Behavior Modification: Principles and Procedures, 7th Edition PDF by Raymond G Miltenberger

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Behavior Modification: Principles and Procedures, Seventh Edition

By Raymond G Miltenberger

Behavior Modification Principles and Procedures, 7th Edition

Contents:

Preface xvi

1 Introduction to Behavior Modification 1

1-1 Defining Human Behavior 1

1-2 Examples of Behavior 3

1-3 Defining Behavior Modification 3

1-4 Characteristics of Behavior Modification 3

1-5 Historical Roots of Behavior Modification 5

Major Figures 5

Early Behavior Modification Researchers 6

Major Publications and Events 7

1-6 Areas of Application 7

Developmental Disabilities and Autism Spectrum

Disorder 7

Mental Illness 7

Education and Special Education 8

Rehabilitation 8

Community Psychology 8

Clinical Psychology 8

Business, Industry, and Human Services 8

Self-Management 8

Child Behavior Management 8

Prevention 8

Sports Performance 9

Health-Related Behaviors 9

Gerontology 9

1-7 Professional Practice, Certification, and Ethics 9

1-8 New Directions in Behavior Modification 9

1-9 The Structure of This Textbook 10

Measurement of Behavior and Behavior Change 10

Basic Principles of Behavior 10

Procedures to Establish New Behaviors 10

Procedures to Increase Desirable Behaviors and

Decrease Undesirable Behaviors 10

Other Behavior Change Procedures 10

Chapter Summary 10

Key Terms 11

Practice Quiz 1 11

Practice Quiz 2 11

Practice Quiz 3 12

Practice Test 12

Part 1: Measurement of Behavior and Behavior Change

2 Observing and Recording Behavior 13

2-1 Direct and Indirect Assessment 14

2-2 Defining the Target Behavior 14

2-3 The Logistics of Recording 15

The Observer 15

When and Where to Record 16

2-4 Choosing a Recording Method 17

Continuous Recording 17

Product Recording 19

Sampling Methods 19

2-5 Choosing a Recording Instrument 21

2-6 Reactivity 24

2-7 Interobserver Agreement 25

Chapter Summary 26

Key Terms 27

Practice Quiz 1 27

Practice Quiz 2 27

Practice Quiz 3 28

Practice Test 28

Applications 29

Misapplications 30

3 Graphing Behavior and Measuring Change 31

3-1 Components of a Graph 32

3-2 Graphing Behavioral Data 34

Graphing Data from Different Recording

Procedures 34

Evaluating Behavior Change in a Graph: Level,

Trend, and Variability 36

3-3 Graphing Data to Evaluate Treatment: The A–B

Graph 37

3-4 Graphing Data to Demonstrate a Functional

Relationship: Research Designs 39

A–B–A–B Reversal Design 40

Multiple-Baseline Design 41

Alternating-Treatments Design 44

Changing-Criterion Design 45

Chapter Summary 46

Key Terms 47

Practice Quiz 1 47

Practice Quiz 2 48

Practice Quiz 3 48

Practice Test 49

Applications 49

Misapplications 50

Part 2 Basic Principles

4 Reinforcement 51

4-1 Defining Reinforcement 52

4-2 Positive and Negative Reinforcement 54

Social versus Automatic Reinforcement 56

4-3 Escape and Avoidance Behaviors 57

4-4 Conditioned and Unconditioned Reinforcers 57

4-5 Factors That Influence the Effectiveness of

Reinforcement 58

Immediacy 58

Contingency 59

Motivating Operations 59

Individual Differences 60

Magnitude 61

4-6 Schedules of Reinforcement 61

Fixed Ratio 62

Variable Ratio 63

Fixed Interval 63

Variable Interval 64

4-7 Reinforcing Different Dimensions of Behavior 65

4-8 Concurrent Schedules of Reinforcement 65

4-9 Multiple Schedules of Reinforcement 65

Chapter Summary 66

Key Terms 67

Practice Quiz 1 67

Practice Quiz 2 67

Practice Quiz 3 68

Practice Test 68

Appendix A 69

Appendix B 70

5 Extinction 71

5-1 Defining Extinction 71

5-2 Extinction Burst 73

5-3 Spontaneous Recovery 74

5-4 Procedural Variations of Extinction 75

5-5 A Common Misconception about Extinction 76

5-6 Factors That Influence Extinction 77

The Reinforcement Schedule before Extinction 77

Reinforcement of the Behavior after Extinction 77

