Conceptual Physics, 13th Edition PDF by Paul G Hewitt

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Conceptual Physics, Thirteenth Edition

By Paul G. Hewitt

Conceptual Physics, Thirteenth Edition

Contents in Detail:

Conceptual Physics Photo Album 14

To the Student 16

To the Instructor 17

Acknowledgments 20

1 About Science 22

1.1 Scientific Measurements 23

How Eratosthenes Measured the Size of Earth 23

PRACTICING PHYSICS 25

Size of the Moon 26

Distance to the Moon 27

Distance to the Sun 28

Size of the Sun 29

Mathematics—The Language of Science 30

1.2 Scientific Methods 31

The Scientific Attitude 31

Dealing with Misconceptions 34

1.3 Science, Art, and Religion 35

FAKE SCIENCE 36

1.4 Science and Technology 36

RISK ASSESSMENT 37

1.5 Physics—The Basic Science 37

1.6 In Perspective 39

PART ONE

Mechanics 43

2 Newton’s First Law

of Motion–Inertia 44

2.1 Aristotle on Motion 45

ARISTOTLE (384–322 BC) 46

Copernicus and the Moving Earth 47

2.2 Galileo’s Experiments 47

Leaning Tower 47

Inclined Planes 47

GALILEO GALILEI (1564–1642) 48

2.3 Newton’s First Law of Motion 50

PERSONAL ESSAY 51

2.4 Net Force and Vectors 52

2.5 The Equilibrium Rule 53

PRACTICING PHYSICS 54

2.6 Support Force 55

2.7 Equilibrium of Moving Things 56

2.8 The Moving Earth 56

3 Linear Motion 64

3.1 Speed 65

Instantaneous Speed 65

Average Speed 66

Motion Is Relative 67

3.2 Velocity 67

Constant Velocity 68

Changing Velocity 68

3.3 Acceleration 68

Acceleration on Galileo’s Inclined Planes 70

3.4 Free Fall 71

How Fast 71

How Far 73

How Quickly “How Fast” Changes 75

HANG TIME 76

3.5 Velocity Vectors 76

4 Newton’s Second Law

of Motion 84

4.1 Forces 85

4.2 Friction 86

4.3 Mass and Weight 88

Mass Resists Acceleration 91

4.4 Newton’s Second Law of Motion 92

4.5 When Acceleration Is g—Free Fall 93

4.6 When Acceleration Is Less Than

g—Nonfree Fall 94

PROBLEM SOLVING 97

5 Newton’s Third Law

of Motion 104

5.1 Forces and Interactions 105

5.2 Newton’s Third Law of Motion 107

Simple Rule to Identify Action and Reaction 108

Defining Your System 108

5.3 Action and Reaction on Different Masses 110

PRACTICING PHYSICS: TUG-OF-WAR 112

5.4 Vectors and the Third Law 113

5.5 Summary of Newton’s Three Laws 117

6 Momentum 124

6.1 Momentum 125

6.2 Impulse 127

6.3 Impulse-Momentum Relationship 127

Case 1: Increasing Momentum 128

Case 2: Decreasing Momentum Over

a Long Time 128

Case 3: Decreasing Momentum Over

a Short Time 130

6.4 Bouncing 131

6.5 Conservation of Momentum 132

CONSERVATION LAWS 134

6.6 Collisions 135

PROBLEM SOLVING 137

6.7 More Complicated Collisions 138

7 Energy 146

7.1 Work 148

7.2 Power 150

Mechanical Energy 151

7.3 Potential Energy 151

7.4 Kinetic Energy 153

7.5 Work–Energy Theorem 154

7.6 Conservation of Energy 156

CIRCUS PHYSICS 157

JUNK SCIENCE 158

7.7 Machines 158

7.8 Efficiency 159

7.9 Major Sources of Energy 161

Recycled Energy 164

8 Rotational Motion 172

8.1 Circular Motion 173

WHEELS ON RAILROAD TRAINS 176

8.2 Centripetal Force 177

PRACTICING PHYSICS:

WATER-BUCKET SWING 178

8.3 Centrifugal Force 179

Centrifugal Force in a Rotating

Reference Frame 179

Simulated Gravity 180

8.4 Rotational Inertia 182

8.5 Torque 185

8.6 Center of Mass and Center

of Gravity 186

Locating the Center of Gravity 188

Stability 189

8.7 Angular Momentum 191

8.8 Conservation of Angular

Momentum 192

9 Gravity 204

9.1 The Universal Law of Gravity 205

9.2 The Universal Gravitational

Constant, G 207

9.3 Gravity and Distance:

The Inverse-Square Law 209

9.4 Weight and Weightlessness 210

9.5 Ocean Tides 212

TIDAL CALENDARS 215

Tides in the Earth and Atmosphere 216

Tidal Bulges on the Moon 216

9.6 Gravitational Fields 217

Gravitational Field Inside a Planet 218

Einstein’s Theory of Gravitation 220

9.7 Black Holes 220

9.8 Universal Gravitation 222

10 Projectile and

Satellite Motion 230

10.1 Projectile Motion 232

Projectiles Launched Horizontally 232

Projectiles Launched at an Angle 234

PRACTICING PHYSICS:

