The Essentials Of Conditioning And Learning, 5th Edition PDF by Michael Domjan and Andrew R Delamater


The Essentials Of Conditioning And Learning, Fifth Edition

By Michael Domjan and Andrew R Delamater

The Essentials Of Conditioning And Learning, 5th Edition


Preface xi

  1. Basic Concepts and Definitions 3

Fundamental Features of Learning 4

Learning and Other Forms of Behavior Change 4

Learning, Performance, and Levels of Analysis 6

A Definition of Learning 8

Naturalistic Versus Experimental Observations 8

The Fundamental Learning Experiment 10

The Control Problem in Studies of Learning 11

Single-Case Experimental Designs 12

The General-Process Approach to the Study of Learning 12

The Use of Nonhuman Participants in Research on Learning 14

Summary 14

Suggested Readings 15

Technical Terms 15

  1. The Substrate for Learning: Unconditioned Behavior 17

Shaping and Heterogeneous Substrates of Behavior 18

The Concept of the Reflex 19

Complex Forms of Elicited Behavior 21

Unconditioned Modal Action Patterns 22

Sign Stimuli 22

The Organization of Unlearned or Unconditioned Behavior 24

Motivational Factors 24

Appetitive and Consummatory Behavior 25

Behavior Systems 26

Summary 28

Suggested Readings 29

Technical Terms 29

  1. Habituation and Sensitization 31

Effects of the Repeated Presentation of an Eliciting Stimulus 33

Characteristics of Habituation Effects 35

Characteristics of Sensitization Effects 40

The Dual-Process Theory of Habituation and Sensitization 40

The S–R System and the State System 41

Implications of the Dual-Process Theory 42

Summary 43

Suggested Readings 44

Technical Terms 44

  1. Pavlovian Conditioning: Basic Concepts 45

Pavlov’s Proverbial Bell 46

Contemporary Conditioning Situations 47

Appetitive Conditioning 47

Aversive or Fear Conditioning 49

The Nature of the Conditioned Response 50

Conditioned Modifications of the Unconditioned Response 52

Stimulus Factors in Classical Conditioning 53

CS Novelty and the Latent Inhibition Effect 53

CS–US Relevance and Selective Associations 54

The Control Problem in Pavlovian Conditioning 56

Prevalence of Pavlovian Conditioning 58

Summary 59

Suggested Readings 60

Technical Terms 60

  1. Stimulus Relations in Pavlovian Conditioning 63

Temporal Relation Between CS and US 64

Common Conditioning Procedures 64

Effects of the CS–US Interval 66

Encoding When the US Occurs 68

Signal Relation Between CS and US 68

The Blocking Effect 69

CS–US Contingency 70

Negative Signal Relations in Pavlovian Conditioning: Conditioned Inhibition 72

Inhibitory Conditioning Procedures 72

Behavioral Measurement of Conditioned Inhibition 74

Hierarchical Stimulus Relations in Pavlovian Conditioning: Positive and

Negative Occasion Setting 76

Associations Learned in a Positive Occasion Setting or Facilitation

Procedure 77

Associations Learned in a Negative Occasion Setting Procedure 79

Contents vii

Summary 80

Suggested Readings 81

Technical Terms 81

  1. Pavlovian Conditioning Mechanisms and Theories 83

What Is Learned in Pavlovian Conditioning? 84

S–R Learning 85

S–S Learning 85

Effects of US Devaluation 85

Sensory Versus Hedonic Properties of the US 88

How Are Pavlovian Associations Learned? 88

The Rescorla–Wagner Model 89

Attentional Models of Conditioning 94

Temporal Factors and Conditioned Responding 95

The Comparator Hypothesis 96

Summary 99

Suggested Readings 100

Technical Terms 100

  1. Instrumental or Operant Conditioning 101

The Traditions of Thorndike and Skinner 103

The Discrete-Trial Method 104

The Free-Operant Method 105

The Initial learning of an Instrumental or Operant Response 106

Learning Where and What to Run For 106

Constructing New Responses From Familiar Components 106

Shaping New Responses 107

The Importance of Immediate Reinforcement 110

The S–R Association and Thorndike’s Law of Effect 111

Associative Mechanisms of Goal-Directed Behavior 114

Implications for Biological Constraints on Instrumental Conditioning 116

Implications for Neural Mechanisms of Instrumental Conditioning 117

Summary 118

Suggested Readings 119

Technical Terms 119

  1. Schedules of Reinforcement 121

The Cumulative Record 123

Simple Schedules of Reinforcement 124

Ratio Schedules 124

Interval Schedules 126

Mechanisms of Schedule Performance 128

Feedback Functions for Ratio Schedules 128

Feedback Functions for Interval Schedules 129

Feedback Functions and Schedule Performance 130