Reinforcement of Functionally Equivalent Alternative

Behavior during Extinction 77

Chapter Summary 79

Key Terms 79

Practice Quiz 1 79

Practice Quiz 2 80

Practice Quiz 3 80

Practice Test 80

Appendix A 81

6 Punishment 82

6-1 Defining Punishment 82

6-2 A Common Misconception about Punishment 84

6-3 Positive and Negative Punishment 84

6-4 Unconditioned and Conditioned Punishers 87

6-5 Contrasting Reinforcement and Punishment 88

6-6 Factors That Influence the Effectiveness of

Punishment 89

Immediacy 89

Contingency 90

Motivating Operations 90

Individual Differences and Magnitude of the

Punisher 90

6-7 Problems with Punishment 91

Emotional Reactions to Punishment 92

Escape and Avoidance 92

Negative Reinforcement for the Use of Punishment 92

Punishment and Modeling 92

Ethical Issues 92

Self-Assessment 93

Chapter Summary 94

Key Terms 94

Practice Quiz 1 94

Practice Quiz 2 95

Practice Quiz 3 95

Practice Test 96

Appendix A 96

7 Stimulus Control: Discrimination and Generalization 97

7-1 Examples of Stimulus Control 97

7-2 Defining Stimulus Control 98

7-3 Developing Stimulus Control: Stimulus

Discrimination Training 99

Discrimination Training in the Laboratory 99

Developing Reading and Spelling with

Discrimination Training 100

Stimulus Discrimination Training and

Punishment 101

7-4 The Three-Term Contingency 101

7-5 Stimulus Control Research 101

7-6 Generalization 102

Examples of Generalization 102

7-7 Stimulus Equivalence 105

Chapter Summary 108

Key Terms 108

Practice Quiz 1 108

Practice Quiz 2 109

Practice Quiz 3 109

Practice Test 109

Appendix A 110

8 Respondent Conditioning 112

8-1 Examples of Respondent Conditioning 112

8-2 Defining Respondent Conditioning 113

8-3 Timing of the Neutral Stimulus and Unconditioned

Stimulus 114

8-4 Higher-Order Conditioning 115

8-5 Conditioned Emotional Responses 115

8-6 Extinction of Conditioned Responses 117

Spontaneous Recovery 117

8-7 Discrimination and Generalization of Respondent

Behavior 117

8-8 Factors That Influence Respond

The Nature of the Neutral Stimulus and

Unconditioned Stimulus 118

The Temporal Relationship between the Neutral

Stimulus and Unconditioned Stimulus 118

Contingency between the Neutral Stimulus and

Unconditioned Stimulus 118

The Number of Pairings 118

Previous Exposure to the Neutral Stimulus 118

8-9 Distinguishing between Operant and Respondent

Conditioning 119

8-10 Respondent Conditioning and Behavior

Modification 121

Chapter Summary 121

Key Terms 121

Practice Quiz 1 122

Practice Quiz 2 122

Practice Quiz 3 122

Practice Test 123

Part 3 Procedures to Establish New Behavior

9 Shaping 124

9-1 An Example of Shaping: Teaching a Child to Talk 124

9-2 Defining Shaping 124

9-3 Applications of Shaping 126

Getting Mrs. F to Walk Again 126

Getting Mrs. S to Increase the Time between

Bathroom Visits 126

9-4 Research on Shaping 127

9-5 How to Use Shaping 131

9-6 Shaping of Problem Behaviors 132

Chapter Summary 134

Key Terms 134

Practice Quiz 1 134

Practice Quiz 2 134

Practice Quiz 3 135

Practice Test 135

Applications 136

Misapplications 136

10 Prompting and Transfer of Stimulus Control 137

10-1 An Example of Prompting and Fading: Teaching

Tee-Ball Players to Hit the Ball 137

10-2 What Is Prompting? 138

10-3 What Is Fading? 139

10-4 Types of Prompts 140

Response Prompts 140

Stimulus Prompts 141

10-5 Transfer of Stimulus Control 142

Prompt Fading 142

Prompt Delay 144

Stimulus Fading 144

10-6 How to Use Prompting and Transfer of Stimulus

Control 146

10-7 Prompting and Transfer of Stimulus Control in

Autism Treatment 147

10-8 Verbal Behavior 148

Echoic 148

Mand 148

Tact 148

Intraverbal 148

Multiple Control of Verbal Operants 149

Teaching Verbal Behavior to Children with

Autism 149

Chapter Summary 150

Key Terms 151

Practice Quiz 1 151

Practice Quiz 2 151