HANDS-ON DANGLING BEADS 235

HANG TIME REVISITED 238

10.2 Fast-Moving Projectiles—Satellites 238

10.3 Circular Satellite Orbits 240

10.4 Elliptical Orbits 242

WORLD MONITORING BY SATELLITE 244

10.5 Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion 244

FINDING YOUR WAY 245

10.6 Energy Conservation and

Satellite Motion 246

10.7 Escape Speed 247

PART TWO

Properties of Matter 257

11 The Atomic Nature of Matter 258

11.1 The Atomic Hypothesis 259

FALLING ALICE 260

11.2 Characteristics of Atoms 260

11.3 Atomic Imagery 262

11.4 Atomic Structure 264

The Elements 265

11.5 The Periodic Table of the Elements 266

Relative Sizes of Atoms 269

11.6 Isotopes 270

11.7 Molecules 271

11.8 Compounds and Mixtures 272

11.9 Antimatter 273

Dark Matter 274

12 Solids 280

12.1 Crystal Structure 281

CRYSTAL POWER 283

12.2 Density 283

12.3 Elasticity 284

12.4 Tension and Compression 286

PRACTICING PHYSICS: STICK STRENGTH 287

12.5 Arches 288

ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING OR

3-D PRINTING 290

12.6 Scaling 290

13 Liquids 300

13.1 Pressure 301

13.2 Pressure in a Liquid 303

WATER AND ITS HISTORY 306

13.3 Buoyancy 307

13.4 Archimedes’ Principle 308

ARCHIMEDES AND THE GOLD CROWN 309

13.5 What Makes an Object Sink or Float? 309

13.6 Flotation 311

FLOATING MOUNTAINS 312

13.7 Pascal’s Principle 313

13.8 Surface Tension 315

13.9 Capillarity 316

14 Gases 324

14.1 The Atmosphere 325

14.2 Atmospheric Pressure 326

The Barometer 328

14.3 Boyle’s Law 330

14.4 Buoyancy of Air 332

14.5 Bernoulli’s Principle 333

Applications of Bernoulli’s Principle 334

NEWTONIAN AIR LIFT 335

PRACTICING PHYSICS 336

14.6 Plasma 337

Plasma in the Everyday World 337

Plasma Power 338

PART THREE

Heat 345

15 Temperature, Heat, and

Expansion 346

15.1 Temperature 347

15.2 Heat 349

Measuring Heat 351

15.3 Specific Heat Capacity 351

15.4 The High Specific Heat Capacity

of Water 352

15.5 Thermal Expansion 354

Expansion of Water 356

LIFE AT THE EXTREMES 358

16 Heat Transfer 366

16.1 Conduction 367

16.2 Convection 369

PRACTICING PHYSICS 371

16.3 Radiation 371

Emission of Radiant Energy 372

Absorption of Radiant Energy 373

Reflection of Radiant Energy 374

Cooling at Night by Radiation 375

16.4 Newton’s Law of Cooling 376

16.5 The Greenhouse Effect 377

16.6 Climate Change 378

16.7 Solar Power 379

SPREADING SOLAR ENERGY 379

16.8 Controlling Heat Transfer 380

17 Change of Phase 386

17.1 Evaporation 387

17.2 Condensation 389

Condensation in the Atmosphere 390

Fog and Clouds 391

17.3 Boiling 391

Geysers 392

Boiling Is a Cooling Process 392

Boiling and Freezing at the Same Time 393

17.4 Melting and Freezing 393

Regelation 394

17.5 Energy and Changes of Phase 395

PRACTICING PHYSICS 398

18 Thermodynamics 404

18.1 Absolute Zero 406

Internal Energy 407

18.2 First Law of Thermodynamics 408

18.3 Adiabatic Processes 409

18.4 Meteorology and the First Law 409

18.5 Second Law of Thermodynamics 412

Heat Engines 413

THERMODYNAMICS DRAMATIZED! 415

18.6 Energy Tends to Disperse 416

18.7 Entropy 418

PART FOUR

Sound 425

19 Vibrations and Waves 426

19.1 Good Vibrations 427

Vibration of a Pendulum 428

19.2 Wave Description 429

19.3 Wave Motion 430

PRACTICING PHYSICS 431

Transverse Waves 431

Longitudinal Waves 432

19.4 Wave Speed 433

19.5 Wave Interference 434

Standing Waves 434

19.6 Doppler Effect 436

19.7 Bow Waves 437

19.8 Shock Waves 439

20 Sound 446

20.1 Nature of Sound 447

Media That Transmit Sound 448

20.2 Sound in Air 448

LOUDSPEAKER 450

Speed of Sound in Air 450