Concurrent Schedules 131

Concurrent-Chain Schedules and Self-Control 133

Summary 135

Suggested Readings 136

Technical Terms 136

  1. Theories of Reinforcement 139

Thorndike and Skinner 140

Hull and Drive Reduction Theory 141

Primary Reinforcers 142

Secondary Reinforcers and Acquired Drives 142

Sensory Reinforcement 143

The Premack Principle 144

Applications of the Premack Principle 145

Theoretical Problems 145

The Response Deprivation Hypothesis 146

Response Deprivation and the Law of Effect 146

Response Deprivation and Response Probability 147

Response Deprivation and the Locus of Reinforcement Effects 147

Response Allocation and Behavioral Economics 148

Imposing an Instrumental Contingency 149

Responding to Schedule Constraints 150

Contributions of Response Allocation and Behavioral Economics 152

Summary 153

Suggested Readings 153

Technical Terms 154

  1. Extinction of Conditioned Behavior 155

Effects of Extinction Procedures 156

Why Does Conditioned Responding Decline in Extinction? 157

Evidence of Recovery from Extinction 158

Spontaneous Recovery 158

The Renewal Effect 159

Reinstatement of Conditioned Excitation 162

Enhancing Extinction Performance 163

“Paradoxical” Reward Effects in Extinction 164

Overtraining Extinction Effect 165

Magnitude of Reinforcement Extinction Effect 166

Partial Reinforcement Extinction Effect 166

Mechanisms of the Partial Reinforcement Extinction Effect 168

Summary 170

Suggested Readings 171

Technical Terms 171

  1. Punishment 173

Effective and Ineffective Punishment 174

When Punishment Fails 175

When Punishment Succeeds 176

Research Evidence on Punishment 177

Response–Reinforcer Contingency 177

Response–Reinforcer Contiguity 177

Intensity of the Aversive Stimulus 178

Signaled Punishment 178

Punishment and the Mechanisms Maintaining the Punished Response 180

Punishment and the Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior 181

Paradoxical Effects of Punishment 181

Can and Should We Create a Society Free of Punishment? 182

Alternatives to Abusive Punishment 184

Time-Out 184

Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior 185

Summary 186

Suggested Readings 186

Technical Terms 187

  1. Avoidance Learning 189

Dominant Questions in the Analysis of Avoidance Learning 190

Origins of the Study of Avoidance Learning 191

Contemporary Avoidance Conditioning Procedures 191

Discriminated Avoidance 191

Nondiscriminated or Free-Operant Avoidance 193

Two-Factor Theory of Avoidance 195

Evidence Consistent With Two-Factor Theory 196

Evidence Contrary to Two-Factor Theory 197

Conditioned Temporal Cues in Avoidance Learning 198

Safety Signals and Avoidance Learning 198

Extinction of Avoidance Behavior 200

Avoidance Learning and Unconditioned Defensive Behavior 201

Species-Specific Defense Reactions 202

The Predatory Imminence Continuum 202

Summary 204

Suggested Readings 205

Technical Terms 205

  1. Stimulus Control of Behavior 207

Measurement of Stimulus Control 208

Stimulus Generalization Gradients 209

Stimulus Generalization and Stimulus Discrimination 211

Contrasting Conceptions of Stimulus Generalization 211

Determinants of Stimulus Control: Sensory and Motivational Variables 212

Sensory Capacity 212

Sensory Orientation 212

Stimulus Intensity or Salience 213

Motivational Factors 213

Determinants of Stimulus Control: Learning Factors 214

Pavlovian and Instrumental Conditioning 214

Stimulus Discrimination Training 215

Multiple Schedules of Reinforcement 217

Determinants of the Precision of Stimulus Control 217

Interdimensional Versus Intradimensional Discriminations 219

Interdimensional Discriminations 219

Intradimensional Discriminations 220

Perceptual Learning 221

Stimulus Equivalence Training 222

Summary 223

Suggested Readings 224

Technical Terms 224

  1. Memory Mechanisms 225

Stages of Information Processing 226

The Matching-to-Sample Procedure 226

Simultaneous Versus Delayed Matching to Sample 228

Procedural Controls for Memory 228

Types of Memory 229

Working Memory and Reference Memory 230

Trace Decay Versus Active Memory Processes 231

Retrospective Versus Prospective Memory 233

Sources of Memory Failure 235

Interference Effects 236

Retrieval Failure 237

Consolidation, Reconsolidation, and Memory Updating 239

Summary 241

Suggested Readings 242

Technical Terms 242

Glossary 245

References 261

Index 293

About the Authors 305

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