Practice Quiz 3 152

Practice Test 152

Applications 153

Misapplications 153

11 Chaining 154

11-1 Examples of Behavioral Chains 154

11-2 Analyzing Stimulus–Response Chains 154

11-3 Task Analysis 155

11-4 Backward Chaining 157

11-5 Forward Chaining 159

11-6 Total Task Presentation 160

11-7 Other Strategies for Teaching Behavioral

Chains 161

Written Task Analysis 161

Picture Prompts 163

Video Modeling 163

Self-Instructions 164

11-8 How to Use Chaining Procedures 165

Chapter Summary 166

Key Terms 166

Practice Quiz 1 166

Practice Quiz 2 166

Practice Quiz 3 167

Practice Test 167

Applications 168

Misapplications 168

12 Behavioral Skills Training Procedures 169

12-1 Examples of Behavioral Skills Training

Procedures 169

Teaching Marcia to Say “No” to the Professors 169

Teaching Children to Protect Themselves from

Abduction 170

12-2 Components of the Behavioral Skills Training

Procedure 170

Instructions 170

Modeling 172

Rehearsal 172

Feedback 173

12-3 Enhancing Generalization after Behavioral Skills

Training 173

12-4 In Situ Assessment 173

12-5 In Situ Training 174

12-6 Behavioral Skills Training and the Three-Term

Contingency 174

12-7 Behavioral Skills Training in Groups 175

12-8 Applications of Behavioral Skills Training

Procedures 175

12-9 How to Use Behavioral Skills Training

Procedures 178

Chapter Summary 179

Key Terms 180

Practice Quiz 1 180

Practice Quiz 2 180

Practice Quiz 3 180

Practice Test 181

Applications 181

Misapplications 182

Part 4: Procedures to Increase Desirable Behavior and Decrease

Undesirable Behavior

13 Understanding Problem Behaviors through Functional Assessment 183

13-1 Examples of Functional Assessment 183

Jacob 183

Anna 184

13-2 Defining Functional Assessment 185

13-3 Functions of Problem Behaviors 185

Social Positive Reinforcement 186

Social Negative Reinforcement 186

Automatic Positive Reinforcement 186

Automatic Negative Reinforcement 186

13-4 Functional Assessment Methods 186

Indirect Methods 186

Direct Observation Methods 189

Experimental Methods (Functional Analysis) 192

13-5 Functional Analysis Research 196

13-6 Conducting a Functional Assessment 198

13-7 Functional Interventions 199

Chapter Summary 200

Key Terms 200

Practice Quiz 1 201

Practice Quiz 2 201

Practice Quiz 3 201

Practice Test 202

Applications 202

Misapplications 204

Self-Assessment 204

14 Applying Extinction 205

14-1 The Case of Willy 205

14-2 Using Extinction to Decrease a Problem

Behavior 206

Collecting Data to Assess Treatment Effects 207

Identifying the Reinforcer for the Problem Behavior

through Functional Assessment 207

Eliminating the Reinforcer after Each Instance of the

Problem Behavior 208

14-3 Taking Account of the Schedule of Reinforcement

before Extinction 211

14-4 Reinforcing Alternative Behaviors 212

14-5 Promoting Generalization and Maintenance 213

14-6 Research Evaluating the Use of Extinction 214

Chapter Summary 216

Key Terms 216

Practice Quiz 1 216

Practice Quiz 2 217

Practice Quiz 3 217

Practice Test 218

Applications 218

Misapplications 218

Appendix A 219

Appendix B 219

15 Differential Reinforcement 221

15-1 Differential Reinforcement of Alternative

Behavior 221

Getting Mrs. Williams to Be Positive 221

When to Use DRA 222

How to Use DRA 222

Using Differential Negative Reinforcement of

Alternative Behaviors 224

Variations of DRA 226

Research on DRA 226

15-2 Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior 228

Defining DRO 229

Implementing DRO 229

Research Evaluating DRO Procedures 231

15-3 Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates of

Responding 233

Defining DRL 233

Variations of DRL 233

How are DRO and Spaced-Responding DRL

Different? 234

Implementing DRL Procedures 234

Research Evaluating DRL Procedures 235

Chapter Summary 237

Key Terms 237

Practice Quiz 1 238

Practice Quiz 2 238