PRACTICING PHYSICS 451

Energy in Sound Waves 451

MEASURING WAVES 452

20.3 Reflection of Sound 452

20.4 Refraction of Sound 453

20.5 Forced Vibrations 455

Natural Frequency 455

20.6 Resonance 456

20.7 Interference 457

20.8 Beats 459

RADIO BROADCASTS 460

21 Musical Sounds 466

21.1 Noise and Music 467

21.2 Pitch 468

21.3 Sound Intensity and Loudness 469

21.4 Quality 470

21.5 Musical Instruments 471

21.6 Fourier Analysis 473

21.7 From Analog to Digital 474

PART FIVE

Electricity and

Magnetism 481

22 Electrostatics 482

22.1 Electric Forces 484

22.2 Electric Charges 484

22.3 Conservation of Charge 485

ELECTRONICS TECHNOLOGY AND SPARKS 486

22.4 Coulomb’s Law 487

22.5 Conductors and Insulators 488

Semiconductors 489

Transistors 489

Superconductors 489

22.6 Charging 490

Charging by Friction and Contact 490

Charging by Induction 490

22.7 Charge Polarization 492

MICROWAVE OVEN 493

22.8 Electric Field 494

Electric Shielding 496

22.9 Electric Potential 498

Electric Energy Storage 500

Van de Graaff Generator 501

23 Electric Current 508

23.1 Flow of Charge and Electric Current 509

23.2 Voltage Sources 510

23.3 Electrical Resistance 511

23.4 Ohm’s Law 512

Ohm’s Law and Electric Shock 513

23.5 Direct Current and Alternating

Current 515

Converting AC to DC 516

23.6 Speed and Source of Electrons

in a Circuit 516

23.7 Electric Power 519

23.8 Electric Circuits 520

Series Circuits 520

Parallel Circuits 521

FUEL CELLS 522

COMBINING RESISTORS IN A CIRCUIT 523

Parallel Circuits and Overloading 523

Safety Fuses 524

24 Magnetism 532

24.1 Magnetism 533

24.2 Magnetic Poles 534

24.3 Magnetic Fields 535

24.4 Magnetic Domains 536

24.5 Electric Currents and Magnetic Fields 538

PRACTICING PHYSICS 539

24.6 Electromagnets 539

Superconducting Electromagnets 540

24.7 Magnetic Forces 540

On Moving Charged Particles 540

On Current-Carrying Wires 541

Electric Meters 541

Electric Motors 542

24.8 Earth’s Magnetic Field 543

Cosmic Rays 544

24.9 Biomagnetism 545

MRI: MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING 546

25 Electromagnetic Induction 550

25.1 Electromagnetic Induction 551

25.2 Faraday’s Law 553

25.3 Generators and Alternating Current 554

25.4 Power Production 555

Turbogenerator Power 555

MHD Power 555

25.5 Transformers 556

25.6 Self-Induction 559

25.7 Magnetic Braking 560

25.8 Power Transmission 560

25.9 Field Induction 561

PART SIX

Light 569

26 Properties of Light 570

26.1 Electromagnetic Waves 572

26.2 Electromagnetic Wave Velocity 572

26.3 The Electromagnetic Spectrum 573

FRACTAL ANTENNAS 575

26.4 Transparent Materials 575

26.5 Speed of Light in a Transparent

Medium 577

26.6 Opaque Materials 579

Shadows 579

26.7 Solar and Lunar Eclipses 580

26.8 Seeing Light—The Eye 583

27 Color 592

27.1 Color in Our World 593

27.2 Selective Reflection 594

27.3 Selective Transmission 595

27.4 Mixing Colored Lights 596

Primary Colors 597

Complementary Colors 597

27.5 Mixing Colored Pigments 598

The Color Black 600

27.6 Sky Colors 600

Why the Sky Is Blue 601

Why Sunsets Are Red 602

PRACTICING PHYSICS 603

Why an Eclipsed Moon Is Red 603

Why Clouds Are White 604

27.7 Water Colors 605

Why Water Is Greenish Blue 605

Why Deep Water Is Black 606

28 Reflection and Refraction 612

28.1 Reflection 613

Principle of Least Time 614

28.2 Law of Reflection 615

Plane Mirrors 615

Diffuse Reflection 617

28.3 Refraction 618

Index of Refraction 620

Mirage 621

28.4 Cause of Refraction 622

ISAAC NEWTON AND HIS STUDY

OF LIGHT 623

28.5 Dispersion 624

28.6 The Rainbow 625

