitation Reactions 560

The Western Blot for Detecting Proteins 561

Complement Fixation 562

Point-of-Care and Rapid Diagnostic Tests 563

Miscellaneous Serological Tests 564

Fluorescent Antibody and Immunofluorescent

Testing 565

17.5 Immunoassays: Tests with High Sensitivity 566

Radioimmunoassay (RIA) 566

Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) 566

17.6 Viruses as a Special Diagnostic Case 566

APPENDIX A Detailed Steps in the Glycolysis Pathway A-1

APPENDIX B Tests and Guidelines B-1

APPENDIX C General Classification Techniques and Taxonomy

of Bacteria C-1

APPENDIX D Answers to End of Chapter Questions D-1

ONLINE APPENDICES An Introduction to Concept Mapping,

Significant Events in Microbiology,

Exponents, and Classification of Major

Microbial Disease Agents by System

Affected, Site of Infection, and Routes of


Glossary G-1

Index I-1

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