Practice Quiz 3 239

Practice Test 239

Applications 240

Misapplications 240

Self-Assessment 241

16 Antecedent Interventions 242

16-1 Examples of Antecedent Interventions 242

Getting Marianne to Study More 242

Getting Cal to Eat Right 243

16-2 Defining Antecedent Interventions 243

Presenting the Discriminative Stimulus (SD) or Cues

for the Desired Behavior 243

Arranging Establishing Operations for the Desirable

Behavior 244

Decreasing Response Effort for the Desirable

Behavior 245

Removing the Discriminative Stimulus or Cues for

Undesirable Behaviors 246

Presenting Abolishing Operations for Undesirable

Behaviors 247

Increasing the Response Effort for Undesirable

Behaviors 248

16-3 Research on Antecedent Interventions 249

Manipulating Discriminative Stimuli 249

Manipulating Response Effort 249

Manipulating Motivating Operations 250

16-4 Using Antecedent Interventions 255

Analysis of the Three-Term Contingency for the

Desirable Behavior 255

Analysis of the Three-Term Contingency for the

Undesirable Behavior 255

16-5 Functional Interventions for Problem

Behaviors 256

Chapter Summary 257

Key Terms 257

Practice Quiz 1 257

Practice Quiz 2 257

Practice Quiz 3 258

Practice Test 258

Applications 259

Misapplications 260

Self-Assessment 261

17 Using Punishment: Time-Out and Response Cost 262

17-1 Time-Out 262

Types of Time-Out 264

Using Reinforcement with Time-Out 264

Considerations in Using Time-Out 264

Research Evaluating Time-Out Procedures 266

17-2 Response Cost 269

Defining Response Cost 269

Using Differential Reinforcement with Response

Cost 269

Comparing Response Cost, Time-Out, and

Extinction 270

Considerations in Using Response Cost 270

Research Evaluating Response Cost

Procedures 271

Chapter Summary 273

Key Terms 273

Practice Quiz 1 274

Practice Quiz 2 274

Practice Quiz 3 274

Practice Test 275

Applications 275

Misapplications 276

Self-Assessment 276

18 Positive Punishment Procedures and the Ethics of Punishment 277

18-1 Punishment by Application of Aversive

Activities 277

Overcorrection 278

Contingent Exercise 279

Guided Compliance 280

Physical Restraint 280

Cautions in Punishment by the Application of

Aversive Activities 281

18-2 Punishment by Application of Aversive

Stimulation 282

18-3 Positive Punishment: Treatment of Last

Resort 284

18-4 Considerations in Using Positive Punishment 284

18-5 The Ethics of Punishment 285

Informed Consent 285

Alternative Treatments 285

Recipient Safety 285

Problem Severity 285

Implementation Guidelines 285

Training and Supervision 286

Peer Review 286

Accountability: Preventing Misuse and Overuse 286

Chapter Summary 286

Key Terms 286

Practice Quiz 1 287

Practice Quiz 2 287

Practice Quiz 3 287

Practice Test 288

Applications 288

Misapplications 289

19 Promoting Generalization 290

19-1 Examples of Generalization Programming 290

19-2 Defining Generalization 291

19-3 Strategies for Promoting Generalization of

Behavior Change 291

Reinforcing Occurrences of Generalization 291

Training Skills That Contact Natural Contingencies

of Reinforcement 292

Modifying Contingencies of Reinforcement and

Punishment in the Natural Environment 292

Incorporating a Variety of Relevant Stimulus

Situations in Training 294

Incorporating Common Stimuli 296

Teaching a Range of Functionally Equivalent

Responses 296

Providing Cues in the Natural Environment 296

Incorporating Self-Generated Mediators of

Generalization 297

19-4 Implementing Strategies to Promote

Generalization 298

19-5 Promoting Generalized Reductions in Problem

Behaviors 298

Chapter Summary 300

Key Terms 300

Practice Quiz 1 300

Practice Quiz 2 301

Practice Quiz 3 302

Practice Test 302

Applications 303

Misapplications 303

Self-Assessment 304

Part 5: Other Behavior Change Procedures

20 Self-Management 305

20-1 Examples of Self-Management 305