Alterations in Sky Brightness 626

28.7 Total Internal Reflection 627

28.8 Lenses 629

Image Formation by a Lens 631

PINHOLE CAMERA 631

28.9 Lens Defects 633

29 Light Waves 642

29.1 Huygens’ Principle 643

29.2 Diffraction 645

X-Ray Diffraction 647

29.3 Superposition and Interference 648

Young’s Double Slit Experiment 648

29.4 Single-Color Thin-Film Interference 651

Interference Colors 652

PRACTICING PHYSICS 654

29.5 Polarization 654

Three-Dimensional Viewing 656

29.6 Holography 658

30 Light Emission 664

30.1 Light Emission 665

30.2 Excitation 666

30.3 Emission Spectra 668

30.4 Incandescence 670

30.5 Absorption Spectra 671

30.6 Fluorescence 672

30.7 Phosphorescence 674

30.8 Lamps 675

Incandescent Lamp 675

Fluorescent Lamp 675

Light-Emitting Diode 676

30.9 Lasers 677

31 Light Quanta 686

31.1 Birth of the Quantum Theory 687

31.2 Quantization and Planck’s Constant 688

CONSTANTS IN NATURE 690

31.3 Photoelectric Effect 690

Photovoltaic Cells 692

31.4 Wave–Particle Duality 693

31.5 Double-Slit Experiment 694

31.6 Particles as Waves:

Electron Diffraction 695

31.7 Uncertainty Principle 698

31.8 Complementarity 700

PREDICTABILITY AND CHAOS 701

PART SEVEN

Atomic and Nuclear

Physics 707

32 The Atom and the Quantum 708

32.1 Discovery of the Atomic Nucleus 709

32.2 Discovery of the Electron 710

UNIQUE OR IDENTICAL 713

32.3 Atomic Spectra: Clues to

Atomic Structure 713

32.4 Bohr Model of the Atom 714

32.5 Explanation of Quantized Energy

Levels: Electron Waves 716

32.6 Quantum Mechanics 717

32.7 Correspondence Principle 719

HIGGS BOSON 720

33 The Atomic Nucleus and

Radioactivity 724

33.1 X-rays and Radioactivity 725

33.2 Alpha, Beta, and Gamma Rays 727

33.3 Neutrinos 728

33.4 Environmental Radiation 729

Units of Radiation 730

Doses of Radiation 731

Radioactive Tracers 732

33.5 The Atomic Nucleus and the

Strong Force 732

33.6 Radioactive Half-Life 735

33.7 Radiation Detectors 736

33.8 Transmutation of Elements 738

Natural Transmutation 738

Artificial Transmutation 740

33.9 Radiometric Dating 740

FOOD IRRADIATION 742

34 Nuclear Fission and Fusion 748

34.1 Nuclear Fission 750

34.2 Nuclear Fission Reactors 752

PLUTONIUM 754

34.3 The Breeder Reactor 755

The Thorium Reactor 756

34.4 Fission Power 756

34.5 Mass–Energy Equivalence 758

PHYSICS AT AIRPORT SECURITY 761

34.6 Nuclear Fusion 762

34.7 Controlling Fusion 764

PART EIGHT

Relativity 771

35 Special Theory of Relativity 772

35.1 Motion Is Relative 773

Michelson–Morley Experiment 774

35.2 Postulates of the Special Theory

of Relativity 775

35.3 Simultaneity 776

35.4 Spacetime and Time Dilation 778

CLOCKWATCHING ON A

TROLLEY CAR RIDE 781

The Twin Trip 782

35.5 Addition of Velocities 788

Space Travel 788

CENTURY HOPPING 790

35.6 Length Contraction 790

35.7 Relativistic Momentum 792

35.8 Mass, Energy, and E 5 mc 2 793

35.9 The Correspondence Principle 796

36 General Theory of Relativity 802

36.1 Principle of Equivalence 804

36.2 Bending of Light by Gravity 805

36.3 Gravity and Time: Gravitational

Red Shift 807

36.4 Gravity and Space: Motion

of Mercury 809

36.5 Gravity, Space, and a New Geometry 810

36.6 Gravitational Waves 812

36.7 Newtonian and Einsteinian

Gravitation 813

AUTHOR PROFILE 818

APPENDIX A

On Measurement and Unit Conversions 820

APPENDIX B

More About Motion 824

APPENDIX C

Graphing 828

APPENDIX D

Vector Applications 831

APPENDIX E

Exponential Growth and Doubling Time 834

Odd-Numbered Answers 837

Glossary 867

Credits 885

Index 891

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