Getting Murray to Run Regularly 305

Getting Annette to Clean Up Her Mess 305

20-2 Defining Self-Management Problems 307

20-3 Defining Self-Management 308

20-4 Types of Self-Management Strategies 308

Goal Setting and Self-Monitoring 309

Antecedent Interventions 309

Behavioral Contracting 309

Arranging Reinforcers and Punishers 310

Social Support 311

Self-Instructions and Self-Praise 311

20-5 Steps in a Self-Management Plan 312

20-6 Clinical Problems 314

Chapter Summary 314

Key Terms 315

Practice Quiz 1 315

Practice Quiz 2 315

Practice Quiz 3 316

Practice Test 316

Applications 317

Misapplications 317

21 Habit Reversal Procedures 318

21-1 Examples of Habit Behaviors 318

21-2 Defining Habit Behaviors 319

Nervous Habits 319

Motor and Vocal Tics 319

Stuttering 319

21-3 Habit Reversal Procedures 320

21-4 Applications of Habit Reversal 320

Nervous Habits 320

Motor and Vocal Tics 321

Stuttering 322

21-5 Why Do Habit Reversal Procedures Work? 322

21-6 Other Treatment Procedures for Habit

Disorders 324

Chapter Summary 325

Key Terms 326

Practice Quiz 1 326

Practice Quiz 2 326

Practice Quiz 3 326

Practice Test 327

Applications 327

Misapplications 328

22 The Token Economy 329

22-1 Rehabilitating Sammy 329

22-2 Defining a Token Economy 330

22-3 Implementing a Token Economy 331

Defining the Target Behaviors 331

Identifying the Items to Use as Tokens 331

Identifying Backup Reinforcers 331

Deciding on the Appropriate Schedule of

Reinforcement 332

Establishing the Token Exchange Rate 333

Establishing the Time and Place for Exchanging

Tokens 333

Deciding Whether to Use Response Cost 334

Staff Training and Management 334

22-4 Practical Considerations 334

22-5 Applications of a Token Economy 335

22-6 Advantages and Disadvantages of a Token

Economy 341

Chapter Summary 341

Key Terms 341

Practice Quiz 1 341

Practice Quiz 2 342

Practice Quiz 3 342

Practice Test 343

Applications 343

Misapplications 343

23 Behavioral Contracts 345

23-1 Examples of Behavioral Contracting 345

Getting Stavros to Complete His Dissertation 345

Helping Dan and His Parents Get Along Better 346

23-2 Defining the Behavioral Contract 347

23-3 Components of a Behavioral Contract 347

23-4 Types of Behavioral Contracts 349

One-Party Contracts 349

Two-Party Contracts 349

23-5 Negotiating a Behavioral Contract 351

23-6 Why Do Behavioral Contracts Influence Behavior? 351

23-7 Applications of Behavioral Contracts 352

Chapter Summary 355

Key Terms 355

Practice Quiz 1 355

Practice Quiz 2 356

Practice Quiz 3 356

Practice Test 357

Applications 357

Misapplications 357

24 Fear and Anxiety Reduction Procedures 359

24-1 Examples of Fear and Anxiety Reduction 359

Overcoming Trisha’s Fear of Public Speaking 359

Overcoming Allison’s Fear of Spiders 360

24-2 Defining Fear and Anxiety Problems 360

24-3 Procedures to Reduce Fear and Anxiety 362

Relaxation Training 362

Fear Reduction Procedures 364

24-4 Clinical Problems 370

Chapter Summary 370

Key Terms 371

Practice Quiz 1 371

Practice Quiz 2 371

Practice Quiz 3 372

Practice Test 372

Applications 372

Misapplications 373

25 Cognitive Behavior Modification 374

25-1 Examples of Cognitive Behavior Modification 374

Helping Daniel Control His Anger 374

Helping Claire Pay Attention in Class 375

25-2 Defining Cognitive Behavior Modification 376

Defining Cognitive Behavior 376

Functions of Cognitive Behavior 376

25-3 Cognitive Behavior Modification Procedures 377

Cognitive Restructuring 377

Cognitive Coping Skills Training 380

Acceptance-Based Therapies 382

25-4 Clinical Problems 383

Chapter Summary 383

Key Terms 383

Practice Quiz 1 383

Practice Quiz 2 384

Practice Quiz 3 384

Practice Test 385

Applications 385

Misapplications 385

Glossary 387

References 396

Name Index 423

Subject Index 431

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